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The Ardueologioal imd Historical Seddon by G. V. Irving, 

F.S. A., Scotland. 

The Statiatdcal and Topographical Section by Albx. Murray. 

Three Volumes. 4to. 105/; 8vo. 83/. 

' These three portly volumes are a valuable contri- 
hution to the local history of Scotland, and the pni- 
liiiction of works of this (ikaracter we trust is a proof 
of the growing estimation of the utility and value of 
this department of literatiixe. Pleasant indeed it is to 
turn aside for a few hours from the many scissors-and- 
]ia8te compilations of the present day, to & Ijook. which 
reminds us of the works of worthy John Stow, the in- 
dustiiBus Camden, and dear old Tom Fuller. The 
work, as stated above, is the joint production of Mr. 
Geoige Vere Irving and Mr. Alexander Murray. The 
amount of curious information — topographical, bio- 
graphical, ecclesiastical, and statistical — concentrated 
in these volumes, docs high credit to the learning, dili- 
gence, and vigilant reseMch of the respective Editors. 
The work is not only profusely illustrated with maps, 
portraits, and mansions of this delightful district, but 
the numerous facts embodied in its pages are made 
available by copious Indexes of persons and places. 
We must, however, refer our readers to the work itself, 
feeling confident that every lover of Scottish antiquities 
and Scottish scenery will be delighted and instructed 
in conninji over its pleasant pages.' — Notes and Queries. 
—London, Jan. 28, 1865. 








hans-books for t&e cltse, the hiohlaioib. etc.; 
akd kpitoe op murrays' timb tasu^ 







Scotland Dedobiobo is a aeries of Topographic 
Sketches of such pkces as may most interest the visitoi ; 
and arc so written as to form a readable book for those 
who may be unable to siir &om home. 


16 St. Emoch Sgi'A&K, 
Glabqow, Jvly 1866. 



PART FIRST, Price 2b.— By Port, 2B,2d. 

Jtumttt arUm lUfc u t fe Jtmanii la iUeiim<tflUXiisni>/DavU;Biiut, 

' A brM and ■uninat but oompJat4 uul [ntamttnff Donmndlum of tfaa 

BlitOTof BooUud, niltabla lUks to UiB htmOtot tha tiBTellsr, tlM Bolnlu, 

■nd ti* muni xtMta.'—AlKnIm StrtM. 

GLASGOW: ALEX. MURRAY, 16 St. Enoch Saf abb. 



Md. 1. Jba Olidi, Uh Ezltiii. Govui, Rxsntttr, BawidHS. 
Ho. 1. mnuumni, PoBT-QLASaow. HnjHSBOBaa, the OAt^hoca. 
Ho. 1. KsLBaMonAs, Akboobab, LoaH.aaiu Kiikdh, Dhhooh. 
Mo. 1. dBDNaai, OocBOOE, WMireBa-BjtT, ths Labim, Hillfobt, 
Ko. S. iNnLLAK, BoiHBAT, HouvijIiswiJiT. Eaubs, Ibli Or Bute 
Ho. t. AjujBoHUr, Bbodioe, Lamlibh, Looh-IUkza, Aiuuk. 
By FtM M. EulL-iro. S, Cd.; tij Fab, Td. 
B(niidlnoDBTolumB,OIiiUiLa»Bnd,3>M.; byPart,3L8d. 

Ho. T. IirvaaiAiv ud LooH-Awi; br lutsn, Akboohu, and Quh- 


Ho. 8. Ouir, aTATTA, ud Ioma: b r Um Oanr am Oahu, SalJiID si JUAt, 

I, Looh-Eathimi, LoOB-hiAAH, Kud OunT. 

Tbo Ba&WBf to Baixoco, LocH-IioiiaNii, BlH-LOBDirD, a^KrAixoOB, 


Tba Kill Ktad— AsEADUM to Bahohohi. Baixatib, Locb.ha.Qab, 


Th« Lahd af BURH9— AiuiwAT Kike, the Bohhi Doom. Taabolton, 

IKTIHI. KAUOHUltl. HonaiBL, Ellisi.aiii>, D 

FilM 6d. BMli.-bT Foot, 7d. 

L,-., Google 




AbtwlBford, 17; Aberdeen, City of, 18; Aberfeldy, 22; 
Aberfojle, 24; Aberlady, 62; Ailsa-Craig, 25; Alloa, 28; 
AUowayKirk, 30; Andrew's, St., 31; Anatruthor, Easter 
and Wester, 34; Arbroath, 356; Ardrishaig, 35; 
Ardrossaa, 36; Arran, 38; Ayr, 52. 

Ballacliuliah, 64; BaUantrae, 181; Ballater, 57; Bal- 
moral, 58; Balquhidder, 69; Banff, 60; Bass Eook, The, 
27; Beauly, 120; Ben-Kevis, 172; Berwick, North, 62; 
Biggar, 63; Blair-Athole, 64; Blaitgovrie, 65; Bluityre, 
223; Bothwell, 223; Braemar, 66; BridgeKif-Allan, 69; 
Brodick, 69; Bums, Land of, 73; Burntisland, 75; Bate, 
Isle of, 77; Bute, Kylea of, 227. 

Caithness, 396; Caledonian Canal, 82; Callander, 91, 
314; Campbeltown, 92; Clyde, The, 93, 96; Clyde, Trith 
o^ 103; Coulter, 64; Come, 69; Crieff, 116; Crinaa 
Canal, 35, 110; CuUen, 60. 

DalmaUy, 119; Devon, The, 272; Dingwall, 120; 
Dirleton, 62; Douglas, 122; Dumbarton, 126; Dum- 
fries, 128; Dundee, 133; Dunfermline, 127; DunkeU, 
137; Dunoon, 139, 141, 305; Dunrobin, 396. 

Edinburgh, 144; Elgin, 168. 

Falkirk, 293; Eorfer, 356; Eoires, 170; Fort- 
William, 172, 270. , - , 

GaJloway, 176; Gareloch, 179; Girvan, 181; Glasgow, 
183; Glencoe, 208; Glencroe, 216; Glenogle, 302; 
Glenorchy, 208; Glen-Roy, 270; Grangemouth, 293; 
GrantoD, 217; Greenock, 220. 

Hamilton, 223 ; Hawick, 225 ; Helensbuigh, 227 ; 
Holy-Loch, 265; Hunter's Quay, 139, 141. 

Inveraray, 23i, 305; Invercloy, 69; InvemeBS, 238; 
lona, 242; Irvine, 36; May, 258, 259. 

Jedburgh, 225; Jura, 268, 260. 

Kelso, 225; Kenmoie, 262; Eillin, 262; Kilmun, 
265; Kilwinning, 36, 37; Kingliom, 76; Kii^uflde, 
270; Kinrosa; 272; Kirkcudbright, 399; Kirn, 139. 

Lesmahagow, 290; Leven, The, 125; Lewis, 291 
Linlithgow, 293; Loch-Awe, 295 ; Looh-Eamhead, 302 
Loeh-Ect, 305; Loch-Goil, 307; Locli-Goilhead, 307 
Loch-Katrine, 314; Loch-Leven, 272; Loch-Lomond, 
208, 336; Loch-Long, 336; Loch-Tay, 262. 

Maybole, 181; Melfort, Paae of, 295, 338; MekoBe, 
341; Moffat, 345; Montrose, 356; Mull, 258. 

B^ithsdale, 360. 

Oban, 296, 365. 

PaisJey, 371; Feeble^ 374; Perth, 377; Pitlodme, 
380; Port-of-Menteith, 353; Portsoy, 60. 

Kothesay, 381 ; Eumbling Bridiga, 272. 

Sanquhar, 360; Skye, 383; Staffs, 242; Stirling, 
390; Stomoway, 291; Strachur, 305. 

Tarbet, 393 ; TaynuUt, 394 ; ThomhiU, 360; Tongue, 
396; Troon, 36, 37; Trossachs, 314. 
, Whithorn, 399; Wick, 396; W^wn, 399. 



Abbey Craig, 393; Abbotaford Ferry, IT, 341; Aber- 
brothock, 360; Abercairney, 117; Abercom, 101; Aber- 
deen, New, 19; Aberdeen, Old, 19; Aberdeen, Union 
Bridge, 21; Aberdeen University, 20; Aberdoiir, 76; 
Abe^die, 57; Aberlour, 219; Abernethy, 218, 2B5, 
357; Abertarfe, 86; Abington, 94, 28fi; Acharn, 263; 
Achray, 317; Add, The, 296; Airdrie, 200, 293; Aird'a 
HooBe, 114; Aird'a Mobs, 362; Airtbrey, 69; Allan 
Water, 69; Alloway Mill, 73; Almond, Tbe, 167; Altna- 
ham, 397; Alva, 28; Alyth, 66, 359; Amulrie, 24, 117; 
Ancrum Moor, 342; Annan, 347, 362, 361, 401; Annan 
Water, 347; Annandale, 128, 216, 346, 350, 369; An- 
tbony's Chapel, St., 164; Anwoth, 178; Appin, 64, 67, 
114, 242, 370, 395; Aray, The, 234; Ardbeg, 77; Ard- 
chattan, 121, 370; Ard-Connel, 298; Ardentinny, 109, 
140, 223, 266, 306, 337; Ardgarten, 215, 338; Ard- 
gay, 397; An^onr, 115, 175, 370; Ardgowan, 81, 
105, 143, 232; Ardkinglaas, 216, 233, 311; Ardlamont, 
140, 233; Ardlui, 209, 266, 331,. 336; Ardmore, 109; 
Ardnamurchan, 114, 246, 246, 384; Aidoch, 70, 109, 
116,391; Ardflheal, 54, 114; Ardtomiah, 244, 368; 
Ardverike, 220, 270; Aidvoirlich, 304; Argyle's Bowling 
Green, 223, 311, 338; Arisaig, 384; Annaddy Caetle, 
113; Armidale, 386; Amadam, 270; Aman Water, 326; 
Amdilly, 219; Aroa Bay, 244; Aios Castle, 246; Arran, 
Cock of, 38, 43; Arrochar, 140, 181,209, 215, 231, 265, 
324, 333, 335, 337; Arthur's Seat, 144, 150, 163, 182; 
Ascog, 79, 81, 232, 382; Aahton, 105, 143, 230; Auch- 
encaaa Caatle, 348; Anchendam)ch, 110, 339; Aucb- 
inheath, 291; Auchinhew, 50; Auchlochan, 291; Auch- 

nscarry, 85; Anchtertool, 137; Auchtyfeidle, 291; 
Auldgirth Bridge, 365; Aviemore, 219; Avon-Dim, 24; 
Awe, The, 120, 301; Awe, Pass o^ 223; Ayr, The, 108; 
Ayr, Bams of, 53; Ayr, Heads of, 54, 108. 

Back, 248; Badenoch, 271; Balgownie, Brig o', 19; 
Ballater, Pass of, 57; Ballatrich, 57; Ballenach, 112; 
BaDenluig, 22; BalliadaUooh, 219; Balloch, 64, 103, 
208, 32G, 328; 332; BaOochbuie, 68; BaUochyle, 269, 
305; Bailyhenan, 21B, 336; Ballymore, 269; Balmacarra, 
386; Balmaha, 295, 330; Banavie, 82, 112, 115, 238, 
383; BaTmockbum, 70, 108, 122, 185, 233, 245, 280, 
342, 369, 392; Barbreck, 339; Barnton, 167; Barone- 
hill, 77; Bair, 394; Barra, 292; Earrodale, 116; Beala- 
an-Duine, 321; Beal-nam-bo, 323; Beattock, 346, 347; 
Beaulieu, 121; Beauly, The, 122; Beauly Frith, 83, 90, 
239; Beld-Craig, 349; Bell-Eock, 360; Belville, 220; 
Ben-an; 320, 323, 340; Ben-an-Noir, 260; Benbecula, 
292;Beii-Blaveii, 388; Bec-Buie, 235; Bendouran, 211; 
Ben-Ghail, 38; Ben-Lawers, 69, 263; Ben-Ledi, 25, 91, 
315, 321, 354; Benleven, 44; Ben-Lomond, 25, 69, 91, 
103, 126, 223, 265, 301, 316, 320, 324, 326, 331, 333, 
335; Ben-Macdhuie, 67, 69; Ben-More, 60, 114, 210, 
243, 265, 269, 305, 332, 384; Ben-Venue, 25 317, 
320, 331,354; Ben-Voirlich, 303, 332; Ben-Vracky, 381; 
Ben-Wyris, I21;Beregonium, 370;Eeraedale,398;Ber- 
Tie, 356; Berwick-on.-Tweed, 227, 392; BettyhUl, 397; 
Eirkhill, 352; Bitkwood, 291; Bimam, 118, 137, 380; 
Bizzyberry-Hiil, 63; Blabheim, 388; Black Cart, The, 
372; Blackford, 150, 167; Black Mount, 54, 92, 119, 
211, 212, 266, 370; Blackness, 294, 354; Black liocks 
89; Black-Water, 24, 47; Blackwater-foot, 48; Black- 
wood, 291; Bladenocb, The, 399; Blairlogie, 69; Blair- 
more, 105, 231, 309, 337; Blaire, 187; Bloody Bay, 
243; Biythswood, 100; Boat Cave, The, 250; Eochaatle, 
316; Bodobeck, 351, Bogany Point, 81; Boghall Castle, 
63; Boleskine, 86; Bonar Bridge, 241, 397; Bo'neee, 
?91;Bonessa,90; Bennington I^ 94, 123,282; Bon- 

nymuir, 194; Borough-moor, 166; Boswell's, St., 341; 
BowUng, 101, 308, 337; Bowmore, 260; Braan,Th6, 118, 
139; Bracklin, 93; Braid HiUa, The, 145, 166;Braiidir, 
296, 301, 335; Breadalbane, 210, 264; Brechin, 356; 
Bressay Sound, 218; Bridgend, 260, 378; Bridge of 
Dun, 357; Bridgeton, 199; Brierarach Mountain, 67; 
Brig o' Turk, 60, 317; Brisbane House, 283; Broadford, 
385; Braomhall, 128; Broomielaw, 73, 96, 102, 110, 
183, 304, 308, 337, 378; Brora, 398; Broughty-Ferry, 
133; Brow, 74; Browo Hills, The, 49; Braar, Falla ot, 
65;Bryde,St., 122, 233, 318;Buachal-Etive, 213, 370; 
Buchuian, 329; Buchanan House, 326; Buckie, 61 ; 
Buchlyrie, 24, 332 ; Bullwood, 109; Bun-Awe, 301, 
394; Buig, 248; Borghead, 168, 379; Burnt lales, The, 
232; Bute, Xorth, 322; Bute, Sound of, 79, 223. 

Cftdzow Caatle, 294; Caerlaverock, 130; CaiUach, 
247; Caimban, 111, 296, 339; Cainiburgh-Beg, 248; 
Caimhurgh-More, 248; Caimdow, 215, 234, 313; Cairn- 
gorm Mountains, 218; Caimtable, 94, 122, Caiatael- 
Abhael, 38; Caledonia, 144, 224, 237, 243, 275, 350, 
363; Caledonian Eailway, 135, 176, 206, 222, 282, 
345; Cally House, 178; Calton, 199; Calton Hill, 144, 
150; Caltonmore, 297; Calve Island, 245; Cambus-Doon, 
31; Camhuamore, 91; Camps Water, 94; Carapsie, 187, 
354; Camstradden House, 328; Canonbie, 362; Canty 
Bay, 27; Cantyre, 38, 41, 78, 92, 105, 233, 254, 259, 
276, 283, 332, 394; Cantyre, Mull of, 49, 93, 103, 268, 
291, 383; Cara, 259; Carbeny HQl, 147; Cardoness 
Castle, 178; Cardrosa Caatle, 102, 228, 355; Carluke, 
281; Camaasarie Castle, 297, 339; Carsphaim, 178; 
Carrbridge, 219; Carrick Caetle, 310; Corrick Hill, 54, 
181; Carronbridge, 363; Caretairs, 94, 123, 282; Cart, 
The, 72, 100, 231, 372; Cartland Craiga, 96; Cari«bum, 
103, 220; Caetellum Puellarum, 146; Caatle Campbell, 
391; Castle Dai^erous, 122; Castle Douglas, 128, 176; 
Castle Grant, 218; Castle Moil, 386; CasUe Spiritual, 
90; Caeth) Stalker, 54, 114; Castletown, Braemar, 67; 

Catacol, 38, 52; Catlieimo's, St, 216, 235, 308, 314; 
Catrine, 178; CauBewayhead, 391; Cawdor, 243; Cellar- 
Djkes, 34; Ceuin-na-Caillacli, 38; Chapel, 349; Char- 
leetown, 58, 127; Ctarlestown, Aboyne, 57; Cheviots, 
The, 225, 348; Ciil-Chuiman, 87 ; Ciodh-na-Oich, 39 ; 
Clachan, 113; Clach-na-cludin, 241 ; Clach-aa-tairy, 84; 
Cladich, 120,231, 299; Clara shell Cave, The, 250; Claeh- 
more,397; Clauchland Point, 52; Cleghom, 282; Clif- 
ton, 210; Cloch,The, 81, 105, 143, 232; Closebum, 
364; Cloven Hills, The, 171; Cloy, The, 42; Cluny, 
66; Cluny Castle, 271; Clyde, Falls of, 65, 93, 122, 
281, 291; Clydesdale, 123, 281, 290, 347, 350, 363, 
372, 391; Clyde's-Bum, 94, 347; Clyde's Nap, 94; 
Coalehum Castle, 120, 296, 300, 322; Cobbler, The, 
140,216, 338; Coe,The,56; Coila, 85, 132; Coilan- 
togle, 316; Coir-nan-Uriskin, 323; Coldstream, 227;Col- 
intraive, 232; Coli, 247, 384; Colveaid, 176; Colonsay, 
248, 260, Corarie, 117, 304; Cona, The, 56; Connell 
Ferry, 367, 370; Coolin Hills, The, 389; Cora CaaUe, 
95 ; Cora Linn, 94, 291 ; Coran-Ardgoui, 115; Corehead, 
349; Cormorant Cave, 250; Corpach, 82, 100, 112; 
Corrie-an-Lachan, 46; Corriemulzie, F^ls of, 68; Corry- 
arrick, 86; CorrygQl, 39, 52; Corryrreckan,, 110, 260, 
298, 339; Corsaig A] ches. The, 258; Coraew^ 105; 
Coratorphine, 288; Ci ruiskin Cav^, 383; Coulport, 110, 
309; CoultejNFell, 63, 347; Coupar-Anjifiia, 65; Cove, 
105, 230, 309; Cowal, 43, 61, 81, 105, 126, 139, J40, 
265, 279, 382; Cowdenknowes, 96; Craggan-na-phitich, 
85; Craigclimie, 68; Craigcrook, 167; Craigdarroch, 57; 
Craigellachie, 219; Craighall, 66; Craigholm, 76; 
Craigiebum, 349, 352; Craig-na-Fiteach, 39;Craignethan 
Castle, 290; Craignish, 260; Craignish Point, 102; Caig- 
y-Bams, 139; Grail, 33; Cramond, 167; Crarae, 233, 
237; Crathie, 59; Crawford, 285; Crawfordjohn, 361; 
Crawick, The, 361; Cree, The, 399; Creetown, 179; 
Crianlarich, 92, 210, 265; Crinan, 233, 260; Croe, The, 
215; Cromarty, 276, 397; Cromarty Frith, 120; Crpm- 

dale, 218, Cwwsford, 290; Crosahill, 181; Croseraguel, 
182; Cruachaa-Ben, 114, 212, 244, 295, 301, 332, 365. 
395; Cuchullin HiUa, 383, 387; Culhoen, 57; Culfail, 
339; Culloden, 86, 148, 193, 235, 242, 392; Culroaa, 
184; Culzeaa Caatle, 26, 108, 182; Combraes, 40, 77, 
105, 143, 232, 279; Cupar, 33, 75, 135; Cur, The, 307. 
Daer Water, 94, 347; Dailly, 27, 181; Dalavich, 
298; Dalbeattie, 176; Dalkeith, 167; Dalmellington, 
182; Dalmeny Park, 167; Dairy, 178, 283; Dalswin- 
ton, 365; Daiveen Pass, 363; Damyat, 275; Darlin- 
varloch, 304; Dee, The, 18, 22, 58, 59, 67, 177, 219, 
390, 401; Dee, Crook of, 58; Dee, Linn of, 66; Dee, 
WUds of, 69; Deeside, 18; Denniston, 119; Deyaar, 
109; Devem, The, 60; Devil's Tub, 349; Devil's 
Cauldron, 79, 275; DevU's Elbow, 313; Devil's Mill, 
274; Devil's Staircase, 54, 86, 213; Devon, Crook of, 
274; Dhuglass Water, 233; Dinnet, 57; Dobb's Linn, 
349; Dochart, 211, 263, 305; Dochfour, 84; Dollar, 
29, 275, 391; Don, The, 18; Doualdson's Hoapital, 165; 
Donibristle, 162; Doon, The, 31, 131, 175, 182; Doon, 
Brig o', 30, 75; Domnch, 168, 276, 397; Dornoch 
Frith, 168, 241, 397; Doune, 92; Douglas-Castle, 123; 
Douglas Larder, 122; Downie HouBe, 112; DremJunc- 
tion, 62; Dripping Rocks, 51; Dromodhiiine, 48; 
Druhim, 122; Drumolog, 191; Drumlanrig Castle, 
364; Drummond Castle, 70, 117; Drumsynie, 312; 
Drybnrgh, 342, 344; Dryfesdale, 352; Drymen, 330; 
Duart Castle, 243; Dubh, 39; Dubton, 356; Duehiay, 
25; Dudhope Castle, 136; Duff House, 61; Dugarry, 
Lodgeof, 47; Dulnain, 219; Dunerieff, 349; Dun, 39; 
Dunbar, 62, 148, 159, 189; Dun-Ehuil-an-righ, 370; 
Dunblane, 69, 346, 391; Dun-Briton, 125f Duncreggan, 
318; Dundafi; 95; Dundee-Law, 133; Dundonald, 37; 
Dun-Donnaidilla, 89; Dundrennan, 177, 401; Dun- 
Dubh, 52; Duneaton, 94; Dunsderagh, 217, 313; Dun- 
Edin, 146; Dim-Fioun, 52; Dunglass, 101, 125, 183, 
373; Dungoil, 79; Duniquoich, 236, 313; Dunira, 

117; Dunloskin, Ul, 270, 305, 270, 305; Dun- 
Modwdh, 146; DunoUy, 54, lU, 242, 367, 368, 384; 
Bunsiimne HiU, 378; Duustoffnage, 64, 114, 241, 242, 
266, 296, 301, 367, 395; Duntroon Castle, 110; Don- 
ure, 108; Dimvegan, 385; Dun-Y, 254; Dorrifldeer, 
366; Dutchman's Cap, 248; Dysart, 294. 

Earn, The, 70, 117, 304, 378; Earn, Bridge o^- 346; 
Eaadale, 113, 233, 384; EaatcEff, 93; East Lothian, 164; 
Eastem Housb, 230; Echaig, The, 266, 305; Eddlestone, 
The, 374,. 367; Ederline, 297; Edina, 146; Edinample, 
302; Edinburgh Caatle, 146, 153, 157, 182; Edinhuigh 
ijnivereity, 149, 154; Edwinborgh, 146;Eig, Island of, 
384; Eilangherig, 232; Eilean-Aigas, 122; Elderslie 
House, 100; Ellangowan, 176; Ellen's Isle, 298, 318, 
322; Ettricfc House, 363; Ellisland, 74, 130.349, 365; 
Elvan, The, 94, 347; Elvanfoot, 94, 288, 347, 363; 
Endrick, The, 328, 332; Enteriin, 363; Erickstane, 
350; Ericht, The, 65; Eak, The, 167; Eskdale, 226; 
Ettrick, 17, 344; Ettrick Bay, 7T; Evan, The, 352. 

EakUe, 107, 232, 284; Falkland, 128, 382; Fallen 
Eock, The, 43, Falloch, llie, 209; Faskaig, 87; FeiguB- 
lie, 373; Ferryden, 356; FiUan, The, 2U; FiUans, St., 
304; Findhom, The, 171, 219; Fingal'e Cave, 249, 252; 
Finlarig Castle, 263; Einnart Bank, 267; Finnart Beg, 
267; Finnart HiUs, 106, 143, 261; Finnart More, 267; 
Fintry Hills, 354; Fladda, 248; Fleet, The, 178, 397: 
Fleura Castle, 226; Flodden, 147, 166, 227, 392; Foch- 
abers, 61, 217; Ford, 296; Fordon, 223; Fort-Augustus, 
86, 175, 272; Fort^Matilda, 104, 223; Fortioae, 238; 
Forth. IV 18, 20, 70, 91, 101, 127, 145, 264, 302, 
315, 328, 331, 372, 390, 399; Forth, Frith oi; 27, 63, 
75, 150, 164, 'ISa, 239, 272, 289, 294, 305, 320, 355 
Forth & Clyde Canal, 101, 111, 184, 295; Forth & 
Clyde Eailway, 327; Fotheringham, 177, 274; Foyers, 
Falls of, 88, 175, 263; Fraoch-Eilan, 301; Fraserburgh, 
18; Fumess, 233, 313; Futtee, 22; Fyne, The. 217. 

Gairloch, 170, 291, 389; Gala Water, 17, 344; Gala- 
L,-., Google 

ahiels, 17, 341, 374; Galloway, Mull of, 179; Gftllow- 
hill, 360; Gannouth, 217; Garple Bum, 350; Garple 
Linn, 348; Garrison, The, 285; Garroch-Head, 79, 
105, 383; Garry, The, 64; Garvel, 103; Gatehouse, 
176; Geilston, 103; General's Hut, The, 89; Genoch, 
181; Gigha, 259; Girdleneas Light, 19, 67; Gi 
The, 108, 181; GlammiB, 358; Glasgow Cathedral, 
183, 189, 191, 196, 301; Glasgow University, 99, '" 
201, 206, 221; Glen-Alaster, 61; Glen-more-nan-Alhyn, 
85, 175, 239; Glen-App, 109, 183,402; Glen-Artney, 
304; Gkn-Brianichan, 381; Glenbuckie, 60; Glen- 
Galium Bay, 80; Glen-Cloy, 42; Glencorsa House, 167; 
Glendaruel, 269; Glen-Dhu, 42; Glen-Doine, ~"" 
Glenelg, 386; GlenfaOoch, 309, 365, 305, 335, 365 
Glenfiulass, 60, 317, 324; Glen-Finnan, 115, 175, 301. 
385; Glen-Finnart, 306; Glen-Fruin, 329; Glen-Gamy, 
85; Glengonnar, The, 94, 286; Glengyle, 210, 324: 
Glenhallowdale, 398; Gleniffer Braes, 207, 373; Glen- 
kens, 177; Glen-Locby, 211; Glenluce, 179; Glen-Lyon, 
322; Gleninan, 60; Gleamore, 67; Glen-Morriaton, 88; 
Glen-Hant, 299; Glea^Eanza, 44; Glen-Eosa, 42; Glen- 
Sanuox, 43, 52; Glen-Shant, 41, 395; Glenshee, 313, 
381; Glen.Sligachan,389; Glenspean, 371; Glen-8trae, 
119, 299, 332; Glen-TUt, 64, 67; Glen-Turrit, 117; 
Glen-Urie, 297, 339; Goatfell, 38, 44, 70, 143; Gogo^ 
Bum, 106; Goij, The, 312; Golspie, 397; Gometra, 248; 
Goodie, The, 354; Gorbak, 205; Gosford House, "" 
Gourock, 104, 141, 221; 230, 338; Govan, 99, 1 
Gowrie, Carse of, 377; Gowrie House, 379; Gramaig, 
220; Grampians, The, 66, 116, 218, 303, 359, 378; 
GrandtuUy, 34; Grange Cemetery, 164; Grange Junction, 
61; Gtanton, 28, 70, 127, 145, 166, 273, 275, 289 
Greealoaning, 70; 104; Grey Mare's TaQ, 349; Giyffe. 
The, 372; Gullane, 62; Gylen, Castle of, 114, 344. 

Habbie's House, 166; Haddington, 63 ; Hafton, 141, 
270, 305; Halidon HiU, 125; HaUval Mountain, 348 

10 INDEX. 

The, 166; Harlan, 20; Harperfield 94; Harria, 292; 

Hartfell, 3i7, 360; Hartiee Hilla, G3; Hawthoraden, 
167; Hayfield, 300; Hebrides, 88, 114, 135, 222, 245, 
260, 385, 390; Headsman's Isle, 350; Heiskeval Moun- 
tain, 384; Helenslee, 127; Hell's Glon, 234, 307, 312; 
Helmsdale, 398 ; Hermitage, The, 1 39 ; Heriot's Hospital, 
157, 164, 364; Highland Railway, 137, 171, 217,270; 
Highland Koad, 23, 64; Highlandman'e Hill, 78; 
Highlands, The, 40, 94, 105, 112, 141, 172, 190, 210, 
216, 228, 234, 241, 256, 261, 267, 271, 310, 315, 326, 
347,361,371, 380, 387, 395, 396; Holm, 361; Holy 
lale, 51, 77, 109, 259, 380, 383; Holyrood, 86, 145, 
153, 161, 173, 284, 293; Holywood, 365; Hopetoim 
House, 167; Horse Isle, 107; House of Lee, 282; How- 
gate, 167; Hunterian Museum, 202; Hunter's Bog, 148; 
Hunter's Hill, 359; Hutcheson's Hospital, 205. 

I-colm-kill, 248, 253; Imachar, 46; Inchaffray Ab- 
bey, 118; Inehcailach, 329; Inchcape Eock, 360; Inoh- 
fruin, 329; Inchinnan, 184; 372; Inch-Keith, 76; Inch- 
Kenneth, 247; Inchmahome, 353; Inchmamock, 77, 
233; Inch-Murn, 329; Inch-Tavanach, 329; Innellan, 
81, 106, 140, 231, 309; Inniahail, 299, InnistriMch, 
231, 296, 299; Inverramsay Junction, 61; Inveraman, 
209, 265, 326, 333; Inveravon, 219; Inverawe, 299, 
395; Invercauld, 58, 67; Inverfarikaig, 89; Invergairy 
Castle, 85; Inverkeithing, 127, 393; Inverkip, 105,231, 
232; Inverlochy CaaUe, 173, 272; Inver-Morriston, 88; 
Inverouran, 211; Inveranaid, 308, 315, 324, 331; In- 
veruglasa, 332; lorsa, The, 47; Irvine, The, 107. 

Jeantown, 291; John o' Groat's, 241, 275, 399; 
Johnstofle, 36; Juia, Paps of, 41, 260. 

KaiiuB, 298; KameB Bay, 77, 233; Kamesburgh, 
77, 232, 382; Kelburne Castle, 283; Kelvin, The, 99, 
207; Kelvingrove, 207; Kempoch-Point, 104; Ken, 
The, 177, 401; Kenmure Castle, 178; Kerrera, 114, 
242, 253, 366, 383; Keree, 291 ; Kerrycroy, 80 ; Kerry- 
lamont, 80; Kerrymamook, 80; Kerry tonlia, 80; Kier 

niDxx. 11 

Policies, 69; Kilbimie, 36; Kilbrandon, Sound of, 48, 
92; Kilchattan Bay, 77, 109; Kilchum, 300; Kilcreg- 
Ran, 105, 109, 230, 308; Kildonan, 50, 261, 398j 
Killater, 209; KiUeam, 328; KilKecronkie, 64, 167, 
218, 280, 381 ; Kilinah<^, 316; Kilmalcolm, 126, 
Kilmalie, 116; Kilmarnock, 37, 53, 74, 108, 360; 
Kilmartin, 110, 297, 339; Kilmichael-Glassary, 296, 
339; Kilmore, 340, 367; Kilmorock, 122; Kilmorey, 
BO, 78; Kilmorich, 216; KilmTiir, 390; Kilpatrick, 
101; Kilrenny, 33; Kilrule, 32; Kilsyth, 189, 194 
Kingairloch, 114; Kingarth, 79; Kingsburgh, 390 
King's Caves, 47; King's College, 20; King's Hill, 
48; King's House, 69, 212, 302; King's-Inch, 100; 
King's-woodend, 76; Kingston, 218; Kinlocli-Aylort^ 
116; Kinloch-Beg, 57; Kinlocli-More, 64; Kinnoul, 
Hill of, 379; Kimara, 219; Kintail, 122; Kirkbean, 
176; Kirkcaldy, 31, 127, 273; Kirkconnoll, 288 
Kirkmaiden, 399 ; Kirkmichael, 381; Kirkoswald, 75 
Kirkwall, 275, 283, 398; Kirriemuir, 66, 359; Knap- 
dale, 36, 110, 233, 260, 313, 383; Knock Castle, 88, 
Knockfarrel, 121, 223; Knocklecarlieu, 50; Kyle-Akin, 
386; Kyle-Kbea, 88, 386. 

Lady Lock, 242, 383; Lagantuin Point, 43; L^gan, 
271; Laii^, 397; Umington Tower, 64; Lamlash, 38, 
48, 51, 72, 109, 259, 309; Lanark, 63, 68, 94, 122, 
280, 290, 360, 372; Lanarkshire, Upper Ward of, 54, 
63, 93, 122, 128, 280, 286; Land of Scott, 63, 225, 
341; Langside, 103, 126, 177, 274; Lanrick Mead, 
316; Lai^s, 38, 106, 143, 232, 277, 283, 309, 
Latheion, 398; Lauder, 62; Laurieaton, 205; Lauriaton 
Castle, 167; Leader, The, 345; Leadhills, 285, 299, 
363; Leith, 34, 76, 146, 163, 166, 288, 399, 391 
Leith, Water of, 288; Leny, Pass of, 92; Leonard'; 
St., 33; Lerwick, 275; Letter, 302; Leuchars, 31 
Levan Tower, 105; Levenax, 216, 329; Levengrove, 
127; Liddesdale, 226; Lincluden Abbey, 129; Linga, 
113, 248; Lismore, 54, 114, 142, 242, 366; L|^tle- 

12 INDXX. 

Clyde, 94; Little Colonsay, 248; Littleferry, 168, 397: 
Lix ToU-bar, 264, 305; Loch-Achray, 29; 315, 320; 
Loch-Ailart, 385; Loch-Ainart, 385; Loch-Aline, 244: 
LoctAlflL, 386; Loch-Ard, 24, 60, 92, 318, 325; Loch- 
Arkaig, 85; Loch-Aiklet, 325; Loch-ABcog, 79; Loch- 
Avich, 298; Loch-Bull, 79; Loch-Buy, 268; Loch-Can- 
lach, 69; Loch-Carron, 291 ; Loch-Chon, 25, 320, 325 
Loch-an-nam-Corp, 318; Loch-Coniisk, 388; Loch 
Craigniah, 113, 298, 339; Loch-CrcraD, 114, 371, 
Loch-Crinan, 35, 110, 220, 298, 383; Loch-Douchfonr, 
90; Loch-Doine, 60; Loch-Doon, 178; Loch-ia-Dorb, 
219; Loch-DrunkiB, 354; Loch-Dubh, 237; Loch- 
Duich, 386; Loch-Eil, 82, 110, 172, 220, 270: Loch- 
an-Eilan, 219; Loch-Etive, 54, 114, 119, 242, """ 
301, 367, 395; Loch-Eure, 265; Loch-Fad, 78; Loch- 
Feochan, 340; Loch-Flcet, 397; Loch-Fyne, 35, 92, 
110, 217, 220, 331, 296, 307, 313, 335, 364, 393, 
394; Loch-na-Gar, 57, 67; Loch-na-Gaul, 116; Loch- 
Gilp, 35, 233, 296, 339; Loch-Gilphead, 35, 233; Loch- 
Greenan, 79; Loch-Hourn, 386; Xoch-House Tower, 
351; Loch-na-Keal, 248; Loch-I.aggan, 220, 271; Loch- 
Linnhe, 64, 114, 175, 215, 242, 369; Loch-Lochy, 83, 
85; Loch-of-thB-Lowea, 66, 352; Loch-Lubnaig, 59, 92, 
318, 324; Loch-Lydoch, 212; Loch-Maree, 291 ; Loch- 
Moidart, 175, 385; Loch-Ness, 84, 263; Loch-Keris, 
386; Loeh-na-Nuagh, 385; Loch-Oich, 84, 88; Loch- 
Quean, 79; Loch-Eanza, 38, 43, 47, 92, 233; Loch- 
Eestal, 216, 313; Loch-Ridden, 232, 269; Loch-Eyan, 
51, 107, 175, 181; Loch-St.-Kiaran, 109;Loch-SoaTaig, 
387; Loch-Scriden, 261 ; Loch-Shiel, 116; Loeh-Skene, 
350; Loch-Slappiu, 387; I^ch-SIigachan, 389; Loch- 
Sloy, 338; Loch-Spelvio, 261; Loch-StriTen, 82, 232, 
269, 307; Loch-Sunart, 114, 243; Loch-Swin, 112; 
Loch-Tarbert, 93, 336, 394; Loch-Treachtam, 66; Loch- 
Traig, 271; Loch-Tua, 248; Loch-Tulla, 211; Loch- 
Vennachar, 316, 354; Loch-VoU, 60; Lochwood Castle, 
351; Lochaher, 85, 175, 270; Lochay, The, 263; Looh- 

INDEX. 13 

lea, 73j Lochmabon, 129, 361; Locliy, The, 211, 271; 
Lockerbie, 346; Logan Buen, 167; Logierait^ 24; 
Lomond HiUa, 128; Lome-Nether, 113, 258, 298, 339, , 
395; LossieiBOutli, 168; Lowlands, llie, 105, 217, 240, 
261, 310; Lowthere, The, 94, 186; 347, 363; Lubnaig, 
The, 315; Luce, Bay of, 179; Luib, 264; Limcarty, 
392; LusB, 228, 295, 326, 337. 

Maccomar, 84; Macduff, 61; Machar, St, 19, 21; 
Machrechanish Bay, 394; Maekinnoii'a Cave, 260; 
Madras College, 33; Mar Lodge, 68; Marischal Col- 
lege, 20; Marooek, St., 78; Martyr's, Bay of, 255; Mary- 
burgh, 172; Maryiill, 207; Mary's, St., 33; Mary's, 
St Isle, 177; Mary's, St., Loch, 349; Mauchline, 74; 
Mauchrie, The, 47; May, Isle of, 33; Mealfourvoumie, 
88; Meams, The, 367; MedwinWater, 94; Meikleferry, 
397; Melvicli, 398; Merklandj 39; Methyen, 116, 368, 
377, 39i; Mictael's, St., 75, 131; Mil-duht, 85; Mill- 
port, 106, 232, 283; Minard, 233, 238, 313; Minch, 
The, 291; Mingarry Caatle, 246; Minnock, 268, Moffat 
Water, 349, 352; Moidart, 175, 385; Molendinar Bum, 
96, 103, 183, 195; MoDaltrie Lodge, 57; Moncrieff, 
Hill of, 378; Moneas, Falls of, 23, 263; Moneymore 
Glen, 51; Moniaive, 364; Menteith, Lake of, 25, 92, 
332; Monzie, 117; Moothill, The, 378; Moray Frith, 
83, 90, 239, 397; Moray House, 161; Morayshire, 168, 
170, 219; Morton, 364; Morven, 57, 243, 261, 370; 
Mossgiel, 74, 76; Mosspaul, 226; Mound, The, 397; 
Mount Blane, 79; Mount Oliphant^ 73; Mount-St«wart, 
80, 232; Mouse-Water, 96, 281; Muck Island, 384; 
Mucross, 31; Muirkirk, 122,362; Muirtown Locks, 91; 
Mull, Sound of, 264, 291, 384; Mungo, St, 183. 

Haim, 238; National Institution, 145, 152; Necro- 
polis, The, 198; Neidpath Tower, 374; Neptune's Stair- 
case, 84; Ness, The, 90, 238; Nethan, The, 290; Nevis, 
The, 173, 175; New-Abbey, 176; Newark Caatle, 103; 
Hewbu^h, 31, 133, 377; New-Cumnock, 360; New- 
Galloway, 177, 399; Newington, 145, 150: Kew- 

14 WDKX. 

Ijinark, 281; Newport, 136; Newton HouBe, 94; Kew- 
ton-More,27I; Newtoa-Point, 43; Newton^ tewart, 176, 
400; Hinian's Bay, St., 78; Nith, The, 74, 129, 176, 
349, 360; Kodorees, 248; Kor'-Locli, 149; Norham 
Castle, 158, 185, 227; North British Railway, 135, 
176, 206, 225, 229, 337,341; North Esk, 167. 

Ochil Hilla, 28, 69, 274, 294, 391, 354; Oohtertyro, 
70, 117; Oich, The, 86; Onioh, Point of, 54; Orohy, 
The, 119, 211; Ord of Caithness, 398; Onl, Moor of, 
121; Orkneys, The, 18, 145, 248, 275, 399; Oronsay, 
258, 261, 385; Otter, 313; Ouran, The, 212. 

Pannanich, Spa of, 57; Partick, 99, 184; Peffer Bum, 
62; Penicuick House, 167; Pentland Trith, 85, 275, 
399; Pentland Hijis, 145, 288; Peterhead, 18; Petty- 
cur, 76; Pharl-HiU, 309; Philiphaugh, 189, 376; Pinkie, 
20, 125, 353; Pitcaithly, 120, 346; Pitniain, 90; 
Pittenweem, 33; Pladda, 77, 105, 259, 383; Pluscar- 
dine, 121, 370; Poldean, 352; Poltelloch, 110, 297, 
339; Poniel Water, 123; Portanstuck, 311; Porti- 
Askaig, 259; Port-Bannafrpne, 77, 232; Port-Charlotte, 
278; Port-Dundas, 195, 206; Port-Eglinton, 195; Port- 
Ellen, 259; Port-Glasgow, 66, 102, 126, 221, 229, 306; 
Portincaple, 181; Port-Mary, 177; Portobello, 150, 166} 
Portpatrick, 109, 176, 179, 401; Portree, 389, 390, 
Port^^nachan, 233, 297, 298, 299, 340; PortrWiUiam, 
399; PowtraU Water, 94, 347; Preatonpans, 186, 193. 

Queensberry House, 162; Queensberry Mountain, 94, 
347; Queensfeny, 127, 273, 391; Quitaing, 390; 
Quothquhan law, 94. 

Eaehills, 352; Ealston, 373; Eannoch, 212; Kaaay, 
389; Eathlin Isle, 118, 394, Eavolstone, 167; Eeay, 
397; Eeleig Oran, 257; Renfrew, 100, 184, 221, 308, 
366, 372; Rerwick, 177; Rest and be Thankful, 216, 
313; Restalrig, 289; Rhue, 180; Eoseneath, 105, 142, 
180, 223, 308; Roslin, 18, 166; Rosa Promontory, 
258; RoBsdhu, 32S; Roasead CasUe,76; Bothea, 219; 
Row, 110, 180, 227; Eowardennan,331,337; Eoiburgh, 
L,-., Google 

INDEX. 15 

188, 226, 293, 392; Eoyal Route, The, 36; EuUion 
Green, 167; Rutherglon, 96, 188, 199, 281. 

Sailor'8 Home, 98, 104; Saline Hills, 294; Sdiflbnry 
Craggs, 144, 163; Salteoata, 37; Sauda, 105, 259; Sand- 
baiik, 140, 231, 269, 305; Sannox, 38, 42, 70, Scalpa, 
389; Scalpsie Bay, 78; Scarba, 110, 258, 298, ""' 
. Scone, 139, 369, 377; Scordale, 49; Scotstown, 100; 
Scott Monnment, The, 145, 149, 151; Scoulag, 81 
Scriden Rocks, 38, 43; Scuir of Eig, 384; Seestu Bay, 
109; Seil, 113; Selkirk, 17, 33, 352; Semple Caatle, 
36; Senae, 32; Serpent River, 64; Shandon, 180; Shet- 
land, 18, 145, 275, 399; Shiskin, 48; Shortcleugh 
Water, 288, Shuna, 113; Sidlaw Hills, 359, 378; 
Silver Bum, 167; Skelraorlte Caetle, 106, 232, 283; 
Skerryvore, 367, 384; Skipncsa, 233; Slate Isles, The, 
258, 283; Slateford, 288; Sleat, 385; Sliddery, The, 
49; Sligachan, 389; Slitrig "Water, 226; Sodarees, 248; 
Solway Frith, 74, 128, 175, 347, 352, 365; SouthaU, 
82, 232, 269; South Esk, 356; Spango, The, 361; 
Sp^an, Tie, 84, 271; Spey, The, 217, 270; Spittal of 
Glenahee, 66, 381; Spoath,-361i Spout-Dhu, 381} 
Springbank, 62; Stennia, 278; Stirling, Carse of, 28; 
Stinchar Water, 108; Stittenham, 397; Stonebyrea Fall, 
96, 282, 291; Strnide, 257j Straiton, 181; Stranraer, 
.53, 108, 176, 179, 399; StraiboUan, 377; Stratb-Arfle, 
66, 381; Strathaven, 194; Strath-Chnr, 307, 314; Strath- 
Clyde, 125; Stratheam, 116, 275, 358, 377; Strath- 
Endrick, 328; Stratbemck, 86; Strathfillan, 210, 265, 
305, 334, 367; Strathgryffe, 372; Strath-Ire, 59; Strath- 
more, 66, 134, 358, 377; Strathspey, 22, 67, 90, 137, 
171, 217, 270; Strath-Tay, 22, 208, 364, 302, 377; 
Strath-Tummel, 64; Stravannan Point, 79; String, The, 
38, 47; Stjomness, 278; Stronaclachar, 315, 322, 333; 
Strone,105, 109, 123, 140, 231, 266, 306; Stronehill, 
330; Strontian, 246, Struey, 50; Stuckgown House, 
332; Suidhe HiU, 77. 

Tain, 120, 276, 397; Tail-of-the-Eank, 223, 228; 

16 INDEX. 

Talk Isle, 355; Tantalkn Caetle, 62, 63, 138, 167; 
Tarbert, 93, 216, 233, 336, 393; Tarbolton, 73; Tarfe, 
The, 86, 177; Tay, The, 22, 31, 92, 118, 128, 133, 137, 
210, 262, 273, 30i, 360, 377, 391; Tajmouth, 92, 
119, 262; Tayport, 133; Tayside, 64; Tajinloan, 394; 
Teith, The, 70, 91, 315, 331; Teviot, The, 226; Teviot- 
dale, 181, 226; Thieava Castle, 177; Thurso, 241, 
397, 398; Tighmbruaich, 232, 233j Tilliechewan House, 
328; Tillietudlem Castle, 290; TUlycoultry, 28; Tilt, 
The, 64; Tilt, Bridge of, 64; Tinto, 63, 94, 122, 267, 
331;Tiree; 247, 384; Tirim Castle, 385; Tobermory, 
245, 261, 384; Tongland, 177; Toriin Water, 49; 
TonnoT, 48; Tomaaeidnoin, 39, 44; Torrin, 387; Tony, 
23; Torthonoald, 130; Toward, 82. 105, liO, 232, 266; 
Torwood, 352 ; Treshinish leles, 247 ; Tummel, The, 22, 
119, 380; Tummel, Falls of, 65; Tumberry Castle, 48, 
108, 233; Tweed, The, 17, 55, 63, 125, 144, 183, 194, 
225, 315, 341, 374, 398; Tweeddale, 377; Tyndrum, 
92, 119, 210, 265, 305, 367. 

Uig, 3G0i Uist, North, 292; Uist, South, 292; 
Ulva, 247, Urquhart Castle, 89; Urr, Moat of, 177; 
Urr, "Water of, 176; Urrard, 381. Vatemish, 385. 

WaulockLead, 288, 363; Wanlock Water, 288, 361; 
Watchman's HiU, 349; Water Meetings, 94; Watemeb, 
The, 71- Waverley Eeute, The, 341; Weem, 22, 24,. 
263; Well Path, The, 363; Wemyes Bay, 81, 103, 143, 
232, 279; West KUbride, 107; West Tarbert, 394; 
West-End Park, 99, 207, 209; Western Isles, 257; 
WMstlefield, 309; White Cart, The, 372 ; Whitelarknd 
Poiat, 46, 52; Whiting Bay, 51, 199, 279; Williams- 
burg, 221; Wishaw, 224; Woodend, 78; Woodhonselee, 
167. Yarrow, 353; Yoker, 101; Yorkhill, 99. 

%^ At page 22, near foot, &r 'bouses' at WeeiEi, 
read ' Hodsk ' — Hotbl; a lai^e and a good one. ^ i 


SCOT- li^ IT 3D. 

Abbotstorii, 'a romance in atone and lime,' the 
cheriBhed home of the Great Novelist of Scotland, 
stands on the southern bank of the Tweed, a short way 
beyond the junction of the Gala water; and so many 
pi^rims find their way there, that Abbotsford Ferry 
is given, as a station on the short railway leading from 
Galashiels to Selkirk, the distance being 2j miles 
from the former town. Before the gifted writer made 
the place what it now is, it had but the Xweed before, 
the river bank beyond, and 'green Ettrick' in the 
distance to recommend it; now all is chained for the 
pictaresqae, as might have been looked for. The 
' creator,' as he might almost be called, of this locality, 
records 'that I w^ed home by one of the hundred 
and one pleasing paths which I have made through the 
woods I have plutted;' and elsewhere, ' I promise you 
my oaks will remain when my laurels are faded* The 
hoose is buUt in an amphitheatre of wood; ravines, 
oascadea, bowers, lakee, the Tweed, — all add to the 
beauties of 'The Poet's Some.' As for the mansion, it 
is enriched with historic atones and antiquarian treasoies 
from every part of the land. The hall is adorned with 
a row of shields, emblazoned, and with armour rich 
and rare, the tale of which few could better tell. In 
one of the minor halls every weapon there has its story 

IS SCOTLAND [Aberdeett. 

appen<iled, aad these relics of the ' romance of Scottisli 
story' are arranged with exquisite taste. Of the pic- 
tures, that of the head of Mary, Queen of Scots, painted 
the day after her execution, may be the most valuable. 
The drawing-room is supeibj and the library, the largeet 
apartment in the mansion, has the roof richly carved, 
like the sculptures of Koslin or Melrose; aad the books, 
nearly 20,000 in ntunher, are many of them very rare — 
as Sir Walter Scott would be a 'judicious collector,' 
, In the study is a small writing-tab!^ a plain arm-chair 
covered with black leather, and a single chair besides; 
and in a small closet a^jeining, under a glass case, are 
the body clothes ■worn by Sir Walter Scott — ' the broad- 
skirted coat, with large buttons, the plaid trousers, the 
heavy shoes, the broad-rimmed hat and stont walking- 
stick; the dress in which he rambled about in the morn- 
ing, and laid ofF when he took to his bed in his last 
illieas.' Abbotsford is about 6 miles &om Melrose. 

Aberdeen, City of, lies on the S. E. extremity of 
Aberdeenshire, on the Aber, a place near where the 
rivers Dee and Don flow into the German ocean. In 
all Scottish story it has been of importance; ranks after 
Glasgow and Edinburgh and before Dundee, being 
the seat of a nniversity, although, as a seaport, in 
manufactures, and in population, the burgh on the 
Tay has shot ahead of the ancient city on the Dee. 
By railway, Aberdeen is connected with the south, 
fiim Edinburgh by Dundee or Perth; with the north, 
irom Inverness; the north-east, from Fraserburgh and 
Peterhead; and with the west, from Bailater, via Dee- 
side. By sea, steamers of a superior description ply 
regularly to and from the Thames, the Humber, and 
the Tyne; and those steamers which run from the 
Forth to Caithness, the Orkneys, and Shetland, call 
regularly at Aberdeen for cargo and passengere. The 

Aberdeen.] DESCRIBED. 19 

Qlrdlenesa LighthotiBe riaes ^m the rocks above the 
eetotuy of the Dee; and the harbour — on exposed one 
— is good when within the breakwater, and abreast of 
the town has been improved at vast cost, the tidal 
docks being formed of granite, for which the district 
is so famous. The city of Aberdeen lies chiefly in what 
was of old the parish of St Nicholas, and was named 
New Aberdeen, to distinguish it from Old Aberdeen, in 
the adjoining parish of St. Machar, and on the banks of 
the river Don, the bridge by which travellers went north- 
ward by ' the Brig o* Balgownie,' where, by an arch 67 
feet in span and 35 feet above, was crossed what Byron 
temw'die deep salmon pool' ■ The ' brig' was built 
by Bobert the Bru9e, and there was a auperstitious 
l^end connected therewith, the value of which the 
noble poet dared to test — 'as a wife's ae son,' &c A 
short way down the stream there is a new and noble 
bridge thrown across, by which the highway runs to 
the N. E., and where the cattle-markets of the district 
are held. The charter of Aberdeen is held from David 
I. Becords since 1179 are preserved, those of the Town 
^Council being eitant from the 14th century. 

Alexander IL and IIL are said to have held court 
at Aberdeea The place was burned in 1244; its castle 
was seized by Edward L in 129S, but retaken by the 
Aberdonians in 1308, the citizens standing so well by 
the Bmce, that he gave them ' Bon Accord' as motto 
for their city. James L gave the privileges of a mint 
to the burgh, it'having been one of three which became 
security for his ransom to England. It was visited by 
James IL in 1468, by James IV., by Queen Mary in 
1562, and by her son James VI. When the commerce 
of Scotland lay with Holland and Norway, the city 
of Aberdeen was so great as to be caUed ' Little Lon- 
don' by Montrose, when he sacked it in 1644. The 
natives mustered well, and fell largely at the battles 

20 SCOTLAND [AbemUen. 

of Harlaw in 1411, and of Pinkie in 1647. So severe 
was the plague in 1647, that the bui^ records show 
37,000 turfs paid for ' to cover the graves of the dead.' 
In 1667, a post was established with the capital — cost 
ofa letter was then 2a Soon after the Bank of Scotland 
established an agency in Aberdeen, but eie long with' 
drew it, when the money was returned to Edinburgh 
on horseback. Printing was first begun in Aberdeen 
in 1G27; in 1677, the first almanac in Scotland ap- 
peared there; and the first newspaper published north 
of the Forth was the 'Aberdeen Journal' in 1746, still 
one of the best The city became embarrassed in 1817; 
but for 1864-5 the corporation revenue is given as 
£13,144; valne of prepay as £179,072; population. 
73,805; parliament^ constituency, 3,996; councilloTS, 
19; market day, Friday. King's Collie, Old Aber- 
deen, was founded in 1494; Marischal College in 
1593; and, united, these now form the University of 
Aberdeen. In Arts, the session extends from the last 
Monday of October to the first Friday of April; of 
Divinity, from the first Monday of December to the 
last Friday of March; of Law, from the first Monday 
of November to the end of March; of Medicine, for 
six months &om the first Monday in November, and 
for three months from the first Monday in' June. 

In 1865, the General Council cumbered 602; ma- 
triculated students, 623 for winter — for summer 84; 
and graduates, for 1866, were M. A. 37; M. D. 32; 
M C. 43; Law, 3; Divmity, 0. Mariscbal College, 
' Bi-oad-street, recently rebuild forms three sides of a 
quadrangle, with a tower in Uie centre 100 feet high, 
under which is the main entry to the ball, museum, 
and library. King's College, Old Aberdeen, is a mag- 
nificent pile, bnilt in form of a square, with cloisters 
on the south. The architecture is said by Billings to 
be peculiar; no other buUding in Scotiand exhibiting 

Aberdeen.] DESCRIBED. 21 

the same claiatei-like lepoae as this old College. The 
borsaiies connected with the Univereity of Aberdeen 
are numerous, although moderate in value, and have 
done much to raise the edacadonal standard of the 
Btadenta. The emolamenta of the parochial school- 
masters of the northern counties, from the Dick be- 
quest and otherwise, are such as to be pecuniarily on 
a level with many of the parochial charges. The 
Britiah Association assembled at Aberdeen in 1859; 
and, under the presidency of the late Prince Cousort, 
it was one of the most successful of thevi meetings. 
At tjie norUi-west end of the Union Bridge, a statue 
is placed, ' in memoriam of Prince Albert' The Cathe- 
dral of St. Machar, in Old Aberdeen, well merits a 
visit from the tourist The choir, begun in 1306, was 
never finished; the nave is nearly entire, and the 
wood-carving of the roof is excellent The street 
architecture of Aberdeen is aaperiar — the public build- 
ings, banks, churches, &c, which are many, being of 
granite, and showing well by daylight or moonlight 
Union-street^ from the Castle-square westward, is long, 
70 feet broad, and nearly equal in architecture through- 
out; while the bridge which spans what was of old 
known as the Den Bum, but where the railways from 
the north are about to come into the city, haa three 
arches, the mid one 132 feet The North of Scotland 
Bank, comer of Castle-street and King-etreet^ is a fine 
Grecian stnicture; the County Buildings, near by, are 
good; and the ancient market cross in Castle-square, 
with the statue to the Duke of Gordon, are beautiful 
The schools, academies, and hospitals in the city are 
numerous, well built, with funds so judiciously spent 
as to reflect no little credit on the Abeidoniane. As 
might be looked for in a city of such repute and district 
importance, the hotel accommodation is excellent For 
a generation past the Royal haa deserved well of the 
L,-., Google 

22 SCOTLAiro [Ab^fildp- 

traveller. More recently, houses have epmng up in 
Market-Btreet, neat the harbour and lailwajr-ebitioii; 
some also iu tit Nicholas-street; and no difficulty will 
be found in getting into good quarters, and at latas to 
suit any class of tourists. The coal consumed in Aber- 
deen being all sea-borne, operates soteiy against the 
prc^ess of manufactures. Still, laboor is bo abundant, 
and the trade of the district and port bo considerable, 
that cotton, flax, combs, &c ate largely manufactured 
Foundties ate numerous, and the shipwrights have 
earned a vorld-wide reputation for the safety and speed 
of their chpper ships. The seafaring suburb near the 
foot of the Dee, locally named 'Futtee,' is notable 
from the habits and manners of the natives — bold 
lishenneh, and with an accent all their own South 
of the harbour ia the fishing tHI^ of Toiry; and 
farther south are coves on the coast, where haddocks 
01 dried flsh, eo well known as Findons, are caught, 
cured, and sent south in lai^ quantities. Episcopacy 
has always been in favour with the aristocracy of 
Aberdeenshire; and among the Aberdonians the Free 
Church has many adherents, if one may presume Irom 
the fact that^ in the northern supplement produced fbr 
the Edinburgh Almanac, the names of the deacons of. 
that denomination are given, in addition to those of 
the elders, as for the Pariah churches. 

Aberfbldy ia a village on Strath-Tay, Perthshire, 
to which the railway from Invetnees and Perth now 
runs, carriages being changed at Ballenluig stAtiou, 
near where the Tummel flows into the Tay, and whence 
the short line runs 9 miles westward. On reaching 
the latter toyn, conveyances will be found to carry the 
tourist to the Ereadalbane Hotel, or aoroas the Tay to 
the houses at Weem. Mine host of the Breadalbane 
was long favourably known in Upper Strathspey, on 
L,-., Google 

A1>erfeldy.] DESCRIBED. 23 

the great Highland road, and does all juatice to the 
house he now occupies — colfee-room, apai-tmente, &c 
being good. Altho^h placed in the most picturesque 
portion of Strath-Tay, the village of Aberfeldy has lew 
intriliBic attractions; but heing in the vicinity of the 
Falls of Monese, pronounced by Pennant, neat a cen- 
tury ago, as being an epitome of everything that can 
be admired in the curiosity of waterfalls, and since that 
immortalised in stanzas by Kobert Bums, reported by 
every Guide-book compiler, given in half extent here, 
and in. form not usually met with; where ' braes ascend 
like lofty wa's, the foaming stream deep roaring fa's, 
o'erhung wi' fragrant spreading ehaws, are ' the birks 
of Aberfeldy.' Guides are in waiting to show the route 
to the fiills, where (abridging from Pennant) a neat 
walk leads along a deep and woodei^ glen, enriched 
with a profusion of cascades that ' strike with astonish- 
ment.' The firsts on the left, runs down a rude stair- 
case, pattering down the steps with great beauty. Ad- 
vancing along the bottom, on the right, is a ' deep and 
darksome chasm,' water-worn for ages, the end filled 
with a great cataract^ consisting of several cascades, 
rtie rocks more properly arch than impend over it, 
and trees embower and shade the whole. Ascending 
along a zig-zag walk, you cross the first cascade; hold 
on through the woods to the top of the bill, get into a 
field, emerge from the wood, and from the verge of an 
immense precipice, discover a cataract, forming one vast 
sheet, tumbling into the deep hollow, whence it gushes 
fiiriously, and gets lost in the wood beneath. ' No 
stranger must omit visiting Moness' (to quote Pennant 
again) — ' happy was the owner thereof.' The lowest 
of the falls may be a mile Irom the village; the highest 
of the three, about half a mile further; and the dell is 
about 300 feet deep, the woods forming a thicket so 
close as almost to exclude the sun. The second series 
L,-., Google 

24 SCOTLAND [Aherfoyle. 

of &lls descends about 100 feet, within 100 yards. The 
&lls of Moness are Dot the sole attraction 'which Aber- 
feldy holds out to induce the tourist to tarry in the 
district^ — the drives westward for Kenmore, and home- 
ward by Weem on the north bant of the Tay; or 'east- 
word by Grandtully, and homeward by Logierait and 
Weem; or southward by Amulrie, for Dunteld, being 
routes withia easy distance, and which can be reached 
by conveyances hired from the hotel 

Abbbfoyle, since 'the Bailie from Glasgow' got 
limned by ' the Wizard of the North,' better known as 
'the Glachan,' is on the north side of the upper Forth 
— in langut^ of the native, the Avon-dhu, the Blai^ 
Water. It lies north of the Buchlyvie station on the 
railway connecting Stirling with Loch-Lomond, where 
conveyanceB may be had to the inn — for some years 
past one wholly comfortable for the tourist On the 
hillside above the inn are houses, but little better now 
than they may be supposed to have been when ' the 
Dongal Creature' roieed his arm in defence of his 
old master; but the locality ia attractive to a degree, 
and, in these days when distance is comparatively an- 
nihilated, villa-like abodes are rising up on the Avon- 
dhu and near the wooded shores of Loch-Ard. 

Loch-Ard is 6 to 7 miles in length by about 2 in 
breadth; the lower half, partially divided by a stream 
of some hundred yards in length, is Zittle more than a 
mile from the inn; the road is good, and conveyances 
can be bad, but the locality ia one for the pedestrian 
who can clamber the wooded hills above the loch, and 
better survey it from the height than from the level; 
boat* also can be hired, and few places are more sweet 
to be rowed about in, A wall of rock, some 30 feet in 
height, has an echo — where, in a still day, ten syllables 
can be heard leverbeiating across the lake. In the loch, 

AUta Craig.] DESCEIBED. 28 

is a rocky aud wooded islet, on which are the niina of a 
castle of Murdoch, Duke of Albany; beyond it rises the 
lofty Ben-Lomond, and westward is the Pass of Aber- 
foyie — in Bob Roy's days periloas enough for the 
stranger. Beyond Loch-Ard is Loch-Chon, 2 to 3 miles 
in length; and onwards is the road for Loch-Katrine 
and Loch-Lomond, on which a coach ran last season, 
and might have done well had the roads been better. 
The drive by the banks of the Avon-dhu towards the 
shores of the Lake of Monteith is attractive, as the 
mountain heights on the north are richly wooded — and 
over the hill beyond ' the dachan' is a track, by the 
natives termed a road, by which a wheeled conveyance 
oan be run, but at some risk and not much comfort; 
although the views are so fine that the pedestrian at 
least should take it — the distance &om Aberfoyle to 
Loch-Achray and the Trossachs being about 6 miles, 
and Qio route bringing all the mounteia, loch, and strath 
scenery into full view, from Ben-Lomond, Ben- Venue, 
and Ben-Ledi to the castellated rock of Stirling. A 
short way Irom the inn the Avon-dhu unites wiui the 
r>uchray water from the south-west, the latter the larger 
of the two, and both, with the adjoining lochs, giving 
excellent sport to the angler; and to that attraction, 
the inn owes not a little of its custom. The Avon-dhu 
and the Buchray, when united, form the Forth; and 
the bridge in &ont of the inn is steep, with piers at 
either end, showing that floods there are of frequent 
occurrence. The old kirk and kirk-yard are a short 
way across the bridge referred to. 

AiLSA Craio is a mass of basaltic rock rising 1,197 
feet above the ocean level, with an elliptical base of 
3,300 feet in the larger, by about 2,200 feet in the 
smaller am, presenting, on its southern side, xa ap- 
pearance distinctly columnar, the whole seeming as if 

26 SCOTLAND [AiUa Craig. 

balanced togetLer, and not as if capable of being sepa- 
lately di^ointed. The diameter of the colimmB seldom 
average above 8 feet, but at one point of view they 
present an unbroken elevation of nearly 400 feet — a 
greater height than has been elsewhere found. On the 
eastern face of the Craig, a small beach haa been formed 
by the debris, detached in the course of ages from the 
vast mass, and &om this the ascent is easy for about 
200 feet iiom the sea-level, where are found the remains 
of a three-storeyed hermit^e; and if solitude waa sought 
in earnest by the monkish recluses, with nau^t but 
the wild waste of waters around, the scream of the 
sea-birds hastening for shelter to the lofty precipices on 
the lock, there it surely might be found. Beyond these 
ruins the ascent of the T0<i becomes laborious, the ad- 
venturer having to seek a precarious footing among the 
detached masses of stone which he has to clamber over, 
at the riak of being, rock and all, hurled down the 
steep front into the abyss of waters. Nor is the diffi- 
culty of making way up an ascent so formidably im- 
peded the only one that preiaente itself — he must force 
a passage through nettles and thistles, of the most gigan- 
tic size, growing thick as a forest— the motto of the 
royal Scottish thistle reading significantly there — 
' Nemo me impune laceasit.' The scanty herlwge, which 
here and there adorns the face of this lofty Craig, sup- 
ports the few goate and rabbits which browse on the 
steeps, or burrow nnder the rocky ledges. But the ob- 
jects which attract the stranger are the myriads of sea- 
fowl which circle round the vast precipices, whitening 
the surface with their deposits, and darkening the sun 
if disturbed by the shout of the crowded steamer, or 
when frightened from their eyrie-like roosting -places 
by the report of a ship's gun. The head of the noble 
family of Kennedy, of Culzean Caatle, on the opposite 
coast of Ayrshire, has been created Marquis of Allaa, 

L,.,, Google 

The £««.] DESCRIBED. 27 

being proprietor of the Craig, and drawing ftoin it 
an income of about eighty pounds per amram, realised 
from the featheiB of flie flocka of solan-geese which 
breed ttpon the precipitous aides of this remarkable 
rock. The Craig of Ailsa, rising in solitary grandeur 
from amidst the ocean, ia an object of the greatest 
beauty when the first glimpse of it U caught in ap- 
proaching the locality with the early sun, or viewing 
its rocky heights when gilded by the last rays of the 
great luminary; and, under either aspect, it is often 
seen by the crowds of passengers swept past its vast 
aide by the niimerons steamers which ply on the waters 
of the matchless Clyde. The sober colouring of the 
pale grey basalt of which Ailsa consists, beautifully 
harmonises with the subdued tints of green herb^e 
thinly spread over its surface; while the tint of the 
ocean waves and the colouring of the open sky show 
its remarkable structure to full advantage. ;Not fer 
from the summit, two beautiful springs well forth from 
the rock across a little plateau covered with plants, 
which attain gigantic dimensions, in part accounted for 
by the superabundant animal deposit on the scanty 
soil, the warm and even sheltered exposure upon which 
tJiCT grow; and so luxuriantly do they thrive, that the 
little spot looks as if one of the richest ^irdeus of 
nature were there spread out. To the Craig of Ailsa, 
at the entrance of tbe Frith of Clyde, the Bass Sock, 
guarding the Frith of Forth, bears a marked resem- 
blance; and both are^ breeding -places of the solan- 
goose. In the parish of Dailly, on the mainland of 
Ayrshire, to the south, there is a vast hollow, whence 
tradition alleges the Craig of Ailsa was taken! The 
valuation roll of that parish includes the assessment for 
Ailsa Craig. 

The Bam Eock rises from the Frith of Forth, 1 \ miles 

north of Cuity Bay, and about 3| miles from North 

L,.,, Google 

28 SCOTLAiro [Alioa. 

Berwick; to that town there Ib a rftilway, and, from the 
bay, boats can be hired hy pleasure parties, which ate 
frequent in the summer season. The rock rises 420 
feet above the level of the sea; is highest on the north; 
on the south it is conical, sloping, and accessible, but 
not without difficulty, like the Craig of Ailaa the 
Bass Kock is frequented by the solan-goose, but has 
pasturage of about seven acres, producing delicious 
mutton — rare it must also be. A cavern penetrates the 
rock from N. W. to S.E.; it can be explored, but baa 
nothing of interest in it. In Scottish history, the 
castle on the Bass was used as a state prison, being 
held as almost impregnable. In the persecution era, 
many of the martyrs of the Covenant were immured 
there; and, at the Eevolution, it was so stoutly held 
in the Stewart interest, by Capt^n Maitluid, that the 
Scottish Privy Council allowed the garrison to capitu- 
late on honourable terms. The castle ^ras then de- 
molished, and has remained a ruin. 

Alloa, a burgh of bwony, and a port on the upper 
Forth, is by railway 7 miles east of Stirling, 14 west 
of Dunfermline, and has r^ular steam communication 
with Granton for Edinburgh. The windings of the 
river Forth between Alloa and Stirling are such that, 
while it is vrithin 7 miles by land, it is nearly 20 by 
water, making the run by steamer slow, but not less 
beautifiil. l^e Caise of Stitlii^, across the Forth, is 
so fertile, and coal near AHoa so abundant, that the 
trade of the port is considerable. Glass bottles have 
long been laigely manufactured; and the 'ales' brewed 
there are as famous in the north as the porter made at 
London may be in the south. The OchU Hills, to the 
north of the town, have much in their slopes to attract 
the tourist; and so ample and pnie is the water supply 
from their flanks, that at Tillioooltry and Alva, a short 
L,-., Google 

Alloa.] DESCHIBED. 29 

way inland of Alloa, the msniifactnre of woollena has 
been long and largely pushed to excellent account. 
The ' clear winding Devon ' is a stream of poetic repute ; 
and, eastward at Dollar, ia one of the best academies in 
Scotland, the education offered being bo moderate and 
excellent that villa-like abodes have risen up iu the 
district — paients settling there for the benefit of the 
^unger members of their &milieB. Besides, the drives 
and walks are picturesque, extensive, and varied, from 
Bridge-of-Allan on tlie west to Bumblingbridge on the 
east. At Alloa, shopping is good — better, it may be, 
at Stirling ; and the latter being one of the few garrison 
towns in Scotland, may make the district all the more 
pleasant. The noble family, Erskines of Mar, have had 
their chief abode at Alloa since 1316; and James "Vl. 
spent his boyhood there. It was burned in 1800, and 
lie old tower alone remains, commanding a beautiful 
view; it is 90 feet in height, the walls 11 in thickness. 
The gardens were laid out 150 years ago, with all the 
stiffness, statues, &c. characteristic of that age. The 
street leading to the Forth is about 80 feet in breadth, 
with lime trees on east and west. The main street is 
good, as is the road approach from Stirling; but, in the 
town proper, the stieeta are neither straight nor wide. 
The pier on the river side is of hewn stone; and, when 
the tide is in, the water-way ia about half-a-mile in 
breadth, with loi^ low-water piers on either shore to 
facilitate trafQc. Alloa was a town of note in the re^ 
of Robert I., but has no burghal privileges, being go- 
verned by a baron-baOie. The markets are good; and 
the court-house, just finished, is handsome, as are also 
not a few of tbe ' banks' recently erected — -that class of 
buildings being, of late years, ordinarily the hand- 
somest in the country towns; ana the town in Scot- 
land is small indeed which has not one or more bank- 
agents located in it. 

30 SCOTLAND [AUoaay Kirk. 

Allowat's ' auld haunted KjtV is on the road to 
the ' Brig o' Doon,' about a mile and a-half ■west of Ayr, 
and is a place to which crowds of the operative classes 
find their way when cheap esoureion trains allure them 
from, the crowded town to the 'land of Bums,' the 
ploughman bard being claimed by the people as ' their" 
own poet. Alloway was an ancient parish in the dis- 
trict, but was long since merged into that of Ayr; and 
the Kirk may have been roofless as now, when Bums 
spent his boyhood near it. The ruin has been made 
femous by the tale of Tarn o' Shanter; and its walls are 
now well preserved, the belfry remains, and the ' win- 
nock bunker,' whence came the music for the witches' 
dance. The inner area has been partitioned off as the 
burial-place of a Lord of Session, who assumed the 
title of Lord Alloway. The oaken rafters of the old 
Kirk have, years ago, been converted int« snuff-boxes, 
and scattered as relics over the globe. The kirk-yard 
had its own stones markii^ where the ' rude fore- 
fathers' of the parish slept, hut now its small area is 
crowded with monuments to people of mark, many of 
them irom a distance, who desired to he laid in ground 
they may have heard so much of in their lifetirae. The 
grave of the father and mother of the poet is nearly in 
the pathway from the road to the old kirk door; and 
the atone which originally covered it was carried off in 
fragments and has been renewed — it may be, to he re- 
newed again and again. The ' auld Brig of Doon' is 
hut a short way from the Kirk; the arch is entire and 
may be kept so, the road being now diverted. The 
cottage in which ' Robin' was bom is near to the Kirk; 
and the bed-recess in the wall is shown, with chairs, 
tables, &c., carved over with the initials of visitors 
frx>m all parts of the world. Between the ' Kirk' and 
the ' auld Brig* is the handsome Monument raised in 
honour of the poet, with many memorials of him; and, 
L,-., Google 

St. Andrewg.] DESCRIBED. 31 

at the entrance-gate, haa loi^ been a liot«l 'wherein the 
pilgiim touiist will find all needAil ' creature comforts,' 
promptly served and fairly charged. Across the poad 
&om the ' storied ruin' is the new chnrch of AUoway, 
the -west-end window of which is ntagnifieent The 
placing of the church there is mainly dne to the munifi- 
cence of the present laird of Cambus-Doon, a member 
of the Gartsherrie family, who have been so successful 
in converting ' iron into gold.' Between the ' banks 
and braea o' bonny Doon' and the ' auld toim of Ayr,' 
the country is becoming richly studded over with 
mansions, policies, and parks. 

Andrews, St., a city near the north-east extremity 
' of what the Scoteh once called the ' Kii^om of Fife,' 
is the seat of a University, cradle of religion in Scotland, 
place of the martyrdom of the earlier professors of Pro- 
testantism, famous through all Scottish annals; with 
much to attract the antiquarian, and where tourists in 
search of health or pleasure will find themselves well 
cared for — hotels being good, society superior, and 
means of travel lieqtient and moderate. St. Andrews 
is on a branch line, 6 miles eastward from Lenchars 
junction, where carri^es must be changed; thence 11 
miles to Dundee, across the Tay; 31 miles by Kew- 
burgh to Perth, or 39 milea by Kirkcaldy to Edinburgh. 
The city had shipping at one time, but a few smacks 
now form the fleet, the water being low, the bay not 
over safe, and the ports on the Tay being of easier 
access, deeper water, and greater trading energy. St. 
Andrews, then known as Mucroee, is said to have been 
visited in 365 by St. Begulus; and remains of' a 
chapel and tower, called St. Eules, after him, still exist. 
Some centuries later it was known as one of the chief 
settlements of the Cnldeea; Constantine III. having 
died there a member of that body. The place waa 
L,-., Cookie 

32 SCOTLAND [St. Andrem. 

known in Pictish timea as Kilrule, bat changed to St. 
Andrews vhea the Scots became rulers of Scotland. 
The Cathedral of St Andrews, begun in 1159, was not 
completed before 1318. Excited by John Knox to 
destroy aU evidence of ' idol woifihip,' the mob, in 
1559, destroyed utterly, and in one day, the Cathedral 
it coat 1 60 years to conatmct; and all tluit now remains 
of the nu^niGcent pile is the eastern gable, half of the 
western gable, and the west wall of the transept. In 
1826 the interior of the old Cathedral was cleared out, 
and repairs made at the charge of the Barons of Ex- 
chequer, that the rains might be preserved. Near the 
Cathedral stood an Augustine Monastery, founded in 
1144; and the wall erected, four centuries after, to 
enclose it, is still in fair preservation, being 22 feet 
high, 4 thick, and enclosing about 18 acres of land. A 
figment of a chapel, with arched root even beautifiil 
in Ha ruined state, is within the grounds of the Madras 
Institutton, and, aa the relic of a convent, founded in 
1274, deserves preserration. In Catholic times, such 
was the resort to St. Andrews that the fair or market 
of Senzie, held in the second week after Easter, con- 
tinued for fifteen days; merchant vessels filling its 
harbour from Holland, Flanders, France, and northern 
Europe. The Castle of St. Andrews, erected at close 
of the 1 2th century, stood on the north aide of the town, 
and its roios stUl serve as a landmark to the seaman. 
In 1336 a garrison held it for Edward III., but it was 
captured and demoliahed by the Regent of Scotland, 
Sir Andrew Murray of Bothweli. The Castle was re- 
built; James III. waa bom there; and it became the 
Episcopal palace till the slaughter of Cardinal Beaton 
in 1545. The University of St Andrews is the oldest 
in Scotland, having been founded in 1411 by Bishop 
Wardlaw, and Fapal confirmation obtained in 1413; 
6t Salvato^B College a kindred institution, in 1465; 

St. Andrews.] DESCRIBED. 33 

St. Leonard's, in 1612; and St. Maiy's, n 1537. In 
1579, by direction of George Buchanan, St Mary's, 
known as the New CoU^e, was appropriated to theo- 
logical studies; and in 17i7, 8L Salvator'e and St 
Leonard's were conjoined as the United College. The 
aeasion in the United College opens on the first Tues- 
day of November, and closes on die last Friday of April; 
that of St. Mary's begins in the end of November, and 
closes in the beginning of April; and the General Coun- 
cil meets twice a-year. In 1862, the 'matriculated 
students' numbered 174; 'gaaeral council,' 377; ' gradu- 
ates,' within eleven montlw of 1862, were — M.A. 2; in 
divinity, i; laws, 1; medicine, 269. The bursaries are 
nnmerona, but few of them are of much value. 

The Madras College was founded by the Kev. Dr. An- 
drew Bell, who died in 1832; he was a native of the city; 
inventor of the Bell and Lancasterian mode of teaching; 
and left £130,000, in 3 per Gent. Stocks, for the estab- 
lishment of an educationtd institution, which haa largely 
added to the prosperity of the town—few now being 
better to Hve in, whetiier for society, situation, or in- 
ducements educational and eociaL A writer of the 
last generation reported there were 'no good inns' in the 
place; could he see the 'Soyal Hotel' of this day, he 
would un write that remark, — but guide-book writers 
seldom are travellers. St. Andrews, Anstruther, E. &W., 
Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem, are grouped 
in sending a Member to Parliament; St. Andrews bong 
the returning bui^h. Of the 79 buigha in Scotland, 
13 became such in 1832; 3 — i.e., Peebles, Rothesay, 
Mid Selkirk — vote in the counties only; and so'valnable' 
is the privilege, that ' mine host of the Tontine' can 
alone go to the poll in Peebles. Of the 79 bui^hs, 13 
are in Fife, the Parliamentary constituency of 7 of 
which amount to 437. Well, then, might the district 
be called the ' Eingdom of Fife.' 

c ,Goo>;Ic 

34 SCOTLAND [AnOnttha-. 

Anbtruthxr, Eaeter and Wester, on tihe eoHt coast 
of Fife, were pUcea greatly more important a cestuiy 
ago tbim they now are — the salary of collector and 
eomptroller of CuBtoms at their port having been £60 
and £20, when that of Dundee was £50 and £30. 
AnBtnither-Easter holds its chaxter from 1563; had, in 
1861, a population of 1178, constituency* 83, corpora- 
tion lerenue £75. Anatnither- Wester, with chtKter of 
1587, population 367, constituency 27, revenue £140. 
Cellar-Dykes, a fishing village, and Kilrenny, another 
Parliamentary hurgh of the Aostruthei class, are nearly 
contiguous; and little more tJian a mile southward is the 
ancient royal burgh of Fittenweem, which has also a 
harbour, and a quadrangular range of curious antique 
buildings, once the residence of the Prior and Abbot 
of Pittenweem. The Eastei burgh is the more import- 
ant of the two, Wester -Anstmther (Anster as locally 
named) being, bu^h and parish, little more than 600 
acres in extent; an incumbent of which nsed to report 
that^ instead of the magistrates being a terror to evil- 
doers, evil-doers were a terror to them. 

When the commerce of Scotland lay largely with 
Holland, the Dutch skippers used to land their cargoes 
at. Anatrutber, which were thence sent on to L»th; 
and so relatively important was the place in 1641 that, 
in a levy of troops made by the Scottish Parliament, 
it» qnota was 31, when that exacted &om Dunfermline 
-was but 16. The lighthouse on the lale of May, 
about 6 miles off, and equi-distant between Grail and 
Anstruther, was built in the reign of Chailee I.; the 
builder was drowned in coming to the mainland, by 
the machination of witches, as was alleged, and for 
which the poor women were homed I The Korthem 
Light Commisnoners paid £60,000 for the isle, and 
Teboilt the lighthonse in 1816. ' Maggie Laudei' is 
now as famous on the east, bb ' Tarn o Shanter' be- 
L,-., Google 

Ardrishaig.] DESCRIBED. 35 

came on its ireat coast of Scotland; she resided at 
AoBter, and her tdographer was a native of the btugh 
and a professor at St Andrews— a greater man is tslaimed 
bj Anstnither, it having been the birthplace of Dr. 
ChalmerB. Grain, potatoes, and salted cod are the 
chief exports of Anstruther. There is steamer com- 
munication with Leith; by railway it is 24 miles N'.E. 
of Kirkcaldy, and 34 miles from Dunfermline. 

Ardribhaio and the Gbinak Canaiu — Ardrishaig 
has come into existence since the Crinan Canal waa 
formed, and its name may be a familiar one to the 
touiietB aa the place wh^e they must leave the steamer 
lona for other means of travel westward, if so bound. 
The village is growing year by year, as the traffic of 
the district becomes developed; tmd situated as it is — 
where Loch-Gilp flows into Ixwh-Fyne — it is a good 
one for those prosecutiJig the belting fishing. Shops 
are numerous, those supplying 'meat and drink' in 
particular, as the steamers for passengers and cargo 
that pass through the Crinan Canal bare become so 
many. Fublic-housee abound; and there is one good 
hotel where the tourist will &id all comfort; and, of 
late years, an attempt has been made to feu out the 
small acreage between the canal bank and the loch 
side, for houBcs suitable for families seeking sea-bathing 
quarteis. The village of Lochgilphead is little more 
than a mile eastward, and it will be fully noticed. 

The Crinan Canai., which was b^un in the year 
1793 by a company who were animated with the pa- 
triotic dee^ of cutting through the land intervening 
between Loch-Fyne and Loch-Crinan, little more than 
six miles across, and through a district more than ordi- 
narily leveL The scheme was iallacious, mainly because 
the moss on the weet would not hold such piles as the 
enginens of that age could drive, and they wer? neces- 

36 SCOTLAND [Ardrossan. 

aitated to cut through the haid vhiuatone rock oa the 
face of the hill southvards, and the cost waa such as 
to swamp wholly the intereets of the original epecn- 
lators. Government finding it necessary to complete the 
undertaking, it became, like that of the ' Caledonian 
Canal,' a burden on the national Exchequer. Yet the 
cost should not be gmi^d, as, without the Crinan 
Canal, wheie would have been the ' Hutcheaon royal 
route,' the crack steamers through the Kyles of But«, 
and the thousands of tourists who, season after season, 
find their way to Oban for lona, Skye, Gleneoe, and 
Invemeaal The eana! is 9 miles in length, and has 15 
locks, 8 on the east and 7 on the west; being 96 feet in 
length, 24 in width, and 12 in depth. In theautunmof 
1857, a waterspout burst on the high lands of Knapdale, 
above the summit level of the canal, and such floods 
swept from the loeha or reservoirs there, down the hills, 
that the banks gave way, the lock gates were burst, 
atones of vast size rolled down, and l^e mountain face 
was. so broken up, that it may take the verdure of a cen- 
tury to cover it over. The western portion of the canal 
was in consequence closed to traffic for 18 months. 


Ardrossan is on the lower Frith of Clyde, directly south 
of the isle of Arran, and is the seaport for a district 
rich in minerals; it is 32 miles S.W. of Glasgow, on 
a branch 6 miles W. of the Ayrshire main line at 
Kilwinning, and where passengers by ordinary trains 
change carriages, those in direct communication 
with steamers for Arran or Belfast going right 
through. The canal from Glasgow to Paisley and 
Johnstone, when begun, was meant to be carried on 
to Ardrossan, by Castle Semple and Kilbimie Lochs, 
a line of country more than usually ilat. To meet the 
commerce anticipated, the noble family of I^hnton 

/mne.] DESCRIBED. 37 

spent liberally in conatiacting the liarboui of AxdroB- 
aan, which ia of safe approach, and has plenty of water, 
with the advantage of having the railway laid abng the 
harbour walla. It has a considerable trade with Balfaet 
and Newiy, and a large export of coal and iron. Ab a 
place of eea-bathing reeort, the town has many atkac- 
tiona, not the least of which may be the comforts of 
the Pavilion HoteL The succesa of Aidrossan has 
spoiled that of Saltcoate, dwarfed that of Irvine, and 
gives Troon tniuble to hold ita own. Coal and iron 
abound in the district inland.— £il winning was of 
repnte centuries t^o — the Abbey there, great part of the 
ruina of which still remain, having been liberally pa- 
tronised by Kobert the Bruce; and at present the popu- 
lation is increasing and well employed. 

Ibvine, by railway 30 milee W. of Glasgow, and 10 
miles E. of Ayr, ia on the month of the river of that 
name; and when Ayr had foreign tradey Irvine shared it. 
As a royal bu^h, ita charters date from 1308; and in 
the war of independ3nce, the district was the battle- 
groond of Wallace and his opponents. Coal abounda in 
the neighbourhood, and is the leading export; otherwise 
the trade la leas than it was when Defoe travelled in 
Scotland. — Tboon, by railway 5 miles 8. of Irvine, is a 
seaport of recent erection, in the parish of Dundonald, 
where coal is plenty; and as Troon is the outport for the 
large manufacturing town of Kilmarnock; the docks 
and harbour, formed by the Duke of Portland, being ex- 
cellent; moreover, the accommodation for sea-bathers is 
good — as is the hotel. Some forty years ago, the three- 
horse coach 'Sons of Commerce,' which lan daily &om 
the King's Anns Inn, Saltcoate, to the Tontine, Glas- 
gow, was sufficient for the traffic. Then the sandy climes 
were bare, the fields green, and hedge-rows weD kept , — 
now all 4s changed; everywhere rise ' clouds of smoke 
l^ day' and ' pillars of fire by n^ht' 

38 SCOTLAKD [Arran. 

Akran, an island in the lower Mth of the Clyde 
and in the county of Bute, ie now, by railway and 
ateamer, within two houta' travel of Glasgow. The 
mall Bteamer crosaea from Ardroesan to Ltmilash; the 
tourist boats, by Rotheeay or Laigs, bringing it within 
two hours' run of Greenock; the steamer, en route to 
Campbeltown, landing paseeng^n at Loch-Banza on 
the north; and the boat from Ayi to Cau^yre calling 
off the south end of the island. Arran is about 
12 miles from east to west, 24 from north to south, 
and little more than 60 in circuit. Viewed fr«m the 
Ayrshire coast, it looks as if a valley laa from Brodick 
to BlackwatOT, and another from Sannox to Loch- 
Banza. In the fonner, the load, locally known aa ' the 
String,' and running from Lamlaah north -weetwaid, 
nearly bisects the island; and that finm Sonnox b> 
Loch-Banza cute off the Scriden rocks and the Cock of 
Arran on the westward. From Blackwatei westward, 
Bouthwaxd, and eastward, to Catacol, the roads are good, 
and carriages for hiie abundant; but the few miles 
westward of Catacol are scarcely practicable for wheded 
conveyances. In &ct, the island has so many attractions 
for those in search of the picturesque and the beauti- 
fiil, and so fail of interest to the artist, the geoli^ist, and 
the naturalist, that the plaid, the flask, l£e knapsack, 
and the alpen-stock are the proper out£t for those seek- 
ing to explore it; for, as a rale, where the district is 
best worth inspection, there the difficulties in pursuit 
of knowledge do most abound. 

The names of places in Arran ar^ many of them, 
beauti&lly deecriptive, as they usually are in Highland 
topography. Airun, Ar-high, In-island, is singularly 
applicable to the seirated mountain outline inland of 
Suinox; Goatfell, the Celt knows as Ben-Ghail, the 
mountain of the winds; Brodick, the gentle rising hill; 
Caistael Abhael, the forta«ss of the ptarm^m; Ceum- 
L,-., Google 

Arrm.] DESCRIBED. 39 

DEt-Culkch, the corlin's stop; Ciodh-na-Oigh, the 
maiden's breast; Craig -ua-Fiteaoh, the corbie's rock; 
Cmig-na-Iolaire, the ei^le's tock; Suithe Fbeaigus, 
the seat of Fei^us, on whose lofty sommit that ancient 
* lord of all he auireyed ' is said to have sptead his 
dining cloth; and Tomancidnoin, the mount of birds' 
Bests; Come means cauldron; Dubh, black or dark; 
Dun, hill;,and Fioun, the ubiqoitons FingaL 

Brodick Bay extends between the points of Corry- 
gill and Merkland, on the east and west; and afibids 
good anchorage, but shelter by no means equal to that 
of the land-locked bay of Lamlash. The alluvial plain 
of Brodick is of considerable extent, and evidentiy 
formed by the debris of the mountains— by the torrents 
which so impetuously pour &om their heights— the land 
steadily gaining on the ocean, as the sand-hanks by its 
mai^in attest; and leading to the conclusion that the 
• time has been when the waves rolled up to the base of 
the mountains. The island of Arran, apart from the 
attractions that crowd its surface, affords ample and 
interesting materials for the geologist and mineralogist 
to theorise upon, presenting an epitome of all that may 
elsewhere engage Uieir studue. A promontory detaching 
itself boia. the mountain heights divides the sheltered 
. haven of Lamlash from the beautiful bay of Brodick. 
The latter is sheltered from the northern blasts by 
Ooatfell, which rears itself to a height of 2,863 feet, 
■with sides seamed over with numerous glens, of great 
depth and beaaty. From Brodick to Loch-Ranza, on 
the opposite side of the island, the finest scenery is to be 
found; the other parte being less wild and romantia 

Bound the greater part of the island of Arnm 
a broad gravelly beach and verdant bank has been 
formed by the action of the ocean-wave, and the debris 
brought down from the Alpine be^hts. Arran as an 
island is characterised by bold and nigged peaks, the 

40 SCOTLAND [Armn. 

smnmito being nsiially conical in shape, the vast group 
appearing to be connected by rocky ridge& These stu- 
pendous piles are furrowed with ravinea of yaat depth, 
walled in by precipices of immense height, and here 
and there overhung by massea of rock; yet at the 
openinga of the numerous glene, through which the 
moQntaiii toireuts force theii way, the stripea of soil 
which gamieh theii banks are rich and ft^tila The 
beauty of the landscape, which the first view of Brodick 
bay presents, has been admired by the tourist; the head 
of the sweet bay presenting a sheltered valley, with 
sward so green, houses neat, fields fertile, and the trees 
beautifully grouped. There are few mountain heights 
in Scotland so strikingly conspicnous as Goatfell, in 
Airan, view it fiom what point you will; and few 
Alpine isnges are so high, can be more readily climbed, 
or will moie richly rewtud the tourist for his labour. 
Goatfell shows to great advantage, being so near the 
ocean level that its vast bulk fills the ^e and impiesBes 
the mind of the tourist. 

The labour of the ascent to the summit of Goatfell is 
not arduous; there is no danger in the tafi — ^the track 
much travelled. Passing the patches of cultivated land, 
and climbing the wooded heights above the ancient caatle 
of Brodick, a long tract of heath and moss is traversed 
ere the base of ' the mountain of the wind' is reached. 
From the summit of Goatfell, the heights of Cumber- 
land, the hills of Ireland, and the sea of mountains 
which cover Scotland are seen; the whole expanse of 
the broad rivei and wide frith of the noble Clyde lies 
map-like under the eye; while the lochs which indent 
its romantic shores, or wind their way among the High- 
land mountains, look thread-like in dimensions; the low 
sandy shoi'es of fertile Ayrshire and the greeu hilla of 
Beufrewshire spread wide in the distance around. The 
view embraces the Cumhraes, the island of Bute, the 

Amai.] DESCEIBEI). 41 

mountains of Cowal, the eipanee of Looh-Fyne, the 
Papa of Jura, the hills of Kaapdale and Cautjre, the 
Craig of Ailsa, the coast of Ireland, the shores of Gal- 
loway and Ayishire, fonning a picture of great beauty. 

The flanks of the mountains in Arran seem baro, 
showing here and there a patch of heathy surface from 
which protrude blocks of granite; while on every side 
chasms, deep and gloomy, yawn around, barren of ver- 
dure, having their solitudee alone diatuihed by the fury 
of the mountaon torrent or the sweep of the tempest, 
which sui^e down the dark laviues or career around 
the rugged steeps. Ifear the summit of these moun- 
tains are found huge blocks of granite strewed over the 
surface, detached, isolated, and apparently laid bare by 
the rain, which, oozing between the veins of the rock, 
gradualty form fissuree in the mountain sides. The 
feezing of the water thus collected, when expanding 
into ice, will rend the solid rocks asunder, and, in the 
course of ages, may have thus strewed around the sur- 
fitce, as detached blocks, what might before have formed 
one mass of stone. These gigantic rocks, thus splintered 
off layer by layer, get gradually rounded, the scant soil 
being worn off hy the action of the elements, and the rush 
of waters showered from the clouds, sometimes in de- 
structive waterspouts, among such Alpine heights, in 
the course of time roll down the mountain, and hence 
the summit gradually becomes of lower leveL 

Descending Goatfell by its steep shoulder southwards, 
and neer the head of the hoUow where the slope is less 
severe, a mass of granite about 14 inches thick, and in 
form a parallelogram, is found laid in a horizontal posi- 
tion, resting near ita angles on pillars of stone, but 
raised so high above the heathery surface that many 
men might find shelt«r under its roof-like breadth. To 
the westward of Brodick Castle, Glen-Shant, the valley 
of enchantment, extends from the head of the bay, and 
L,-., Google 

43 SCOTLAND [Arran. 

IB nearly a mile sqnarg. Beyond thia valley, Glen-BoBa 
opens out for about five miles to the north-weet; and 
a little further west, Glen-Shin^ etietches across the 
ifilsnd, and affords means of passage to the opposite 
coast. A hilly ridge sepaiates Glens Sosa and Shiiag, 
and the streams which flow through these deep hollows 
unite near the mouth of the latter glen, and sweeping 
towards the sea-beach, afford a haven for the fishermen. 
Brodick, the ' gentle rising hill, ' forms the ridge divid- 
ing Glen-Cloy from Glen-Shirag, the former glen run- 
ning west for nearly three miles ^m the southern head 
of the bay of Brodick, by an average breadth of a mile, 
and is comparatively level and cultivated; while the 
character of the Cloy, the mountain torrent which gives 
name to the glen, is shown by the channelled courses 
its impetuous waters have, in various places, Icooped 
out for themselves in the glen. Crowning an elevated 
bank in Glen-Cloy, the vestiges of a regular fortress can 
be &intly traced. Glen-Cloy is encircled by hills to 
the north and north-west; and beyond, where it be- 
comes narrow, exteflda the dark vale of Glen-I>hu, 
which, after a length of nearly two miles, terminate 
in a corry or hollow, surrounded by isolated heath- 
covered rocka, through which the streams force their 
way, and, in some places, their waters form cascades, of 
no great size but of very great beauty, 

Near Bivdick the mountains have terraced slopes of 
land, over which torrents roll their troubled waters 
through the ravines, whose sides are clothed with cop- 
pice-wood, which lend beauty to the otherwise rugged 
landscape. From Corrie to Sannox is little more than 
a couple of miles northward. The hills are covered 
with copsewood; while here and there are stretches of 
land marking where the sea, when it flowed over these 
mai^:iiia, may have formed bays, with numerous caverns 
on the hillsides scooped out by action of ^e waves. 

Arrm.] DESCRIBED. 43 

If Glen-Kosa be, as natives affirm, ' the bonniest glen 
in the island,' strangers think Glen-Sannox the grand- 
esi M'Culloch declares it to possess ' the sublime of 
magnitade, simplicity, and obscitrity, and that per- 
petual silence appeared to reign there; even at mid-day 
a gloomy and grey atmosphere united into one visible sorb 
of obscurity, the only lighta which the objects receiTe 
being reflected from rock to rock, and from the doads 
which so often involve the lofty boundaries of the val- 
ley.' In Glen-Sannox a manufactory of barytas, largely 
used by the potter, has long been in success^ opera- 
tion. Descending from Glen-Sannox, the touiiBt will 
find the banks of the stream well cultivated. The 
carriage-way, which, from Brodick by Corrie to Sannox 
water, kept close by the beach, there strikes inland and 
aciosa the valley-like formation of the island to Loch- 
Banza on the northern shor& The track, shorewards, 
by the Fallen Bocks, L^antnin Point, the Cock of 
Anan, Scriden, and Newton Point has more attractions 
to the geologist than to the tourist, as to many of the 
latter the way might prove perilous. 

Two miles from Gloa-Sannox aie found ' the Fallen 
Rocks,' a vast mass of sandstone which overhnng the 
beach having avalanched downwards, and broke in the 
descent; and now the mountain slope and the beach of 
the sea aie spread over with these rocks so 'confusedly 
burled,' as may well strike the most waiy walker lest 
this wreck of nature be again repeated, and he be 
buried in its wild descent. The path trends under the 
precipitous cliffs ami along the gieen track which nar- 
rowly skirts the deep waters as the Scriden rocks sn 
approached, and near them ia a mass of sandstone upon 
the beach, resting upon a narrow base, forming, from its 
position, a landmark for the mariner, and named the 
Cock of Airan. Proceeding northwards, the track is 
kept with difficulty, from the heaps of granite blocks. 

44 SCOTLAKD [Arran. 

the Scriden rocks, which, encumbering the shore, are 
said, a century ofp, to have been detached from the 
mountain sides by the waters pent within their bowels, 
whose presence is still shown by the numerous peren- 
nial Bprings which well out from, their sides,— to the 
eastward in particular, it being remarked that the crust 
of the rock on that side is comparatively thin. The 
concussion which attended the fall of these vast masses 
of rook, is said to have shaken the island of Bute and 
resounded through the coasts of Aigyleshire. The 
beetling rocks of Scriden threaten still further devas- 
tation, as they impend over the shore at an angle of 
forty-five degrees ; and to those climbing the mountain 
sides, loose piles of atone will be found perched on 
those below them, threatening to crush the tourist ap- 
proaching these steeps. From the Scriden rocke the 
track leads westward by the base of Benleven, until 
the shore of Loch-Hanza is gained. 

The roads in Arran are so narrow, that it often hap- 
pens that where most danger is there is scarce room for 
one vehicle to pass another; such is it in the long de- 
scent towards Loch-Eanza— one unbroken line of nearly 
a couple of miles, and so stra^ht is the road Uiat ' the 
ffur* loch is seen through the whole extentof the fineglen. 
Glen-Banza is sorrounded by mountains of great height, 
whose gloomy grandeur is softened by the clumps of 
natural wood with which their lower slopes aie adorned. 
At the top of the glen, a mountain, cdled Tomaneid- 
noin, stands boldly out, and near it are cUfb of im- 
mense he^ht. On one side they form a precipice of 
one thonsand feet in depth, through whidi a torrent 
flows, forming a deep dark chasm. Looking from the 
sommit of the mountain towards the broken outlined 
heights of Goatfell, the intervening apace presents pic- 
tures of gloom and savage grandeur; and the hdght 
bong little less than that of Goatfell, the view to-eveiy 
L,.,, Google 

Amm.] DESCEIBED. 45 

point of the cotnpasH is one of immense extent and eur- 
paesing beauty — varied in character and rich in detail; 
and though similar to what ia eeen from the summit 
of Goatfell, the eye of the tourist will roam over the 
vast amphitheatre with unsated pleasure. On the pin- 
nacle of the mountain which overlooks this grand view, 
a quadrangular tower of Kature's own formation is seen, 
composed of immense slabs of granite of considerable 
thickness, laid horizontally. While it will try the head 
to gaze down- the dark mountain hollows from that 
dizzy htaght, the look upward ia grand. On the west- 
em side of the fine conical hill of Tomaneidnoin may 
be seen the celebrated junction of granite and schist 
to which geologiata give its name. 

The hamlet of Loch-Banza ia small, contains a paro- 
chial chapel, with service at intervals ; a school-house, in 
the house connected with which good summOT quarters 
niaybefound—*-the inn alflo is comfortable. Loch-Eanza 
stretches inland nearly a mile, by a breadth varying from 
a-half to a whole mile, and affords safe shelter to vessels, 
but only when the wind blows seaward. Near the head 
of this loch a green peninsula stretches forward from 
its northern bemk, forming within its shelter a basin 
of limited dimensions but great depth. Upon the ex- 
tremity of this peninsula appear the ruins of a castle, 
aaid to have been a hunting-seat of Robert the Bruce. 
The district of Loch-Eanza ia one of much beauty, the 
hamlet is sheltered from the storms of winter by the 
lofty heights which encircle the loch. 

llie portion of the island of Arran, stretching 
from Loch-Eanza to Brodick Bay, is interesting to the 
geologist, containing the principal phenomena of all 
its formations; yet the walk westward, from Loch- 
Eanza to the h&y of Catacol, is of singular beauty and 
interest, the eliifs which line the shore being pictur- 
esque, beautifully wooded, and frequently perforated 

46 SCOTLAND [Arran. 

vith caves and dark clefts; while the strip of soil -which 
stretches seaward from their base is evidently an ancient 
beach, almost as baie of soil and full of etouee as the 
modem shore. Tet is the verdure of these patches 
eztraoTdinary, and the turf elastic, soft, and smooth, as 
if it had been such as it now appears to be before 
the flood. The bay of Catacol is not deep, bat the 
glen is considerably so; and those tourists who can 
spare the time are counselled to traverse it, and climb 
the mountain steeps beyoD(^ where, in the silent re- 
cesses of Beiun Mhorrioun, they will find the most 
picturesque of aU the locha in Artan, situated deep in 
the Corrie-au-Lachan, where, save the heath on it« 
margin, scarce a trace of vegetation will be found on 
the hills which encircle it; and rarely do the blasts 
from the mountains stir the deep and dark waters, from 
whose verge tower hills formed of vast granite Uocks, 
contrasting strangely with rochs which the geologist 
may see to be rapidly crumbling away. 

Beyond Catacol bum the traveller will find that the 
road becomes gradually vorae, more hilly, but not less 
picturesque, in respect that ere long it leads through 
deep cuttings, the massy blocks on the left threatening 
to come down on the traveller, as might have done 
the millions of blocks and boulders which so wildly 
strew the shore which lies sheer helow him. The 
road which has, till near Whitefarland Point, kept by 
the shore, there strikes inland, and does not improve 
in comfort for the pedestrian, the equestH-ian, oi the 
conveyed; for the latter it becomes scarcely practicable, 
being led, if not through a qnagmiie, over the rock, 
where, if the one wheel finds a rut, the other wheel 
must trundle over a boulder. 

Pursuing this track, the inn of Imachar is reached, 

and, if but to learn the way, the pedestrian may 

there ' bill his bawbees for a ^.' From Imachar the 

L,.,, Google 

Armn.] DESCRIBED. i7 

roadway descends to the ebore. Fiom thu point to 
loisa river, the line of Bea-cliffs rises at some distance 
tcoro the beach, and nearly as far as was the projecting 
diTcrgence of the blufT on which the clschan of White- 
&rland stood; and, as the neighhouihood of ' the Lodge 
of Dngarry' is approached, the culture of the fields im- 
proves. The cliffs which line tbe shores of Arran, from 
!&x)dick to near tbe lorsa, come there to a tenuinatioii, 
the aspect of the country becoming different, as the 
hills lie £irtheT inland, the plains are comparatiTely 
extensive, arable, and, where otherwise, yield good pas- 
tare; and the shore line, some miles westward, becomes 
bold. The natural wood which, eastward of Dngarry, 
clothed the sea-clifb, as that shooting-lodge is neaied, 
becomes loet in the belts of plantii^ which, if as use- 
ful, are &i from being so beautiful; as certainly are not 
the diy stone walls which protect them from the in- 
roads of the cattle. Dugarry LoAge has been built on 
the western slope of tbe green hill which recedes &om 
the banks of the lorsa, and is almoat'hid from view of 
the tourist seeking it from the eastward. 
. Between Loch-Banza and the Blackwater, a distance 
of many miles, no stone bridges exist — one or two petty 
ones over drains excepted — the traveller being ex- 
pected to find his way over the streams by stepping- 
stones, and, if the water be running ' from bimk to 
brae,' to sit down till it settle. Where bridges exist — 
as at the lorsa, the Mauchrie, and the Blackwater — 
they are of wood for pedestrians. From the Mauchrie 
inland, and eastward by the course of the Blackwater, 
the district is alluvial, the husbandry respectable, and 
the population considerable. On crossing the plain the 
road is gained, which leads by the 'String' across the 
island to Brodick, and is the route by which the tourist 
ordinarily reaches the King's Caves, which ore the chief 
attraction of the north-western side of Arran. 

L,.,, Google 

48 SCOTLAKD [Arran. 

On crossmg the river Mauchrie, a good road on the 
right leads to the village of Shiekin, but the path for 
the pedestrian lies to the left across fields, and near to 
a group of farm-houses known as the Tonnor; and be- 
yond them rises the King's Hill, inland of which opens 
out the King's Care, so named, because Itobert the 
Bruce found shelter there while he lay concealed in 
Airan, prior to his assault on the castle of Brodick, 
and descent on the shore of Tumberry in Ayrshire. 
The cave appears to have been scooped otit of the 
rocky face of hills which extend in a semicircle from 
the bold headland near Tormor to the columnar-faced 
pTOmontory_ofDromodhuine. The cave specially known 
as the King's may be 100 feet in length, 60 where high- 
est, and at the entruice about 30 is width. Entering 
the cave, two prolongations appear beyond Ha pillar- 
like termination, that to the left being of no great 
depth, but that to the right leading inland — tradition 
sayeth miles onward, to iJie base of a bill where of old 
stood a Druid circle. 

The walk by the shore from the King's Cave to the 
Dromodhuine rocks is beautiful. As the cliffii ext«nd 
to the right, to the left lies the ocean, and by it are 
strewed masses of rocks of varied shape, vast size, and 
some BO fancifiilly placed as if the hand of man had 
been at labour there. Beyond Dromodhuine bay, the 
Blackwater river flows into the Sound of Kilbrandoii; 
and its outlet is emicbed with one of the few artificial 
harbours that Arran can boast of. At Blackwater-foot 
there is an inn, of no great size but considerable com- 
fort. Cutting across the country by a side path of half 
a mile, the pedestrian will find himself on a good road, 
with stone brieves, being that which leads from Brodick 
— by Shiskin, Blackwater, and Lag — to Lamlash, and 
ia the route parties take who explore Anan from a car, 
and such are numerous in summer. 

Arran.] DESCRIBED. 49 

Leaving the fertile valley of Shiekin, the road winds 
roond the face of a dark brown heathery mountain, 
which is thickly ettewn over with round boulder-Uke 
atones, which might with small trouble he trundled 
downwards to the ocean below. The shore of Cantyre 
and the pretty loch of Campbeltown are well seen when 
rounding these brown hilla ; and, if beheld when the 
Augnst eim sinks beyond them into the Atlantic, they 
^na a scene of beauty, the like of which can rarely be 
looked upon. On reaching what is popularly known as 
the south, but which appears to he the west, end of 
Arran, the Mull of Cantyre comes into view, and south- 
ward rises the Craig of AUsa. Below the hiUs en- 
circling the south-west«m extremity of Arran there is 
a considerable reach of land, apparently fertile and 
settled, but of difficult access, the heights being steep 
and the descent long. Off these shores there is a natural 
harhoni; and one of the most curious objects on the 
coast are two loi^ dykes, one of them very thick, form- 
ing its boundaries to east and west, wlule a smaller 
dyke extends across in part, as if it were a jetty, for 
sheltering vessels from the waves, yet leaving a wide 
entry, while a lai^er dyke fonns a natural quay. 

Between the Blackwater and the river Sliddeiy, near 
the south end, scarce a streamlet crosses the road, the 
entire drainage appearing to flow southwards. The 
hamlet of Lag will afford comfortable accommodation 
to the tourist. From the southern base of the Brown 
Hills, by the wooded banks of the Sliddeiy, the 
opening of Scotdale, the pretty hamlet of Lag, and the 
course of the Torlin water, the fields ar* ftrtile, and the 
road is enclosed by hedgerows. The shorter route from 
Lag to I^mlash lies inland, by a good road, but through 
a moorland district; whereas the beauties of Arran lie 
near its shores, and the coast road, if more hard to 
travel, yields more pleasoie in tracing the features of the 
D ,Goo>;Ic 

50 SCOTLAIO) [Arran. 

island. A ehort way from Kilmorey kirk, and juat be- 
fore reaching the Struey cliffs, an immense excavation 
is fotmd scooped out by the vavee called ' the Slack 
Cave,' the dimensions of which are about forty feet in 
width, eighty in height, and upwards of one hundred 
and sixty in length — the sides being formed of basaltic 
pillars; while near the inner extremity is a laige opening. 
On the left rise the Struey rocks, a range of precipitooa 
cliffs, four or five hundred foet in height, formed of ba- 
saltic columns, pentf^onal in shape, and deeply fissured. 
The plain of Kildonan extends well inland, while 
eastward of the Struey rocks, and near the sea-beach, 
appear the niina of the ancient castle of that name, 
once of considerable importance. Southward from the 
plain of Kildonan is the beautiful vale of Auchinheu, 
extending inland to the base of the lofty hill of Knockle- 
carlieu. The harbour formed at Kildonan ia of interest, 
as, on the south side, it is like a plain little below high- 
water mark, which, when the tide has receded, displays 
a mosaic-like bottom, seamed over with cracks; numer- 
ous figures aie formed, pentagonal in appearance, and 
where the ocean-wave has cut into the plain, the strata 
appear similar to the basaltic ranges of low columns 
which, so often spHt down into the low terrace slopes, 
are characteristic of the island. Following the course 
of the Essimore Fall through the remantic glen to 
near t^e source, a cascade is reached, flowing into a 
dark ravine, and exposing to view the strata of the 
minerals forming its banks, in some places three hun- 
dred feet high. The Fall of Essimore is more than one 
hundred feet in sheer depth; and the torrent, preci- 
pitated over the whinstone rock on the less hard for- 
mations below, scoops out for itself a course down the 
deep glen, evincing its force by the masses of rook 
which, undermined by its current lie scattered over the 
channel. The refraction of the rays of l^bt, by the 
L,-., Google 

Arran.] DESCRIBED. 51 

cloud of Bpray flung from the cascade of Esaimore, pro- 
ducea rainbow-like appearances of surpaasing Iwauty, 
floating over the dark chasm belov, and gilding yniii 
brightness the romantic scenery. 

Hear Whiting Bay, a promontory of great height and 
remarkable appearance stretches into tl^ sea, formed 
of tanges of basaltic columns, known as the Dripping 
rocks, rising perpendicularly nearly three hundred feet. 
At one point a curious natural arch appears as if de- 
tached from the rocks, while the waters above have 
made a narrow aperture through which the stream is 
projected^ and when the bum has become swollen; a 
fine cascade is formed, throwing a flood of water far 
beyond the base of the lofty rocks, forming an arch of 
whitened spray. Whiting Bay is the name of the dis- 
trict between ' the Dripping rocks' and the' opening 
into the bay of Lamlaah, and has been so named from 
the excellent fishings on that shore. The glen through 
which runs the carriage-way te lAmlash is attractive; 
and singularly so is the view the tourist gains when, 
crossing the height above, he pauses to survey the 
prospect which, looking forward, is seen to streteh by 
Lamlash and Brodick to the sound of But«, the Cum- 
biae isles, and the heights of Cowal; or, looking back- 
ward, down the Frith of Clyde by Ayrshire and Ailsa 
*to Loch-Byan, with the glens and mountains of Arran, 
and the Holy Isle below them. 

By the road from Whiting Bay, which is a good one, 
the descent towards Lamlash is rapid but prolonged, as 
it skirtfi the hillside till the bridge is gained by which 
the river flowing from Moneymore Glen may be crossed, 
and the plain gained, which extends towards Gten- 
Alaster and forms a fine piece of land of great fertility. 
The view of the bay, the plain, the hamlet, and the 
pier is a lovely one, as witnessed when approaching 
from the south, and improves when the smait little 

52 SCOTLAND [Ayr. 

village ie reaclied. There is a pretty track over the 
shoulder of the hill from Lamlash to Brodick shore ; 
and the route taken by the steamer is interesting and 
varied m beauty, as it sweeps round by Clauchland 
Point, Dun-Fioun, Dun-Dubh, the Comegill Point, to 
Springbank, the hamlet of Invcrcloy, and the bay of 
Brodick; and whether by land or water, the pedestnan 
or sailor will find pleasure in Burveying it. 

A recent topographer, professedly abridging from for- 
mer writers, report* that, while Bute is low and green, 
Arran is lofty and brown, the mountain heights being 
extremely symmetrical, but serrated in outline — a, line 
drawn from Brodick to "Whitefarland dividing the 
island into nearly equal sections, the northern being a 
central mass of granite, bounded westward by a kind of 
mica slate, and eastward by one of clay slate, covered in 
part by sandstone. The south is of sandstone, over- 
laid by clayatone, porphyry, and other trap rocks, 
bared only on the coast and in the glens, numerous 
trap veins penetrating the sandstone, and pitchstone 
being frequently found. The granite being prismatic 
at Catacol, or cuboidal at Glen-Sannox, decomposing 
in their lamins, or exfoliating in concentric crusts, 
presenting several varieties both in composition and 
structure, containii^ little mica, few crystals of home- 
blende, the finer grains being met with on the west, ' 
the coarser on the east shore. The trap rock overlying 
the sandstone is principally claystone, pale yellow, 
brown, or lead brown in colour, but sometiioes dark 
blue or basalt, beii^ also massive, columnar, or schis- 
tose, and sometimes passing into homatone, compact 
felspar, or felspar porphyry. 

Atb is the chief town in the shire of that name, 
near where the river Ayr flows into the Frith of Clyde. 
Its harbour, mainly formed by two piers, la sufficient to 

Ayr.] DESCRIBED. 63 

have BteAmers to Glasgow in eninmeT, to Campbeltown 
and Sttfturaei throughout the year, and veeaels for the 
export of the minerals raised in the immediate district. 
Ayr, which had a name when the Bomans occupied 
the country, haa its burghal charter from William the 
Lion, dated 1202, and granted 'at my New Caatle upon 
Are,' built some five years before, which conferred 
privileges still enjoyed by the burghers. In the war 
of independence, Edward I. of England had a strong 
garrison here, and its destruction at the ' Bama of Ayr' 
. is one of the notable exploits of the Wallace Wight, 
whose relatives were of the district. In the old church 
of the Blackfriars, within the ancient citadel, part of 
the tower of which still remains, the Parliament of 
Scotland met, April 26, 1315, and settled the succession 
to the Crown on Edward Bruce, who fell in battle at 
Dundalk, on 5th October, 1318. Cromwell also took 
possession of the old church, and, enlarging the area, 
formed a citadel there. Centuries ago, when Glasgow 
was scarcely known, the merchants of Ayr pushed a 
laige trade with France, exchanging salmon and com 
for wines, &c. 

The society in Ayr is excellent; and its environs are, 
year by year, becoming lai^ely extended by villas, 
prettily placed and handsomely built. The beach at 
hand is good; the race-ground is well patronised; and 
the circuit and county courts bring balls for the dowager 
ladies and the beauties they chaperon; Ayr, in the words 
of her own favourite bard, being femed ' for honest men 
and bonnie lasses.' Connected by railway from Glas- 
gow, Ardrossan, Girvan, and Kilmarnock, access to and 
&om it is frequent, and the traffic such as to make tares 
moderate — the South-Westem Eailway being one of the 
first opened and most prosperous of the lines in the west 
of Scotland; and plans are in progress to make a line 
direct via Douglas to Edinburgh, shortening the distance 
L,-., Google 

5i SCOTLAHD [BcUlachulish. 

hy about one-third, and openii^ up the ATishiie coast 
to the natiTes of the Upper Ward of LanarkBliiie. 
Ayrshiro being an estenatve, fertile, and populous 
county, renders the burgh of Ayr an excellent market 
town; and as such, there is no lack of ' accommodation 
for man or beast;' neither will the toorist find it hard 
to be well cared iot, as the hotel iu the t"»'" street and 
at the bridge are both good. ' Brown Cairick Hill' on 
the south ahelteiB the town ; while ' the Heads of Ayr,' 
eeawaid, moderate the gales &om the west — Atran liea 
to the north, and the natives allege that, in a clear day, 
the outline of the coast of Ireland can be deecrled. 

Ballachulibh and Glencoe. — 'Oban to Glencoe, 
about SIX o'clock, on the momingB of Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday,' has been for years past one of the 
advertisements for the tourist The route northwards 
by Dunolly, Dunstaffnage, Loch-Etive, Lismore, Caatle- 
Stalker, Appin, and Ardsheal, to where Loch-LeTen 
flows into the Linnbe Locb, is one of no ordinaiy 
attraction. From Kiuloch More ou the eastward, 
where the Serpent river flows into the loch, and hard 
by the wild bridle-path, from the Black Mount to 
Fort-William, known as 'the Devil's Staircase,' to the 
recently erected pier on the south-west extremity of 
Loch-Leven, is about 10 miles; then northwards, to 
the Point of Onich, may be a breadth of 3 miles; but 
between the hotels on either side, the channel little 
exceeds halta-mile, and at certain states of the tide 
the flood comeB down like a mill-stream, causing the 
boatmea to hug the shore and then shoot across the 
current The channel ia deep, but the row-boats are 
good, and the boatmen experienced; the fare l^ht — 
and where silver is oflbred, coppers are kept back. 

The fine estate of Ballachulish, in Aigyleahiie, was, 
a few years ago, acquired by Mr. Xennant, who has 
L,-., Google 

BaUathiduh.] DESCRIBED. 65 

expended largely aad well in improTing it for the 
tourist, in maiiiig the roada good, and replacing the old 
inn hy a hot«l, which, in elevation, accommodation, 
and situation, will compare lavouiably with any house 
north of the Tweed Such are it« comforta, that where 
tODiists who used to pass on their way oi from Glencoe, 
now tarry — 'if they can find room,' At times, in the 
season, when all is blight and quiet, the steamer may 
send ashore a conple of hundred passengers; but when 
stormy they may not exceed a score. For the crowd, 
conveyances are found of every size, sort, and shape, but 
all are sent on to the Glen or further — the ' Colonel,' 
the ' head-centre' of travel in the district, being 'always 
on dnty,' and the horses many, fit for any sort of work, 
harnessed, and at hand. The coach which starts south' 
wards for Loch-Lomond, leading the way, the cortege 
moves on along the picturesque bank of Loch-Leven, 
the mountains on the right being lofty, but green and 
wooded to the water's edge; while ttiose on the left, 
across the loch and in the shire of Inverness, ai« less 
so, there being a wide extent of moss between them 
and Loch-Leven. On the north bank of Loch-Leven 
is anothra hotel, recently rebuilt, with excellent accom- 
modation, and where those whom 'the comely landlady' 
on the south cannot look to, the attentive landlord on 
the north will care well for, or send on by conveyance to 
FortrWiliiam, fourteen miles off. The slate quarries of 
BaUachulish are extensive, and great is the improvement 
made upon them of late; while whole rows of houses have 
been erected, with all due care as to drainage, ventilation, 
light, and accommodation. In the village there is a 
branch of one of the Scotch banks, and the villagers 
have a mechanics' institution, mstual improvement 
cl&sses, &c All honour to their energetic employer. 

Toweringhigh above all interveningobjects ia the 'Pap 
of Glenooe,'and conspicuous in that it risessfaeer from the 
L,-., Google 

56 SCOTLAND [Banaekidish. 

loch,aeifsentmelliiigthewilddi8trict. Crossing the river 
Coe, s road leads, through an avenue of pretty trees, 
onwards by the hank for a short hut not heavy stage, 
when horses are changed by the coach going to Loch- 
Lomond, the Bteq> ascent is entered upon, sjid the glen, 
in 'all its gloom and grandeur,' ia approached. The 
mountains to the right and left are rugged; and, from 
the &l)led era of Ossisa downwards, have heen noted as 
possessing attractions unequalled, and that apart from 
the sad story of the Massacre — a tale so often told as 
scarce to need repeating here, as in all its incidents the 
drivers and guards will be found well versed. When 
two-thirds up the glen, a place is found where it is 
practicable to turn the carriages, and there those going 
back to the steamer at Ballachulish dismotmt, walk 
onward, and at leisure explore the upper glen. 

The deep valley of Gleneoe is impressive always, but 
shows best when the shifting clouds roll over the 
mountain range, and cast their shadows athwart the 
deep water-courses which seam the Alpine heights ; and 
if a heavy shower comes down, it but swells the tor- 
rents which fling themselves into the water-course, 
that, far below the road, finds its way by many a 
cascade into the quiet loch, Treachtam, whence issues 
the Coe — the Cona of Ossian, who, tradition states, 
■was a native of the glen, and whose cave, bath, dress- 
ing-room, &c. the guides will indicate on the mountain 
slopes of Gleneoe! Basil Hall placed on record that, 'as 
a piece of perfectly wild mountain scenery Gleneoe has 
no superior that 1 know of. In the Alps there are many 
ravines and valleys immensely larger, but I am not 
aware of any which has higher claims to attention in 
all that relates to the fantastical disposition of barren 
rocks of great magnitude, tossed indiscriminately about 
by the hand of Nature.' Gleneoe is in the parish of 
Lismore and Appin, which, from the south-west end of 

Bcdlaier.] DESCRIBED. B7 

Lismore to Kinlocli'beg, in the eaat of Appin, ia 63 
milee long, by 10 and in some places 16 milea bioad. 
[Gleneoe will be found further noticed when the route 
through Glenorchy cornea under review.] 

Ballatbr, on the upper coioree of the river Dee, ia 
within eleven milea of Charleetown-Aboyne, the pre- 
sent western terminus of the railway from Aberdeen. 
It ia about eight miles east of Balmoral Caatle, and 
eighteen from Braemar; coaches, well appointed, ninning 
from it eaat and weat. The Tillage ia finely placed ; the 
walks and drives attractive; and the hotel acconuoodtt- 
tion for the tourist superior. For the valetudinarian, 
the Spa of Pannanich, on the other aide of the Dee, at 
no great diatauce, and there and at Ballater quarters 
may be found. At Ballatrich, below Pannanicl^ is the 
cottage where Byron apent some years of his early youth; 
and the 'Dee's rushmg tide,' 'Morven of anow," the 
' lofty Culbeen,' and the 'dark Loch-na-Gar,' have been 
the themes of hia muae. The approach from the east, 
throi^h ' the mooi of Dinnet,' ia bleak; but when the 
viUi^e of Ballater comee in view, all is ami ling, — and 
promiaing as it is at a distance, tJie width of the way 
or atreet, extreme neatness of the houses, and tidiness 
of all about, give it thoroughly the look of a place 
where health should be found. The bridge across the 
Dee is of wood, the former stone erections having been 
swept away in the floods of 1783 and 1829. 

Monaltrie Lodge atands in a park north of the village, 
and behind it rises the wooded rock of Craigdarroch, 
800 feet above the plain at ite base, between which 
and the adjacent mountain runs the old road, known 
as the ' Paas of Ballater;' and when such was the only 
route to Braemar, it was well nigh impregnable. !Now 
the broad highway sweeps round southward of Monal- 
trie, across the Dee for Abergeldie and Balmoral, or on 
L,-., Google 

58 SCOTLAND [Balmoral. 

the nortli aide of the river for Ciathie and Biaemar, 
Since 1848, when a somnier home by the 'Dee's nish- 
ing tide' whs chosen by Eoyalty, the district has become 
^ckly studded with pret^ places of abode, which let 
well, and the fair occupants of which are reported to be 
exodlent anglers, as ladies oflen are — for partners, if 
not for troat The old Castle of Ejiock, across the Dee, 
looks well; and the waUcs, bridle-paths, and drives are 
many, and thronged in the season. 

Balmoral, the Highland home of the Boyal Family, 
is about eqni-distant (9 miles) between Ballater, on the 
Dee, and Charleatown, Biaemai. In summer, coaches 
throng the road — hired ones chiefly; end it might throw 
light on the progress of the district could the rents 
paid for the tolls east and west of Crathie, for 1848 
and 1866, be ascertained. A road leads by the south- 
em bank of the Dee to Balmoral, which used to continue 
onwards to Invercauld; but of late years the portion 
west of the Eojal domain has been closed to the public, 
that the deer in the forest of Ballochbuic might not be 
disturbed, the pryii^ public be kept in theii own place, 
and the grounds near Balmoral be the more secluded. 
By the highway noriJi of the Dee the views ate- through- 
out varied and beautiful — the strath, of no great breadth, 
with the rapid river flowing through it and the dark 
mountain masses rising above it — Specially the classic 
he^ht of Loch-na-Gar, which can be scaled, and the 
view £rom whose summit well repays the labour of the 
ascent. The ' Crook on the Dee,' the holm or level 
space by the river side, is of considerable extent at 
Balmoral, and full advantage has been taken to show 
it in all its beauties, the natural wood on the level and 
clothing tlie hills showing finely with the noble pile 
which the late Prince Consort rtused there. 

YiewB of the Castle are so familiar that little descrip- 
L,-., Google 

Balquidder.] DESCfilBED. 89 

tiou may be needed here. It is approached from the 
norUi by a bridge across the Dee, and near the gate- 
v&y are pretty cottages, built for the occupation of the 
peasantry employed in the grounds or for pensioners 
on theii Koyal Mistress's bounty, and, as might be looked 
for, ail is in excellent order, Balmoral consista of two 
blocks of boildings, connected by wings; with a tower, 
thirty-five feet square, eighty in height, crowned by a 
turret twenty feet higher, and commanding the fineet 
of views. The Eoyai department occupies three sides 
of the qoadiangle — north, south, and west; the entrance 
being by a porch on the south. The stones, which were 
quarried close by, are of pure granite and well wrought. 
The apartments are plainly but richly furnished, the 
Victoria and Stuart tartan ooverii^ tiie couches, &c. 
The parish church of Crathie, across the river, is large, 
and when the Queen is expected the coi^regation is 
a iiill one. Abergeldie Castle, the summer home of the 
Prince of Wales, in situation and attraction vice well 
with the Palace of Bahnoial. 

BiLQUiDDER. — ^The ' Braes of Ealquidder' are in the 
most picturesque portion of the county of Perth, on the 
high road from Callander for Killin, and althoi^h a 
little westward of the coach route, merit attention. 
When Loch-Lubnaig is passed, and Strath-Ire left be- 
hind, the snug wayside inn of King's House is reached, 
about three-fourths of the way between Callander and 
Loch-£amhead; and, directly in front, a road leads off 
to the west, passing on the left an enclosed burial- 
place, well wooded, and where are laid the Macgregor 
chiefs of the district. On the right, a abort way fur- 
ther, is the kirk-yard of the parish — the old kirk in 
ruins, but a new one erected; and near the gateway 
are three flat sculptured stones, marking the place 
where Bob Boy Macgregor lies at rest His deeds, half 
L,-., Google 

60 SCOTLAND [Banf. 

&biilous or otherwise, have made -the cateran leader 
more tamouB by half tlian the head of the clan he be- 
longed to; and maayo touriat pauaea to viait the grave 
of the buried outlaw. Of the three atones covering 
the grave, that with the aword is alleged to mark the 
burial-place of his wife Helen, whom the novelist has 
represented to be maaculina enough; the stone on the 
other side ia that of Colin, the eldest son; and between, 
these two is a stone sculptured, but without inscription, 
under which lies the body of Eob Eoy. 

Although Bob Eoy, hia wife, and son are interred at 
Balquidder, the burial-place of the clan was at Loch- 
Caillach, one of the many islands in Loch-Lomond; but 
with Balquidder Hie Macgregor had many feudal rela- 
tions, and, if the tale be true, there they vowed to stand 
true to each other 'come weal, come woe,' when theb 
chief of 1587 assumed all the responsibility of the 
slaughter of Drummond Emock, as related in ttie intro- 
duction to the ' L^end of Montrosa' At the village, 
there is a ' chango-houae' where whisky can be bad; 
and near it is the river Balvaig, by which Loch-Voil is 
diacharged into Loch-Lubnaig — Loeb-lJoine, like upper 
and lower Loch-Ard, having but a patch of land to se- 
parate them ; while together they arenearly five milea in 
length, and deep, dark, and overshadowed by the braes 
on north and south. Benm.ore, rising amongst them, 
is a vast irregular pyramid, 3,944 feet in height. The 
pedestrian tourist may find a pleasant path southward 
by Glenbuckie, and onwards to Glenman and Glen- 
finlasa, the Brig of Turk, or the Trossachs; the route 
is to follow the waternMurses both upward and down- 
ward, and the track is one of much beauty. 

Banff, Poktboy, Cullbn. — Banff, the chief town of 
the county of that name, ia on the north-east coast of 
Scotland, where the river Deveron flows into the Ger- 

L,-., Google 

Bang.] DESCRIBED. 61 

man aea, and has a harbour not over easy of acceasj aa 
the steamere aend ashore their paaaengers in small boats, 
and the herring fleet and diatrict traders find the harbour 
of Macduff just across the Deyeron, to be the more 
convenient. Banff ia by railway 50 miles N.E. of Aber- 
deen (paaaengers chaise carriages at the Inveramaay 
Junction), and 42 miIe8S.E.of Elgin, changing carriages 
at Grange Junction. As a burgh, the charter dates &om 
1165; the parliamentary constituency ia 231, voting with 
the Elgin group; and the corporation revenue is £990, 
A^ a town, the situation is a pleasant one, standing well 
above the river Deveron, with the sea t« the east and 
the fine poUciea of Duff House to the west; but, rather 
out of the track of tourists, it may be leas visited now 
than it was when a well-appointed mail coach ran daily 
between it and Elgin, by Cullen and Fochabere, 

Being built on the slope of a hill, the streets are some- 
what steep and narrow, but the houses are neat, mimy 
of them with inacriptiona ahowing when and by whom 
erected. The educational institutiona are many, excel- 
lent, and well endowed; but the town grows slowly, 
having little commerce and no manufactures. The hot«l 
haa long been a good one. — Portsoy, a buigh of barony 
and amaJl aeaport, ia by road 7 miles, by railway 9 miles 
W. of Banff. The place ia notable for its stone, a sort 
of serpentine marble, and known as Portsoy stone. — 
CuLLBs is a royal bui^h, and second aa a town in the 
shire ; it is 6 miles from Portaoy and 1 2 from Fochabeis, 
where railway connection on the north ia found. The 
herring fishing ia prosecuted largely, but more so in the 
village of Buckie, a few miles fiirther north. The town 
of Cullen owee much of its prosperity to its being near 
the mansioQ of the Earl of Seaheld, whose estates are 
extensive, and whose, ^mily have been ever kind to the 
burghers. The conatitueney of Cullen is i4; the cor- 
poration revenue ^54. 

L,-., Google 

62 SCOTLAND [Berwick. 

Berwiok, Xorth, is a bui^li in HaddingtonsliiFe, on 
the Frith of Forth, not fer from the Basa Eoek, and 
connect«d with Edinburgh by railway, running east- 
ward at Longniddiy Junction — the distance in whole 
being 32 miles. The town is said to have been consi- 
dered a seaport in the days of Robert II.; but in 1691 it 
was officially reported that ' ships they have none, nor 
ferry boat, except two fish boate which pay nothing to 
the town.' Since then the harbour has been improved, 
but the pier ie dry at low water, not easy of access, nor 
over safe when got into; and the trade mainly consists 
of the shipment of potatoes or other i^cultuial produce, 
the district being fertile. The beach is good, and the 
place much frequented in the sea-bathli^ season. The 
links of Gnllane, and the castles of Dirleton and Tan- 
tallon are within easy drive. Aa a bnigh, it dates from 
Eobert III.; has a Parliamentary constituency of 95, a 
corporation revenue of £2 S3, and is grouped with Ihin- 
bar, Jedburgh, louder, and Haddington — the latter the 
returning burgh. AnERLAnv is a paroehiai hanUet, five 
miles S.W. of Jforth-Berwick, at the mouth of the 
Feffer-bum, where smacks can discharge cargoes, and 
is held as the port for Haddington, from which it is five 
miles distant. The sands on Aberlady bay are resorted 
to for sea-bathing. Gosford House, the seat of the Earl 
of Wemyse, is in the parish. 

DiHLETO!) is on the coast between Aberlady and North- 
Berwick; and the railway station of the name is nearly 
equi-distant between that burgh and Dtem Junction. 
The land near Dirleton is reputed the finest couising 
ground in the east of Scotland, and the village one of 
the most beauti^L The castle of Dirleton has a place 
in Scottish history. Bishop Beke captured it after a 
desperate defence by the patriot Scots; Montrose reduced 
it in 1650; and the noble ruins are carefiilly preserved 
and well enclosed, while the structure, still a mas- 
L,-., Google 

Biffgar.] DESCBIBED. 63 

give one, b amoDg the finest in Scotland. Tantallan 
Castl^ of 'Douglas and Maimion' fame, ciovas a 
lofty, piecipitous, and projecting lock; its base is washed 
on th^ sides by the sea; and the west is defended by 
two ditches of vast depth and by towers of great 
strength. The ruin, which is roofless, but otherwise 
nearly entire, is three miles east of North-Berwick. 

BiooAR is an excellent market town in the Upper 
Ward of Lanarkshire. ' London may be a big loun, say 
the natives, ' but I ken Biggar.' It ia situated nearly 
midway between the Clyde and the Tweed, and between 
the burghs of Lanark and Peebles; and has always been 
of district importance, not the less so that cetituries ago 
the noble family of Fleming, Earls of Wigtown, a title. 
dormant since 1717, were resident at Bi^hall Castle, 
near Biggar. Of the town and the house of Fleming, 
a large, well written, and quickly disposed of volume 
has recently been published by one reared in Biggar. 
Situated on the southern slope of Bizzyberry, as the 
hill above the town is quaintly named, with the Har- 
tree hills in the foreground, Coidtorfell in the distance, 
and TiQto not &r o^ the place is a pleasant one, as is 
the district of which it is centre ; and now that it is 
within easy access by railway from the Land of Scott 
and of Bums— from Melrose, Glasgow, or Edinburgh, 
tourists might delight to sojourn at it did it possess a 
good hotel; that it does not, is no credit to a richly 
settled locality, which has recently erected a large and 
well-built com exchange, banks, and a new church; 
and have collected largely to renovate tbe old kirk of 
Biggar, built in 1545, still occupied as the ptuish 
church, and of beauty rare for its age. 

The great battle of Biggar, the peasantry believe, was 
one of the moat signal of the victories of ' the Wallace 
wight,' the traditions of which are rife; but proof of half 

64 SCOTLAND [Blair-Athole. 

that is told is hard to find. The town is neat and clean, 
the main street wide enough to ' hold a cattle tryst in,' 
the district fertOe, the country 'warmly settled,' and 
the gentry are numerous and hospitable to a &ult. 
Coulter, a pariah cont^ous with and west of Biggar, 
is a pleasant locality- and an antiquarian lirea there 
whoBe mansioii is stored with archteological treasures, 
gathered hy a judicious and liberal collector, 'which are 
handsomely open to the inspection of the well-informed 
when properly introduced. Laminoton Toweb, in the 
parish, south of Coulter, as a ruin shows well. It is 
now cared for as it should be, having been the patri- 
mony of Marion Broadfoot, the murdered bride of Wal- 
lace, the patriot hero of Scotland. 

Blaib-Athole. — A village, hotel, and railway station 
in Perthshire. As a hamlet, near where the river Tilt 
flows into the Garry, it is finely placed, and the cot- 
tage aceomm.odation for the visitor is superior, as is 
also that of the private hotel, Bridge of TUt, or the 
Station Hotel — both within half a mile, in hands of 
the same family, and one well known, when at Balloch 
on Loch-Lomond, for carii^ well for those who patro- 
nised them. The railway recently opened from Inver- 
ness to Perth has made Blair-Athole more accessible 
than of old, although it was well off in that way, 
being the second stage nolth irom Dunkeld, on the 
great Highland road, and near to the pass of Killie- 
ciankie. As a parish, Blair-Athole is upwards of 30 
miles in length by about 18 in breadth, and within 
its hounds can boast of some of the finest ' mountain 
and flood' scenery in Scotland — the path through 
Glen -Tilt to Braemar mnn ing eastwajd, and that 
through Strath-Tummell for Tay-side leading west. The 
district is full of attractions for the tourist, and pos- 
sesses within reach all proper means foi exploiii^ 

Blairgowrie.] DESCBIBED. 65 

socb. Blaii u etymolc^cally defined ' aa a plain, dear 
of wood,' or aa a 'battle-fidd:''t1ie latter may be the 
truer de&utaon, as th^re u little of a plain to be seen; 
and the field in which Claverbouse is buried is a 
amall one^ and where be died was not a plain. 

The castle of Blair, so long the seat of the Dukee of 
Athole, wae of old a place of strength. Its capture 
caused the stm^le between Dundee and Mackay in 
1689; in 1716 it was held succeBsfully against Charles 
Edward; in 1653 it was taken by an ofQcer of 
Cromwell; in 1644 it was captured by Montrose; and 
tradition alleges that it was a stronghold of the Comyn 
family centuries ago. Our Queen, before fixing her 
Scottieb home in Braemar, spent the eunuaer of 1644 
at Blair-Athole; and the falls of Bruar wrae visited, 
and bad poetic honours given them, by Sobert Bums. 
The Falls of the TujumeU are also attractive, the river 
being wide and deep; but the cascade being no more 
than 16 feet in depth, it is inferior to the Falls of 
Clyde at Lanark. The Bruar Ming nearly 200 feet, 
although a smaller flood, has 'lofly &« and ashes cool, 
where fragrant birks in woodbines dress'd the craggy 
clifis adorn,' and make it a place of beauty; it is four 
miles oS, and near the old Tfipbl'"'d road. 

Blairoowbie, a bnrgh of barony since 1634, is con- 
nected by a bruich railway, five nules in length, yith 
Coupar-AnguB on the great Aberdeen line, and has of 
late years been frequented by the tourist, on account of 
the coach in the sununer months running thence to 
Braemar for Balmoral The town is a thriving one, the 
immense command of water from the Ericht, which 
flows past it, having made it the seat of flax mills, large 
and prtwperous, the village population supplying the la- 
bour. Hotel accommodation is excellent, whether at 
the 'Queen's' or the 'Boyal,' the keepers of both being 
B ,Goo>;Ic 

66 SCOTLAND [Braemar. 

Telatedl, but not the less diepoeed to push their separate 
intereate — 'an' (to quote a Scotticism) 'what for nof 
Banks are not few, cliarches many, shope superior, 
schools good, people sociable; and the busy little town 
thrives well, as should be where energy is so well devel- 
oped. There are few towns of ite size and age that 
show so well the progress made within the present gen- 
eration, and of late not the less &st that the 'cotton 
famine' has been the flax-spinners' opportnnityj hence, 
in some measure, the prosperity of ttie district. The 
banks of the Ericht, above the town, have much to 
attract the tooxist, and there are few localities in Soot- 
land more picturesque than are the wooded heights of 
Craighall, on the Ericht. The coach road north by the 
Spittal of Glenshee has mnch to interest the tourist; 
also that by Strath-Ardle, where a road leoda off for 
the Ktlochrie district of Perthshire. 

Another route southward^by the lochs of the Lowes, 
Butterstone, and Cluny, for Dnnkeld, ia the one taken 
by the Braemar coach in summer; but in any season 
it afibrds a drive of varied beauty, and ia picturesque 
throi^hout. Eastwards from Blaiigowrie to Alyth, on 
the Ma, and onwards for Eirriemnir, was a pleasEuit 
road, as, leading by the base of the Grampian moun- 
tains, the vale of Strathmore lay below; but the poetry 
of such routes the railways have spoiled. The old 
route of the once famed ' Defiance coach,' from Edin- 
burgh to Aberdeen, ted onwards from Perth to Forfer 
by the town of Coupar- Angus. The railway now sweeps 
jtttst it, but the traveller rarely stops to breakfast there, 
as of old, and the change that has come over the inn 
eeemfl a sad one, as there is now no through trade. 

Brakhar forms the south-western division of the 
extensive shire of Aberdeen, and the Linn of Dee, 
with the wella whence the livei springs from under 

Sraermr.] DESCEIBED. 67 

the Brierar^^ in the centre of the Qrampian moun- 
t^n lange, is nearer to Bea-N^evis, aboTe the Caledo- 
nian Camd, than to Girdleaeea, on the German Ocean. 
Since Bahnoial Castle became the eununei home of the 
Soyal Tamily, the dietrict ia thronged with tonriata in 
the season — the lailway from the east coming within 30 
miles of Castletown, the town of the district; and that 
on the toad to Bkiigowrie, whence, in the midsummer 
months, a tourist coach plies noriji the one day and 
south the next, is hat little fiirthei off. Braemat may 
be penetrated hy the tourist from Blaii-Athole by 
Glen-Tilt, or from Strathspey by Glenmoie; bat, enter 
the district from whatever qoaiter, the attractions of 
'flood and mountain' are great and prized. Castletown, 
Braemar, is about 8 miles west of Balmor^; and deer- 
stalking or moling being the occupation of the elite 
of the viaitoTS, the two capacious hotels, which offer 
superior accommodation to first-class viaitors (anange- 
mente being made for them only), are held by a 
Hunter and a Fisher — the one with Australian experi- 
ence, the other well able to care for his patrons. 

The Tillage of Castletown, although a small one, 
has three churches — Established, Free, and Koman 
Catholic. The shops are few, and the houses, which 
are neat, furnish the valetudinarian with quarters, of 
course for ' a consideration,' seeing that rooms are scarce 
and visitors numerous. Looh-na-Gar has been else- 
whrae noticed as being the mountain of the Ballater and 
Balmoral district The mountains fiirther ap the Dee 
are higher, and Ben-Macdhui has been affirmed by the 
natives to be of greater altitude than even Ben-Kevis; 
but ordinance survey measurements settle that question 
against them. One of the militaiy bridges of Marshal 
Wade corned the road across the Dee below Invercauld; 
hut^ although it is still there, it has been replaced by 
another, broader and less st«ep, which the district owes 

68 SCOTLAND [Braemar. 

to the mimificeiice of tlie late Prince ConsoTt. Above 
the bridge may be seen what ie caJled ' the caatle,' but 
it is neiUiei old, stroog, nor picturesqae. On the right 
of the road the rocky and richly wooded hill of Crug- 
clnnie almost overhuiga the highway, and below is the 
field where the Braemar 'gathering of the clans' takes 
place for the piactioe of athletic sports, and nearly 
where the Earl of Mar muetered the Stnart adherents 
in the rebellion of 1715 — so fatal to the interests of 
the Eiskine family. The stone on which the standaid 
of Mar was reared forms part of the coffee-room of the 
Invercauld Arms, a hoose which each successiTe year 
expands in size, as does the Fife Arms Hotel. 

At Castletown, the river Dee, although but a few 
miles from its source, is broad and deep, so much so that 
a boat is uBed to convey visitors from tJie hotels across 
to the house of Invercauld, the distance round by the 
bridge being very considerable. The muisioii of Fai^ 
quhaison of Invercauld is finely sitoated, looking 
vannly to the south, and sheltered on north and 
west by well-wooded hills, which are of greet eleva- 
tion. The view from the bridge in the village is a fine 
one, as the river below tumbles in its cascade-like 
course to the Dee, whose expanse above and below is 
well seen. The road for the linn of Dee is for the first 
few miles of great beanty. Mar Lodge, on the holm 
or level bank of the river beyond, is so httle elevated 
as to have suffered severely in the great floods of 1829. 
Further on are the &Ue of Comemulzie, one of the 
sights of the district, to which the tourist is led by 
paths constmctod to show thorn to advantage. The 
fiunoos linn of Dee is aboat seven miles from Castle- 
town-Braemai, and there the deep and rapid river is so 
confined between lofty walls of rock, that, like the Clyde 
near I^nark, a man may apiiog across — a feat not un- 
frequentlyperfbimed. A well blown topographic writer 

Bfidg^f-AUan.] DESCEIBED. 69 

aaya that 'nothing living ever sarvired the plunge 
dowQworda, if &ted to take it;* but it is on record that^ 
not man; years ago, a man did leap aliort of the dis- 
tance, fiji down headlong, become nncoDacioas, was 
found cast out on the rirer-banb &i below the linn — 
and lived to tell it. Above the Linns of the river Dee, 
the course may be followed to near the Biierarach, a 
mountain little lower than Ben-Macdhui, of the same 
group, bat showing a wall above ' the wilds of Dee' of 
2,000 feet sheer down. The track ia a rough one^ but 
often travelled, and Ben-Macdhui is frequently climbed, 
the prospect from its eammit ranging from the Grerman 
ocean to the Atlantic — the heigbte of Ben-Nevis, Ben- 
Lawers, and Ben-Lomond being all within view. 

Bbumib-oi^Allak, the most frequented of the spas 
in central Scotland, is within three miles of Stirling, 
and nearly eqni-distant &om Perth, Edinburgh, and 
Glasgow, with ample meana of access, by rail, road, and 
river. As mi^t be looked for, the hoi«l accommoda- 
tion ia excellent, and they are well patronised. The 
lodging-houses are niimerous, offering accommodation 
to ttte tourist or the valetadinarian — when water drink- 
ing. There is no lack of either libraries or churches, 
or of the means ordinarily in request for spending 
' a week' pleasantly. To Stirling a good Ims runs fre- 
quently; in fine weather the walk is an agreeable one, 
being for nearly half the way buUt on either hand with 
villas, yearly increasing in number, and in architectural 
pretensions. By the 'banks of Allan water,' north- 
wards, and towards the ancient town of Dunblane, th6 
scenery is beautiful, as ore the Kier policies in the 
neif^bourhood. Eastward by Airtliiey, Blairlogie, and 
the Ochils, the pedestrian may well spend some of his 
time; nor are the beauties of the district accessible to him 
only,. as carries of all sorts abound at the Bridge-of- 

70 SCOTLAND [Srodtck. 

Allan, ' with steady horaes and careful driTera,' as at 
least will be affirmed by the innkeepers. 

Callander and the Trossachs are within reach of a 
short day's joomey. The railway carries tonristo to 
Callander, only 13 miles off, and the coach thence to 
the Trossachs, where the Bob Boy steamer treats them 
to a sail on the most visited of the lochs of Scotknd. 
A^ain Ardoch and the Boman camp are at no great 
dist&ace by railway to Greesloauii^ station; while 
farther north lie the attractions of Drummond Csstla 
and its gardens, the pleasant town of Crieff the npper 
strath of the Earn, and the policies of OchterljTO — 
all places of beaaty, and elsewhere in their proper 
place Jairl; noticed in this volume. Parties &om 
Eridge-of-AUan con sail up and down the Forth — ^from 
Stirlmg or Alloa, to or from Granton; so that well 
may Bridge-of-Allan be one of the most rising of the 
inland watering-places in Scotland. The ' Allmi' &om 
the north, the ' Devon' on the east, die ' Forth' for 
the south, and the 'Teith' on the west, are all livers in 
good repute with the oi^er, and at no great distances 
form the Bridge-of-Allan spa. 

BaoDiCK, CoBBTE, and Ikvebclox are places in Anan 

that merit special notice; the £ret named as being 
where the castle, the hamlet, and the ' old inn' used to 
be; the second ss b^ng near Sannox, and where a good 
inn now is; and the tluid where a hotel, second to mme 
for situation and attraction, has been a few years past 
erected. The castle of Btodlck, a htmting seat of the 
Duke of Hamilton, crowns a rocky bank on the 
north side of Brodick bay, is hnilt on a peninsnlar- 
like elevation thrown seaward &om Gioatfel], and from 
the baHJementa of the ancient fortiees an extensive 
view is commanded. The castle is of great antiquity, 
bat shows no trace of Danish conetroctioii, althJragh 
L,-., Google 

Brodick.] DESCRIBED. 71 

the I^orse sea Mnge may have anchored in the bay, and 
may not imlikely have had theii camp on the hillside 
above. The more ancient part of the Castle consista of 
a lofty, large, and strong quadiangular tover ot keep, 
indicative of the ' iron ages,' when might was held 'as 
right Adjoining ths keep are boildings to the west, 
also old, to whidi more recently a house was added, 
rendering the feudal stronghold a suitable ahojle for the 
premier Duke of Scotland; and a &vonrite one it has 
been, the ialand being so wholly his own as to be almost 
a game preserve. From the era of Bruce to that of 
CtomweU, Brodick Caatle shared all the honours and 
the ruins of frequent siege and capture; the troops of 
the Commonwealth addmg a strong regular bastion; 
but so licentious were the garrison, that they were 
surprised and slaughtered to a man. 

Brodick Castle seems to have been built of stones 
obtained close by, the quarry afterwards forming 
part of the deep moat^ which was one of the de- 
fences on the landward side; but of the drawbridge, 
which must have led across the ditch to the narrow neck 
of land, no trace is now seen. The domain round the 
castle' has belta of trees, finely disposed, and north- 
ward it is sheltered by extensive woods of natural 
growth. Above it is the purple heath, and higher up 
the serrated sununitA of Goatfelt — 'the mountain of 
the winds.' The cluster of cottages which nestled near 
the beach, and south of the feadal stronghold, were the 
prettiest places for the valetudinarian to seek health 
in; and a few years since the snuggest retreat, on 
eiUier side of the Frith of Clyde, was to be found in 
the 'old inn' of Brodick, a place especially patron- 
ised by 'Paisley bodies,' the fester of whose youths 
were wont to come down in flocks on the Saturday 
of their annual race-weeJt, to be put 'all right again' 
by the worthy landlady — herself fiom near '&e Water- 
L,-., Google 

73 SCOTLAND [Brodick. 

neb,' as the junctiaii of the Cart with the Clyde is 
by them quaintly termed. 'Fun was often furious 
enough in the castle overhead,' if tAles toH be true; but 
the 'corks* from Paisley, as iha smaller employers are 
locally termed, vere radically disposed, and might not 
have been always oreroivil ; at all events, the ' old 
house' was closed, and a hotel for the suiploa gnests of 
the castle was erected at luTerdoy. 

At Come, where a email oatoral harbour is formed on 
the deep and safe but rocky indent on the shore, a bouse 
of entertainment has been erected — for the tourist ia 
Airan appears usually bo hare been well alive to what 
in Scotland are termed 'the creature comforts.' The inn 
now there, although less imposing in architectural ele- 
vation than that across the bay on the 8.W. is not inferior 
to it in comfort and all proper attendance for patties 
passii^; while, for those remaining over night, excellent 
accommodation ia provided; and Idjs. Jamieson, the 
landlady, having been there, and at the old inn at Brod- 
ick since 1616, is well known to the kniiist 

Inveroloy Hotel is about a couple of miles south 
of the castle of Brodick, the road is good, the heacb 
fine, the hillside richly wooded, and the neighbouring 
glens and streams are numerous. Across the hill lice 
the road to Lamlash, and whether in walldng or driv- 
ing it has many attractions — the Frith of Clyde above 
Bute and towards Ailsa Craig being well seen. The 
hotel, which has good public rooms, and is lighted with 
gas 'made on the premiBes,' has but one allied fault — 
the bed rooms are too few; bat although, as in Btaemar, 
first-class travellers appear to be those for whom the 
house was formed, for tie wayfarer there existe a ' tep,' 
where ' ales and liquors' are served out as cheap as in 
lAmlash, the vilh^ of the island, which is but a few 
miles to the south-west Bredit^ Bay, and that of 
Lamlash, afToid such quiet and safe anohorege, that 
L,-., Google 

Bums.] DESCRIBED. 73 

fachtameii in their cniiaing season often diop anohor 
there, row aahoie, and look in at the hotels of Inver- 
cloy or Corrie to have their ' ponchee' Med with ' hard 
boUed eggs,' and their ' pistols' charged with good ' aqua 
vitae' — ^both, by most touristo, foimd palatable when 
climbing the mountain heights, or exploring the glens 
and comes of Arran. 

£uTurB, the Land of, is popularly understood to be 
Ayr and ite neighbourhood, being where the poet was 
bom and spent his youth; but a wider lange may be 
given in glancing at the upper strath of the Ayr, where 
ne wooed and won his 'Jean,' and lower Nithsdale, 
where the last years of his life were worn out. Access 
from Glasgow to Ayr is ready, frequent, and inexpen- 
sive by nul throughout the year, and in summer by 
steamer direct from the Broomielaw — the latter route 
being long, bat the fares low. Bobert Bums was bom 
on January 25, 1759, in the cottage near 'Alloway's 
auld haunted Kirk,' a humble roof under which many 
a proud bead has since then stooped. At six years <xf 
age, he was sent to the village school at Mill of AUo- 
way, his &ther, a gardener, originally from the Mon- 
trme district, being tenant of the small farm of Mount 
Oliphant, near Ayr, and afterwards of Lochlea, near 
Tarbolton; in neither of which were his circumstances 
so easy as to afford his children means of education 
greats than the youth of Scotland usually enjoy. 

Yet ' Eobin,' the embryo poet, became a hard student^ 
acquiring some knowledge of French, and a little Latin, 
wlule in his fourteenth year he became a leading mem- 
ber of the debating clab at Tarbolton. In the 23d year 
of his age, be made a start in life as a heckler of flax at 
Irvine; but, holding ' over merrily' the incoming of the 
new-year, hjs shop, which is still pointed out, caught fire, 
and he was thrown out of employment The &ther of 
L,-., Google 

74 SCOTLAND [fltww. 

the poet dyii^ early in 1784, and the familjcoiurtramed 
to leave LocMea, they became tenants of the &im of 
Moasgiel, within a couple of milea of MaucUine, a short 
way off the coach road to Kilmarnock, which is visit 
ed now by many a toorist. The oironmstaocca of the 
family were sudi that fiobert Buma sought to mend 
his fortune by emigrating to Jamaica ; and, to raise the 
means, put his poema and songs to press at Kilmarnock. 
His success was such that he was drawn tc Edinburgh, 
became lionised in sociely, cleared off the debts of the 
&rm, married his ' bonnie Jean,' took and stocked the 
&Tm of Ellisland, on the Nith, near Dum&ies, and 
soon after became an exciseman — his salary as such 
enabling him ' to make ends meet' at the farm; but it 
may be doubted if, with hie social tastes, the life 
he led as such did much to promote his wellkre, or 
add to the comfort of his rising ihmily. 

The &me Bums had earned, and which he valued, 
and the extraordinary conversational powers with which 
he was gifted, caused his society to be often sought by 
the ' fast livers' of the ancient town of Dum&ies, and of 
the ' tea muirland parishes' which were within his 'ride' 
or beat as an exciseman. He was stronger in appear- 
ance than in reality, and the life he led did so litUe to 
proaerve his health, that in the winter of 1795 he suf- 
fered severely from illness, and in July following he 
sought relief at the hamlet of Brow, a sea-bathing 
resort on the Solway Frith. But his stay there was 
short, as he returned to Dumfries to die on July 
21, 1796; and the house in which he spent the 
last sad yeus of his life is well known and visited by 
most tourists who find their way to the south-west of 
Scotland. The poet's wish was that 'his body should 
be laid beside that of his &ther in Alloway kirk- 
yard; but this was overruled by the blends his 
fame and name had gathered round him at DumMee, 

BunUislattd.] DESCIUBED. 75 

and he was interred in the churchyard of St. Michael's 
in that town, frheie, in 1810, a handsonie mauBoleum 
was erected in his honour — and the path &om the church 
gate to that grave is"trod by many a pilgrim. 

The twa brigs' at Ayr are still seen in all theii contrast 
— the 'auld ane' being open to pedestrians only. If the 
cotta^ in which the poet first saw the light was but a 
'clay biggin,' it must have been so in a poetical sense, as 
it appears to be of fair sire and strong. Mount OKphant, 
where the first seven years of the poet's life were spent, is 
seen &om the door of the cottage in which he was bom. 
The gronnd near the monument to Boms is about an 
acre in extent, but all about is kept in excellent order, 
and the 'Brig o' Doon' being close at hand, the whole 
scenery of 'Tam o' Shanter's ride' is under view. Loch- 
lea iam lay near Tarbolton, a small town 4 miles S.W. 
of Mauchline; and near Kirkoswald, i miles S.W. of 
Maybole, is given as t^e place where the prototype of 
Tam o' Shanter flourished. Four years were spent by 
Bums at Mossgiel farm; and the place is rife with me- 
morials of the poet — the fields he ploughed over — the 
garret hewrote in — the byre in which his cattle were kept; 
—and it is so oflien visited that the tale is ready when 
sought for. The town of Mauchline is tail of localities 
made famous by Bums, and there is no lack of guidee 
able and willing to show such to the stranger. 

Bni^TiBLAKD, a btu^h on the 8.E. comer of Fife, with 
a charter from 1541, was long considered the best sea- 
port on the Frith of Forth, but is now familiar to the 
tourist chiefly ae the l^rminus of the railway from Edin- 
burgh by Cupar to Dundee, and where the steamer re- 
quires to be taken. As a town it mainly consists of two 
streets, one of them of nnusual width. It was fortified 
in the time of ChtDles L, defended against the troope 
of Cromwell, and capitulated on the stipulatio:!! that the 

76 SCOTLAITD [Bandistand. 

streets of the town b« repmied and the hatboor 
improTed, which were done. The town was occupied 
by the Earl of Marin 171d, and was neefal to him as a 
port Of the old wall a part Temains, together with the 
gateway at the east-end of the town. Beyond it, on the 
linka, are some well built houaes, which are occupied in 
sanuuer as sear-hathing quartera. AtCiaigholm, one of 
the row, the late Dr. Chalmers used to reside in summer. 
Near the town of Burntisland is the mined castle of 
Sosaend, held by the Durie femily in the 15th century. 
The parish of Burntisland is about three miles aqnare, 
and the land on the coast is fertile, but the greater 
part otherwise, as it rises rapidly into hilly ground — 
with rocks precipitous and cnriouB to the geologist 

KiNaBOBN, a burgh since Alexander m., is 2^ miles 
IS.E. of Bamtdslaud, the latter being at one time known 
as Wester-Kinghom, when the sovereign of Scotland 
had a palace in Kinghom. It was while riding in the 
dark at night from Burntisland to visit his palace that, on 
leth March, 1286-6, Alexander III. was thrown from 
his horse and killed — the spot being still known as 
' King'e-woodend;' and well might it be remembered, 
as lirom it followed the attempts of Edward of England 
to reduce Scotland, and the gallant stru^les of Wallace 
and Bruce to ' set their country free.' Einghom had 
some trade as a port on the Forth at one time, and was 
the ferry for Leith ; latterly that was removed to Petty- 
cur, opposite Inchkeith, bnt now the ferry is run 
from BnmtiBland to Gianton. ABBRDOnB is a prettily 
placed village on the Forth, three miles west of Burnt- 
island, 'free' from the railway, and is the resort of parties 
who desire cheap and pleasant suling; to accommodate 
each, a saloon steamer has recently been launched on the 
Clyde, to ply between Leith and Aberdour — the village 
having good lodging accommodation to'offer, and many 
a pleasant walk in the neighbourhood. 


Bdtb, the Isle of, gives name to the shiie, in 
which ftre included the Cnmbiaes and Arran, with 
the isleta of Holy Isle, Inchmamock, and Fladda. 
Bute is about sixteen miles in length, three to five in 
breadth, frequently indented with bays, compoiatiTely 
hilly and st^^e on the north, but feirtile and fully cul- 
tivated on the Boothem half; the acreage is about 
30,000; the chief landowner is the Maiqais of Eute, 
and the late head of that ancient family was an excel- 
lent landlord, the improvement of his tenantry having 
been signal under him, and for Uus his memory is 
venerated, itothesay and its bay will have due and 
special notice in this book. Northwaid of Bothesay, 
iB the point of Aidb^ towards which the hillside 
shelves rapidly to the beach, rendering feuing space 
scanty. The Catholic Chapel, between the road and the 
sea is built near high-watet mark. The roads in the 
island are many and good. From Ardbeg to Aidmuclish 
Point, and known as Kames Bay, is about two-thirds 
of the depth and half the width of that of Bothesay, with 
a pier for steoiuera, and houses where sea-bathers find 
aecDinmodatioii — the locality being known to some as 
Port-Banoatyne, to others as Kamesbuigh, the former 
firom a fiunily at one time important in North Bute. 

From the bay of Kames on the east to that of Ettrick 
on the west, and across the island, is a drive much 
resorted to by the valetudinarian — the section of the 
island lying towards the Eyles of Bute being rugged 
and little visited. Bute is 'low and green,' compared 
with Anan on the west; the moat notable of the hills 
being that above Kamee, 875 feet; the Barone Hill, 
behind Botheeay, 638 feet; end the Suidhe hill, above 
Kilchattan Bay, 608 feet in height Fort-Bannatyne 
is 2} m. y.W. of Bothesay, near it are the woods of 
Kiimee, and the old castle of that name, for five cen- 
turies the feudal abode of the Bannatynea; and tradi- 
L,-., Google 

78 SCOTLAND [Bute. 

tion aUegee that Weeter Kamee, another castle, was held 
by the H'Kiulays, who lost theii lands in the struggle 
which gave to tlie Bmce his crown. 

The view from the bay of Etttick is most attractive, 
with the isle of Anan in the foreground and Cantyre 
in the distance^ and the beach being smooth, the bay ie 
much resorted to by sea-bathers. From Ettrick Bay a 
road leads back to Eothesay by the Barone Hill, pre- 
senting &om various points fine prospects. The Barone 
Hill is of historic fame. It was the muster-ground of 
the Biandanes of Bute (the name by which the warlike 
nativea were known). The Brandanee fought well 
under Wallace at Falkirk, leaving their gallant leader, 
Sir John Stewart, on the field; but at Bannockbuin 
th^ avenged his death, in recompense for which ser- 
vices the yeomen were declared ''the kindly tenants of 
the crown,' with tenure of theii acres by direct service 
to their king, with right to vote in the councils of the 
nation; and some men there, landless as they are, still 
claim the ancient title of Barone. Near the bay of Ettrick 
is St Ninian'e bay; and seaward is the emaU island 
of Inchmamoek, with the ruins of a chapel to St. Mar- 
nock. The hill above Kilmorie, the faiii^ on St Sm- 
ian's bay, b locally known as ' the Highlandman's hill;' 
but why so named seems strange, unless it be that the 
Stewarts of Bute were of lowluid lineage, and Inch- 
mamoek being an appendage of a Highland Abbey, the 
8er& of the priests mustered there. 

The bay of Scalpsie lies south of St. Ninian's; and 
between it and Bothesay is Loch-Fad, where Edmund 
Kean, the tragedian, built the house of Woodend, and 
lived at times. Loch-Fad is 3 miles 8. of Bothesay, 161 
acres in extent, and scarcely anywhere more than a 
i mile in breadth. Anglers find fair sport in. the small 
loch; and its waters are utilised as a reeervoir for 
the mills in Bothesay, where, by the power of these 
L,-., Google 

Bute.] DESCEIBED. 79 

island 781618, th.e first cotton in Scotland was spun. 
Lochs Ascog, Bull, Dhu, Greenan, Que'en, are j^aces of 
angling resort in Bute, tlie lattei being noted for the 
percli and pike found in ita watera. South of Scalpsie 
is Stravanan Point, the water between which and the 
Isle of Anan is known as Bute Sound. The breadth 
of the Bound is not great, but the depth is 20 fathoms 
on the Bute, and 90 fathoms on the Airan ehore. 

Kingarth forms the southern section of Bute, as that of 
Eotheeay does the north. It ia about 6 J m. in length, 2 J 
in breadth; and is fertile on the west, between Kilchattan 
and Asco^ but on the ridges by Dungoil, Mount Blane, 
and Garroch-head it is wild enough. At Dungoil-head aie 
traces of a vltrihed fort, preenmed to have been erected 
by the aboriginal inhabitants; it crowns a rock, difficult 
of access, on the verge of the ocean; and is level on the 
sununit, which appears to have had a waD to protect 
it. Near Dnn-nflrgoil are to be traced the dry stone walls 
of another fort, some outlook station of the Ifoisemen, 
the view thence being good. Inland of Dungoil rises 
Mount Blane, and in a Tomantic glen near by are the ruins 
of the chapel of St. Blane, t;he tntelar saint of the island, 
who, it is alleged, was bom about 540 A.D., received a 
crozier at Rome, and became the first Bishop of Dun- 
blane. He was a nephew of St. Chattan, hence Kil- 
chattan— the chapel of Chattan. 

Theoiaggy height which the ruins of St. Blane'schapel 
cover is encirded by a rough wall; and below it is another 
circular enclosure, alleged to have been a nunnery. 
Within both circles the dead have been laid, but oidy in 
the lower one, tradition says, would the oorpseof a feroale 
repose ! On the north side of the chapel of St Blane is a 
flight of steps, leading to a grove and 'the Devil's caul- 
dron' — a structure of blocks of stones, 5 feet high, 3 feet 
wide at entrance, widening to 9 feet, and leading to 
an enclosure about 30 feet in diameter, tmd believed to 
L,-., Google 

80 SCOTLAND [Bute. 

hare been vhat is known in Ireland as a 'station,' where 
the devotees crawled round the wall on their ' knees,' — 
lacerating the flesh for the sins of the souL 

The extreme 8. W. pointoftheisleofButeiaGanoch- 
head, 7S0 feet high — a collection of steep and narrow 
ridges, parallel, but separated by deep and solitaiy val- 
leys. Three miles S, of Garroch-head is the Lesser 
Cumbrae, and between them is the main channel or 
fair course of the Clyde. Glen-CaUom Bay is the S.K 
point of Bute, and trending northward is the Bay of Kil- 
chattan, with a small pier at which steamers &om Bothe- 
say for Arran call, and where sea-bathing quarters can 
be found in the little hamlet The manse of the parish 
of Kingarth is warmly placed, as such abodes usually 
are; the school-honse appears large, (he grounds around 
it well-kept, and the situation no doubt a healthy one 
for children boarded there. The inn is of modest size, 
the &re offered good, and charges moderate. It is well 
patronised by pedestrian customers, who in summer find 
their way there in crowds. 

Kenymamock, Kerrytonlia,Kerrylamont, and Kerry- 
croy are the names of places near to Mount-St«wart^ the 
domain of the noble family of Bute. The district is the 
most fertile and the best farmed in the island; and the 
policies of MountStewart are extensiTe, adorned witii 
trees of extraordinary size — those in the 'beech valk' 
beii^ of great beauty, as they line the broad and level 
path, meeting orerhead and leading to a building, ivied 
over, and meant to represent a castle in ruins. 'Within 
these grounds Cape heaths flower luxuriantly, remain- 
ing out all winter, as well as standard plante of the 
m^nolia grandi-flora, which rise to the hei^t of 18 
or 20 feet Myrtles blossom like hawthorn trees; sweet 
almonds ripen; geraniums are on fire with scarlet 
flowers; and fuchfflas and camelias are enlisted among 
the hardy plants.' The ancient castle of Bothesay was 
.,.., Google 

BuU-l DESCBIBM). 81 

occupied by the Bute fiunilj until it vae destroyed in 
1685, in tiie Aigyle and Monmouth rising. They 
Uved in the town for a seaeon, until Mount-Stewart, 
their present abode, was built by James, second £arl 
of Bate, the aichitectuie of which is plain, imd the 
grounds are laid out in >ml'r Dutch, half English style. 

Looking seawaide &om Monnt-Stewart House, the 
view commands InneUan, the Dunoon shore, the upper 
leaches of the Prith of Clyde, the Cloch, Aidgowan, 
Wemyss Bay, Cowal, Dombarton, and the green hills 
of lower Re^ew and upper Ayrshire. Mount-Stewart 
forms one of the moat attractive drives in the island 
of Bute, and is much appreciated by residents and 
caanal visitore — the road by the shore being good, 
while the route can be varied by striking inland by the 
hill which skirts the small lodi of Aaoog, and which 
yields varied and extensive views of the bay of Eothe- 
Bay, its suburban-like vHlas, the ruined castle, the 
churches, and the busy pier-head. Ntsa the Kerry- 
croy end of the Mount-Stewart domain is an ancient 
chapel, still used as such by the 'family' when in the 
island ; and near it is the hamlet of Sooulag, chiefly 
occupied by people employed on the estate, whose 
'spare rooms' are in request by sea-bathers. 

From Ascog to Bogany Point the shore-line is oovered 
with inclosuree, witUn which are marine residences, so 
placed and bmlt as to look well &om the bay, and 
more tastefully disposed than the stmctores of like char- 
acter above me Dunoon shore. At Asct^ Point there 
is a Free Church, beautifully phued — another proof 
of the good taste shown in the selection of their sites, 
as well aa of their liberality in the erection of their 
'places of worship.' At Asct^ the buildings crown a 
rocky plateau; and near it is a burial-ground, where 
rest many who came to this, ' the Montpelier of the 
I^orth,' to seek in vain for longer life. 

f ,Goo>;Ic 

82 SCOTLAND [Caledmian 

The mill of Aacog is not unfrequently sketched by 
the pencil of lady visitors; and beyond it extends 
Bogany Pointy the southern horn of t^ bay of Sothe- 
Bay, whence are seen to excellent advantage the 
opening into the Kylea of Bute, Southhatl above, 
Loch-Striven near by, and the Towaid shore of CowaL 
Below the point of Bogany ia a mineral spring, held in 
h^ ea&nation by nnraes and their young charges, the 
distance from the town being short, the walk a plea- 
sant one, the beach safe and good, and the place a 
chosen one for gossiping -trysts. An analysis of the 
water which springs up ftom a rocky le^e between an 
old quarry and the gravelly beach, showed, in the 
gaUon of 277.274 cubic inches, 1860.73 of salt, 125.20 
of hme, 32.80 of magnesium, and 11.39 of sihca. Its 
special virtue eonaiste in the cure of 'skin diseases,' 
but the urchins who are lu^ed there to teat its value, 
appear to have little relish for it. Of the climate of 
Bute, little need be said, as from its insular situ- 
ation it is genial; and to the valetudinarian who 
abides there not the less beneficial, seeii^ that moat 
of the pleasures of locomotion, society, &c., are within 

Caledoitiak Canal, the, which carries the tourist 
from the western to the eastern shore of Scotland, well 
deserves notice, and all the more that the tourist 
traffic runs strongly there 'in the season,' with excel- 
lent means provided to conduct it. Coming &om the 
west, the hotel-keepers in Fort-William, at Corpach, 
and Banavie, compete for 'the custom' of the traveller, 
the steamer stopping at the stone-pier of the town, 
Mid then crossing Loch-Eil for the entrance-locks 
of the great cMiaL Corpach is said to be ' Gaelic for 
corpse,' the biers of the dead resting there for a while 
when being carried onward fbr ' the holy gronnd ' at 

Camd.] DESCEIBED. 83 

Zona. The inn at Corpach is a snug one. The hotel at 
Banavie, specially bnilt for tourist requirements, is 
in all respecte commodious and excellent: — item the 
charges. It stands -well, some little distance above 
the canai, on a sloping bank, and in flill view of the 
lofty Ben-Nevis. 

The Caledonian Canal vrae lai^ly formed from 
Ainds lealised hy the sale of lands forfeited in 
the rebellion of 1745. In 1773 James Watt, who 
became so famous in connection with the steam-engine, 
was inatmcted to survey the 'groat glen' between 
Loch-Eil and the Moray IVith, the scheme being to 
make the canal one of ten feet depth of water. An 
estimate -was made, but the plans were laid aside, as 
the expected means for its execution were withdrawn, 
the estates having been restored to the heira of the 
Stuart adherents. X165,00O was the sum of money 
desired by Mr. Watt In 1803 Messrs. Telford* Jessop 
WOTC employed to report on the subject — the plan then" 
being to constmct a water-way 118 feet at top, 50 at 
bottom, and 20 in depth, such beii^ calculated as 
needful to pass a 32^un frigate ; and the wars of the 
French revolution then raging, it was of national im- 
portance to have such means of transit for fleet or 
convoy. To accomplish this, X4:74,531 was needfal 
for the works, it b^ng calculated that the hmd would 
be given free by the owners for opening up their 
district — the railway word 'compensation' not then 
'havii^ found its place in the schema-promoters' 
vocabulary. Telford was instructed by Parliament to 
proceed with the works, and did so, the summit level 
being 100 feet above high water mark on the Beauly 
Frith on the east, and Loch-Eil on the west 

The length from sea to sea is 60 miles, and the coniee 
nearly west and east throughout. Distances are, sinking 
ohain fractions, from Corpach to Loch-Lochy, 8 milea: 

84 SCOTLAND [Caledonian 

Looh-Loeliy, 10; cuttoLocli-Oich,alxiut2; Loch-Oich, 
3^; cut toLocli-NesB,5|; !Lacli-lfess,23^; and cut by 
Dochfoni to CWh.-'Dah&rTy, InvemeBS, 7^ miles. The 
locks are 170 and 180 feet long, 40 broad, and tbe lift 
of water 8 feet; they are 28 in number, the series of 8 
at Bffiiavie being Imovn as T^eptune's staircase; but 
these the tourist is not necesedtated to use, as the swift 
ateamei by which he may have come &om the west, is 
too long for the canal loc]^ and at Banarie one espeinally 
constructed for the canal navigation awaits him, the 
intervening distance being gone* over by omnibosee, 
large, good, and built for the trafGc. In the long reach 
of the canal between Banavie and Locb-Lochy, there 
are streams running &om the hills on the left, some of 
which are led under the bed of the canal, while others 
flow into it; and to escape the danger of floods, which 
these Alpine torrents frequently cause, three powerful 
sluices have been formed in tbe rocks, through which 
tbe navigation is carried, and the cascade thus formed 
from the canal to the loch is at times heavy, and 
beautifoL Loch-Lochy was raised 12 feet above its 
old level, a channel cut for the river Lochy, which is 
soon joined by the Spean, passing under a lofly bridge 
at Maccomar, where it sweeps down a rooky bed «rf 15 
feet in sheer descent^ forming at times a torrent of no 
ordinary power and breadth. 

The canal was partially opened in 1822; the mimey 
•outlaid, October 20, 1803, to May 1, 1827, amounted 
to ^6973,271, the chief items of which were £418,000 - 
for labour, £200,000 for stoneand mason wor^ £1 28,000 
for machinery, material, &c, £72,000 for timber, &c., 
about £G0,000 for land and damages compromised, as 
compensation was then named. Tho canal, when first 
opened, but partially realised the objects for which it 
was constructed; and between 1843-7, Jackson and 
Bain, under supervision of Mr. Walker, completed the 
.....Coo-^Ic . 


works at an additional ontlay of jCSOO.OOO— tbe total 
coBt being £1,200,000. Ships of 800 tons may dischaige 
at the sea locka; and Teeaela of 500 or 600 tons can make 
the pasB^e within a couple of days, a vaet savii^ of 
time and risk to sailing through the Fentkud Frith. 

Tourists staying at Banavie may spend a day 
jdeasantly in visiting the glen of Loch-Arkaig, about 
10 miles o^ neat to Loch-Lochy, and notable, as on 
its dark banks Charles Edward found refuge in 1745-6, 
he being then 'barefooted, with an old check kOtcoat 
on, a plaid, philab^, and waistcoat^ a dirty shirt, a 
gun in his hand, a pistol and dirk by his side, yet 
cheerfid, enjoyed good health, and, in my opinion,' 
said Cameron, the chaplain at Fort- William, 'fatter 
than he was when at Invemeas.' The moss of Lochaber, 
near which the canal runs, is dark, dreary, 10 miles 
in length, deep, and worthless — dig deep as yon will 
being but moss atilL The bay of Arkaig, the opening 
into the pass of the Mil4nbh — 'the mile dark,' and 
the house of Auchnacarry, are the only objects to be 
seen in Loch-Lochy to attract the tourist. Loch-Oich 
is as steeply dosed in by lofty banks as Loeh-Lochy, 
but is more verdant in appearance, even beantiM 
where the river Garry flows in, the woods beii^ old, 
the scenery varied, and the mountains bold in outline. 
Invei^arry Castle was destroyed in 1746, but its ruins 
render interesting the northern shore of Loch-Oich; 
they are perched on ' Craggan-na-phitich' — the rock of 
the ravens' — which was the gathering-place of the Mac- 
donalds, the clan Coila, and its name their battle cry, 
Tlie castle formed an oblong square, was five storeys 
high, and rounded on the east in tower-like form; the 
keep being an addition to the building, and the turret, 
rising &om its comer, was the watch-tower of Glen- 
nan-Albin and of Glengarry. 

The 'well of the seven heads ' — Toban-nan-Ceaun — 
L,-., Google 

B$ SCOTLAND [Odledonim 

is pointed ont oa the Tout& Ita taie, which ia a bloodj 
one, may be learned aboard the steamer; as, indeed, 
all elae of historic ot picturesque interest on the route 
may be had from worthy 'Captain Fetet,' who is a ' &ir 
talker,' 'great on the veather,' has been on the canal 
station foi a geneiation past, wears well, and well 
remembers many a man of note who has paced the 
quarter-deck of the 'Edinburgh Castia' with him. 
The ' Gondolier ' was built thiB season for the Caledonian 
canal section of Messrs. Hutcheson's line, and although 
the length of the locks necessarily r^ulate that of tite 
steamer, ahe will be found to bo otherwise excellent in 
construction, power, and accommodation. 

The district westward by Glengarry — glen of the 
river Garry — is one well worth exploring by tour- 
ists who have the time to spare; and it teems with 
elan associations, the late chief having been one notable 
in his day, flgurii^ in 1822 aa the 'Cock of the fi^orth,' 
when he appeared at Holyrood Palace to swell the 
nation's welcome to George IV. The slated house on 
the eastern end of Loch-Oich is that of Abercbalder, 
where the clans mustered under Charles Edward before 
their oLarch southwards, crossing Corryarrick for the 
battle-fields of Falkirk, Frestonpans— tjie slaughter of 
Preston and Culloden. The river Oich runs westward 
into Loch-Neea, and at Fort-Augustus ia that of the 
Tarfe, the parisJi being that of Abertarfe and Boleskine. 
At the email loch of Culachy, west of but near to 
Fort-Augustus, the roads firom the west and the east 
unite before crossing the 'Devil's Staircase,' the wild 
tract by Stratherri<i fox the aouth, and which may 
account for the fort being built there — a structure of 
tnore beauty than strength, and meant to hold in check 
the clana of the district. It was erected in 1729, on 
the small triangular plain formed by the Aber of the 
Tarfe, where it£ows into Looh-Ness, and is 32 m. S.W. 
L,-., Google 

Ontol.] DESCEIBED. 87 

of InTemeBB, 29 N.E. of Fort-William. The work ie 
of regular construction, has four bastioua, covered way, 
foaae, and quartets for 300 troops ; and those curioas 
to inspect it may find time to do so irhile the Bteamer 
is passing the looks before descending into Loch-Ness. 
The fort was taken by the clans in 1745, who did what 
they conld to demolish it, before abandoning it to the 
English after the fight of Culloden. 

The-Till^^ on the right has little to attract the 
stranger; and as for the population, they nearly all turn 
out 'to see the steamer pass.' Of old, the place was 
named Cill-Chniman, 'Cill or Kill' in Gaelic meaning 
chapel The roads by either shore of Loch-^ess are 
good, that on the northern baTing, for some seasons, been 
the route of Uie 'Marquis of Br^idalbane' coach, a con- 
veyance placed there to compete for tourist favour with 
the steamer; and it is one of beauty, the rocks so high 
and close to the loch, the height^ so richly wooded, and 
the waters below so deep, eo dark, and so perilously 
near, the danger being apporantly increased by the 
narrowness of the roadway; and conv^anoee meeting 
choose a, safe passage by one or other drawing close 
into the side — 'off &)m the loch.' 

The road on the south of the loch is separated from 
it by a range of hills, but penetrated by the glens or 
pamea through which the rivers Foyers and Farikaig 
find their way into Loch-Ness ; and from the deck of 
the steamer, the beauties of either shore are fully seen. 
The district of Boleskine, 8. K of Fort-Augustus, be- 
longed to Fraser of Lovat, and there Charles Edward 
and he met after the wreck of the fortunes of both at 
Culloden. Loch-Ness is about 2i miles in length, the 
mountains on north and soudi are high, and the depth 
is so great that ice is never seen in its centre. At the 
IS. £. end it contracts to near half a mile, expands to 
about a couple of miles, but contracts at S.W. to half 

L,.,, Google 

88 SCOTLAND [Caledomtm 

that breadth; and the sheet of water is so stnught^ 
fiom wast to east, that the whole extent may be b^en 
in at one view, as might have been those of tlie Oich 
and Lochy on tlie weet. The hills on either hand are 
of pretty equal height, 1,200 to 1,500 feet; but Meal- 
fourvounie, which is 3,000 feet high, is £neiy seen a 
few miles inland ou the X.K and is an object mucli 
admired as the touriBt often looks upon it when the 
setting sun gilds its vast hulk. InTer-Momaton and 
Glen-Uoniston, on the north bonk of Loch-Ness, are 
attractive, ^e latter notable as being where Dr. Johnson 
first conceived the idea of visiting the Hebrides. He de- 
scribes Glen-Moniston, in 1773, as displaying ' scenery 
anch as a romance writer might have delighted in — all 
WBS rudeness, silence, and solitude.' The glen is now 
well wooded, and the road through it leads west to 
Kyle-Bhea, the ferry for the isle of Skye. 

The Falls of Foyers are by Loch-Kesa 12 miles E. of 
Fort-Augustus, on its southern shore, and it ia on the pro- 
gramme of the day's anangementa that the 'Gondolier' 
gives time for those on board to visit a district which the 
muse of Bums has done not a little to illostrate. The 
falls are about a mile and a half &om Loch-Ifees, and 
to reach them the tourist acalee the hills, and descends 
to the river bank, where a narrow ridge of award is 
gained, nearly insulated by the Foyras, when the great 
mils bursts on his view. The descent of the lower fall 
IB 90 feet — the upper cascade, on the channel between, 
having a descent of 30 feet — 130 in whole, which 
renders the cataract the most magnificent in Great 
Britain; ' it ia worth walking a tboueand miles to bo- 
hold, for one hour, the Fail of Foyraa,' said Wilson. The 
spacious cavity is enclosed by complicated clifTs and per- 
pendicular precipices of immense height; and, though 
for a while it seems to wear a savage aspect, yet beauty 
scorning not to dwell even there, ^e horror is Boftened 

L,-., Google 

CofMl.] SESCRIHED. 89 

hy vhat appears to be a msaa of tall Bhrabe, almost 
like trees— as they ascend, ledge above ledge, tiie walla 
of that awM chBam. Boms, who vifiited the Falls of 

Foyers, noted that 

* Among the heathy MUs end ragged wooda 
The Tooring ¥(mn foims hii mouy floodi; 
Till fall he dwUiM on Ule rooky moondi, 
Where, through b ehtpeleM breMh, hi* itreun raboDUdB, 
Aa high in air the buntiiig tonenti flow, 
Ai deep leoeding nuige* foam below, 

Prone down the rook tiu whitening ihL 

And Tiewlesa Bcho'i ear, Mtonixbed, rontU. 

Dim >een through tiiliig miita and aeaieleu anowen, 

The hoary oavem wide nu-ronnding loven. 

Still thniD^ the gap the stnigeling river toili, 

And sW below the nonid oaiUaroii boiln.' 

The Genraal's Hut Inn, by road. 18 milea W. of Invei- 
oess, and 14 E. of FortrAugnstus, waa, of old, the 
teetiiigplEce for the tourist; bat, a few years back, a 
hotel to suit modem tastes has been erected near the 
Falls of Foyers. About two miles east of the Foyers 
is the pass of Inverfariknig, its opening into Loch- 
Keea otetnicted by the Black Bocks, a bold precipice 
crowned by the vitrified fort of Dun-doimardilla, which 
is accessible only &om the south, 75 feet by 45 within, 
enclosed by walls, high, strong, and with traces of 
another wall for outer defence. 50 feet below this, there 
is a doable row of stones, leading to the ceuti:e of a large 
circle of stones embedded in the soil, and supposed to 
have been a temple of the Druids. 

On the northern shore of Loch-Ness the CasUe of 
Urquhart crowns a rocky headland, the deep waters 
laving it on three sides, and the landward approach 
being defended by a moat 16 feet broad and 31 deep. 
Vestiges of the drawbridge remain; the strong gateway 
was flanked by two soKd towers, guarded by an 
enormons portcullis; within is the large court-yard, and, 
between Qie strong double walls which engirdle the 
L,-., Google 

«0 SCOTLAiTO [Caledonian Ctaud. 

rock on 'wMcIi the Caatle stands, vete double plst- 
fbnns for the gairieon to fight upon. The great keep 
or tower ia on the JK.E. comer of the castle jaid, about 
35 feet eqaare, 50 high, of three storeys, and ha^ 
turrets and battlements on Its top. Tbia fortresB is of 
unknown antiquity, but &om its eituation, size, and 
strength, it would have been one of the most important 
in Scotland. In 1303 Urquhart castle was stonliy held 
against Edward of England, but fell, and the garrison 
and governor were slain. Becords exist of its having 
been held as a royBl castle until 1509, when it came into 
possession of the Giants of Frenohie, the ruling iamily 
on the northern shore of Loch-Ness. 

Aldouiie House, near the foot of Loch-lTeBS, was 
the birthplace of Sir James Mintosh; and on th6 
peninsular-liks gravel spit of land between Loch-Neas 
aud Loch-Doehfour may be taaced vestiges of a Boman 
encampment, described by Ptolemy as Bonessa, 'the 
foot of the Ifesa;' it had an iter, 'highway,' with 
Fitmain, in Strathspey; and Bonessa is notable as 
having been the most northern point in Britain on 
which the standards of imperial Borne were planted. 
On a mound near the Eoman camp are remains of a 
feudal stronghold, by tradition named Castle Sptritnel, 
and placed there to levy ' black mail ' — the tax exacted 
of old by the strong from the weak 

The lawn and grounds of Dochfonr Honse aie beau- 
tiful and finely situated, where the lai^e loch flows into 
the smaUet one, and the river Kess runs eastward to 
the Beanly and the Moray Friths; it flows south of the 
canal cut, is about 7 miles in length, 200 feet in aver- 
age width, with a depth, in summer of 3 feet, in flood 
^ 6 or 7 feet; the banks are beautiful throughout, 
especially so when near Inverness. The water has a 
purgative efi'eot on those linuaed to drink it; and tbis 
is accounted for by the large quantities of vf^tahle 

L,.., Google 

paUamier.] DESCRIBED. 91 

matter held in aolution by the great deptha of Loch- 
Neea. At Unirtown Locks, withia leas than a mile of 
InTenieea, tlie ateamer atope, where a anpetabundance of 
conveyancee and touters, &oid the capital of the north, 
will be found waiting the arriral of tie tourist. 

Callandqi is a small town on the river Teith, in the 
S.W. of Perthshire, and on the toniiet route &om 
Stirlii^ to Loch-Katxine, where the railway from the 
south now terminates ; its extension, however, north and 
west to Oban is in rapid progress. In 1763 a number 
of discharged Boldiers were tocatedat Callander, near the 
Teith— the rebeUion of 1745 being then recent. They 
might have aided in suppressing another rising, but not 
being called to take the' field, ^y took to the shuttle. 
The village has thriven well, having a bank and choice 
of churches, with hotels of a superior character — the 
'Dreadnought' on the west, 'feanng no one,' and the 
' Mat^gor* house on the east, not a&aid of the struggle 
for trade — ^which is somewhat keen, the landlords of 
both being able and willing to look well to those who 
patronise them, as the giwrds of the rival 'busses at 
the railway will assure aU comers. The main street ia 
long, broad, and forms neariy the whole town, the houses 
of which seem clean, being white-washed; the shops 
are fair, the public-houses reasonably numerous, but 
the beauties of the locaUty chiefiy lie in the handsome 
villas, which are rapidly occupying the feuing grounds 
on the west, the outlook, which is beautiful, commanding 
the Teith below, the Forth in the distance, the castled 
rock of Stirling above it, Ben-Ledi and Ben-Lomond 
in the west, and the Crags of CaUaoder on the north, 
the latter commanding a view of no oidinary beanty. 

At Camhusmore, in the ueighhourhood, Sir Walter 
Scott spent part of his youth, hence his being so much 
at home when porbraying the scenery of Loch-Katrine^ 
L,-., Google 

92 SCOTLAND [CampbeHovm. 

the Teitli, the Forth, the pass of Leny, the Mao- 
grigOT country, the linn of Bracklin, Boime, and the 
vhole district aioimd. The trains ftom StixUng ate 
fiequent, and nameroiiB are the paseengera they bring 
to Callander, whence coaches run westward for the 
TroBSachs; and if more offer than th^ can cony, at 
either hotel the posting orrangementa are ample, 
^e drive to Lake-Monteith, Aberfoyle, and Loch-Ard 
is often taken, and in eonunei, a well-appointed coach is 
on the road by Loch-Labnaig, Balquiddei, Loch-Eam- 
he«d, Glenogle, Eenmore, and Taymouth, for Aber- 
fddy, and the Tay; or with the alternative of varying 
the route by coach &om Kenmore for Crianlarich, 
and thence to Loch-Lomond; or onwards to Tyndrum, 
Dalinally, Loch- Awe, and Obtui; or the Black Moont^ 
Gleacoe, and Ballachulish, and Fort-WOliam. 

Caupbettown, Cantyie, is tfas most populous of the 
towns in Aj^leshire, modrau as a burgh, but ancient 
aa a place, the Dalriad princes having held court there 
centuries before St Columba lighted his 'lamp of know- 
let^' in the isle of lona. The channel at Cantyre, be- 
tween Scotland and Ireland, is nanow; and &om 
'Erin on the west' came wisdom in those days, the 
Scots, who drove the Picts fiom power, coming thence. 
The small loch, at the head of whicli Campbeltown 
stands, is safe and deep; the berring fishing, in the seoe to 
theeast, by Eilbiannan Sound, for Locb-RanzB and Loch- 
l^yno, is good, and the fishermen resident in the town 
are numerous, enterprising, and many of them prosper- 
ous. Emigration has thinned the population, bat not 
detracted from the wealth of the dis^ct, which is fei<- 
tile, where potatoes were some years e^ extensively 
grown, and where whisky is and has been largely 
distilled, the place being in high repute for the 'strong 
wat«8' to be had there, A (klly service, witli choice 
L,-., Google 

Clyde.] DESCRIBED. 93 

of Bteamer, at present exiets between the npper Clyde 
and Cantyie; a weekljr nm is made to Ayr and Airan 
soath, and a coach nme to Tatbert on Loch-Fyne, by 
"Weat Loch-Tarbert^ for the Bteamer lona. 

The harbour is capadoua enough for the traffic of 
Cantyre. The main street is not over regolaily built; 
tram 'Mljean's land' to the parish chnich, between 
which is the Town-hoose, of modest appearance, and 
near it is an ancient cross, brought &om lona, of archaeo- 
logical inteieat, but ita appearance is little improved by 
the well and wallsat its base being made the places where 
hUls are placarded to 'inform the natives of coming salea 
of pots and pans, &a.' In a place where trade ia con- 
siderable the stranger will find his wants duly cared 
for, the Argyle Hotel, awkwardly approached ^m the 
main atoeet, being a good one, as is the WMte Hart, 
and as may be Lloyd's. Asfor 'public-houses' theieare 
many doora open for retail of the stspls production of 
the place, the inhabitanta affirming that 'there ia not a 
headache in a hogshead of their liquor' — 'their heads,' 
no doubt, being able to carry any ordinary quantity. 

Campbeltown has lately been pat in tel^raphio 
communication with the south, a matter of no small 
interest to the commercial community, as advice of ships 
being off the Mull of Caatyre can be rapidly sent on. 
The parochial school of Campbeltown is well attended, 
ably taught, and liberally endowed. On the shore 
Boutltward there are villas, where the 'upper hundred' 
of Cantyre are aettled; and if that of 'Eaat ClifC be a 
&ir sfunple, they will be found as comfortable within as 
ihey ate ornate without From Milan's land sprung 
a fiunily who hare climbed to tlie highest boughs of the 
sodal tree of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire. 

Cltde, The, from its source to the Falls and below 
them: — ^Xhe Clyde rises from th« weston faoe of 

94 SCOTLAITD [Clyde. 

Clyde'snap, a hill a short way N.E. of the atunmit level 
of the Caledonian railway; and within half a mile of 

ita well-spring it becomes a hum of conBiderahle size, 
tumblii^ down a seiiea of cascades on the isrm of 
Little Clyde, Near Elvanfoot station, C!yde'a-bum 
flows into the Daer water, and becomes known as the 
Clyde. The Daer rieea from the north-west base of 
the Qaeensherry mountain, and the Powtrail water from 
that of the Lowther range ; they imite at Water Meet- 
ings, a few miles S.W. of Elvanfoot, and become merged 
in the Clyde near Newton House. In the southern 
Highlands of Scotland, the streams grow fiist — the 
Elvan, Glengonnar, and Boneaton water coming in 
from the west; the Haredeugh, Camps, and other 
bums from the east. From Abington to Cargtaira the 
river gains httle from its tributtciea, till, sweeping by 
Quothquhan Law, the Medwin waters fall in from the 
east; and below the northern flank of Tinto comes in 
Sooglas water, a river at times heavy in flood, and 
■with a course of nearly 12 miles from Caimtable, on the 
verge of Ayrshire. At Harperfield, on the 8.E. angle 
of the parish of Lesmahagow, but across the Clyde 
from the burgh of Lanarl^ the river Clyde becomes 
broad, deep, and rather sli^gish of flow as it nears 
the Falls, which are three in number, and seen to ex- 
cellent advantage hy the paths which lead near the 
river mai^in iroia the town of Lanark, guides being in 
attendance to point out their beauties. 

Bennington, the upper fall, has 30 feet of descent, and 
shows well; the stream is broad, placid, the banks around 
richly wooded, tmd from a point above the catantct the 
waste of waters is seen flung over the edge of a 
perpendicular rock into the chasm below. Thence the 
appearance of the Clyde is suddenly changed, its course 
contracted as it foams downwards among rocks and preci- 
pices towaids Coia linn, about half a mile off, aiid evenr 

Ctj/d&l DESCRIBED. 95 

jattiug comer of the rocka being clotlied witli natural 
wood, adds greatly to the beauty of the scene. A good 
Tiew of Cora Liim may be had from a pavilioti »ected 
above il^ in which the minors are so disposed that the 
cataract ^tpeara pouring down on the heed of the 
gazer. Across the Clyde, the old castle of Coia is seen 
crowning the rocks orarhead, and seems reeling imdei 
the heavy flood which the river poms down. Cora 
Liim is Si feet in descent, not one leap altc^ether, 
as it has three apparent breaks in the rocky ledges, yet 
it aeems almost continuous, and is well seen from the 
bottom of the chasm, which can be reached 1^ a ladder 
laid against the face of the rock. 

At Bonnington the Clyde runs in a quiet stream, but 
ite course thence is through a channel, in some places 
very narrow, but with walls of rock 70 to 100 feet 
in height Bellow Ccoa the stream flows quietly till 
the email cascade of Dundaff is reached ; and below the 
bridge and town of Lanark is Stonebyres, where the 
Clyde passes thiot^h another rocky ridge, and is 
hurried, in thiee Irape, over a precipice 80 feet in 
height. The breadth of the river varies at diff^ent 
places^ at the broadest a stone may be thrown across, 
and, between Bonnington and the Cora Falls, the 
waters are so conflned that an adventurous leaper has 
been known to clear it at a hound. There are fords which 
children can wade across, and pools which never have 
been fathomed; while nothing can surpass the variety 
and beauty of the prospect. From the deep and ca- 
pacious amphitheatre, exactly in &oat of the linn of 
Cora, and on a level with the bottom of the fall, the 
look upward is grand; the waters siuge down, the rocks 
are dark and high, the pool is black and deep, and the 
banks on either side ore richly wooded. 

Stonebyres has many pointe of resemblance to Cora, 

and is even superior in beauty — Pennant staled it the 


96 SCOTLAOT) [Clyde. 

'most avfal of tihe three.' The best view is got by 
& path throng &6 wood, vheie the river bonk may be 
reached vit}iout di£Scul1y. Tbe gulf below is known 
as the Bolmon pool, and in the spawning Heason vast 
muubers gathei theie, bat can ascend no higher. Cart- 
land Craigs, above the Moose water, and near the town 
of lAnar^ are well worth the visithig, and will be no- 
ticed. If eai them is a bridge erected by the Bomana, 
narrow, bat still entire; and above it is tjie magnificent 
arch which carries the highway on &b road from Car- 
lisle to Stirling. The old coadi rood, by the bonks of 
the rivOT Clyde, to Hamilton, is a beoatifal one, from 
the oTGhards on either hand, and tJie mansionB which 
rise from the fine sites aroimd 

CLTDxrTheBroomielav, Glasgow, to Port-Olaffiow. — 
Time woe when the bm^ of Butherglen had Bhippii^, 
and in those days thehaibour of Glasgow was at &e month 

of the Molendinar bnm, the stream which turned the 
'groin mills' for St Uiingo and his flock, and made ite 
way through the Coll^ green and Gallowgote, to Its 
junction with the Clyde, under the Jail of Glasgow, and 
now forming one of the main sewere of the oldest 
portion of the city. The navigation closes half a mile 
&rther down the river, a few barges excepted, which 
bring minerals down from Butheigleu, two miles further 
up; ond the harbour of the city is quaintly named the 
Broomielow,' though why so ordueologistB cannot say; 
as, if 'law' means hill there is none near, and as for 
•broom' — the 'bonnie broom o' Cowden knowes' — it is 
not known to have flourished there. It is little more 
tbtm forty years since the southern bank of the Clyde, 
below the bridge, had cows grazing upon it, and the water 
at ebb-tide so low, that lads could wade octobb it; while 
on the north the wharves extended but a short way down; 
the trade was conducted by smacks, and the liver paasen- 

Clyde.] DESCRIBED. 97 

gere were sent down by row-boata. A century ago the 
depth of water below the harbour was but 15 inches 
at ebb. It is now 20 feet at flood tide. 

The haibour extends to Finnieaton on the north 
bank, nearly one mile, and to a little above it on the 
south, where the heavier ships are usually berthed, 
large cronea being erected for putting on board 'gigantic' 
machinery; and here the coal is, by railway arrsugement, 
emptied directly &om the waggons into the hold of 
vessels loading. On either side, the length, width, 
height, and light of the sheds are very great, the houses 
are built at a considerable distance from the quay-walls, 
and a &ee path to move along is left for those curious to 
inspect the character and extent of the shipping trade 
of GHasgow. Statistics are scarcely within tie scope of 
a book of this class, otherwise figures could be adduced 
to show the progress of the commerce of a city, the first 
in Scotland and the second in Grreat Britain. 

The wharf for passenger ateamers is on the north side 
of the river near the bridge, where the breadth of quay 
is considerable, and the aheda are kept &ee for the ehelt^ 
of those who wait to go down the river. The harbour 
police are many and vigilant, and all care is taken that 
gangways for the vessels are rapidly placed, and in sum- 
mer that the vessels do not take aboard more than the 
number of fares their licence warrants them to carry. 

The steamers, leaving from 6a.m-to6Jp.m.are numer- 
ous, their accommodationgood, theirext«ma) appearance 
inviting, their speed great, and the competition cors:- 
derable — in some measure cared for by harbour regu- 
lations preventing two vessels starting for the same 
destination at the same time; and where they move off 
together for different places, the slower ship must slack 
speed to let the swifter pass, the skippers knowing 
IJiemselves the relative swiftness of their craft. So 
great is the number— little short of 2,000 iarsB — ^which 
■ G ,Goo>;Ic 

98 SCOTLAND [Clyde. 

&B 'lona' (par excellence ttie toarist boat) carrieB, that 
a li^erth is specially assigned to her, witti a slip on the 
quay wall at which t« land cairiages, and gangways 
enough for the passengers to go into or get out of the 
long and huidaome steamer. Seven o'clock each lawfdl 
day, &om May till October, has been tlie starting hour 
of tjiia steamer from Gla^ow; and it is a rule that the 
anthoritiea nuke all steamers move off precisely at their 
hour, which must be made known to the police at least 
2t hours before, that risk of casualties be avoided. The 
breadth of the Clyde at the Brooimelaw is about 450 
feet; but ships being berthed on either side, two or three 
alongside each other, steamers 'move ou' at half speed, 
in onler iJiat the surge raised by their paddles may not 
disturb the vesaela at their moorings. The deep sea 
steamers, for cargo and passengers, are numerous, and 
e«ch has ita (juay berth on the nortli side of the Clyde, 
and extending down the river. 

On the right hand is seen the Sailors' Home, with the 
'time-ball' on its roof; and &rther down are the exten- 
sive machine-shops of the shipbuilders; the iudent on 
the bank is ' fi^apier's dock* — the first of the class oi^ the 
upper Clyde, and where most of the 'Cunard steamers' 
have berai engined. The shp-dock below belongs to 
Barclay & Carl& lu the fields adjacent are vast quan- 
tities of imported timber, the space so occupied being 
soon to be excavated for a dock, larger than the one in 
course of formation across the rivet. To right and left of 
the river are the shipbuilding yards of numerous firms, 
some employing 2000 men, which for the construction of 
iron vessels, whether for pieace or war, have earned a 
world-wide reputation; coal and iron being abundant in 
Lanarkshire, and the city and suburbs supplying the 
needful labour. The ebb and flow of the Clyde is 
about 10 feet; its banks are built in vrith high and 
strong stone walls along the extent of the harbour; and, 
L,.,, Google 

ayde.] DESCEIBED. 99 

for many milee downvards, sloping banks or dykes are 
formed, bat lined with stone. The tog steamers plyii^ 
on the rivei are now 8o many, that horse labour in 
towing vessels is done away with. 

On the north side of the river are seen the bnildings 
of the higher portions of the city — the West-end Park 
in the distance, St. Vincent-crescent in the foreground, 
Fartick on the north-west, and Govan on the south. 
Kre many years go by, the harbour is likely to extend 
to where the river Kelvin enters the Clyde — flows into 
it can scarcely be said, as, although a 'stream of some 
name in song,' and four miles upwards clear, its lower 
course is neither limpid nor rapid The height above 
the Kelvin is Yorkbill, and that inland o^ and above 
Fartick on the east^ is Gilmorebill, where the buildings 
of the new University of Glasgow are now rising. Far- 
ther inland are the extensive roofs of Gartnavel, the 
Lunatic Asylum of a city whose 'strife of trade' may 
do not a little to keep it full enough of patients. The 
spire of Govan church is like that of Stratford-on-Avon; 
and the mills near by are those in which silks were first 
spun in Scotland — and they prosper. 

Within the last few years the river channel has been 
greatly widened; the ground on which the steamer 
Fffl:sia was not long since built, being now almost 
in mid-channel above the Kelvin; nearly jC2,000,000 
having been wisely and profitably expended in rendering 
the river the best for navigation in Britain, and, it 
may be, that for its class and character, it is inferior to 
none in the world. Above and below Govan, the river 
banks were green, and dotted with villas, occupied by 
the bankers and merchant princes of the city; now, 
space has become so valuable, chiefly for shipbuildii^ 
purposes, that these houses are cleared away, and little 
else is heard than the din of the rivetting hammer. 

About 5 miles below the Broomielaw a leef of rock 

100 SCOTLAND [ayde.- 

croBBM the Clyde, on which, on 11th April 1854, the 
steamer 'Gluagow" for New- York stuck fiiatj but emce 
then the diTing bell has be«n at vork to remove it, a 
task now nearly accomplished. The river banks were 
low and eedgy, with here and there some bay-like in- 
dentation into which the salmon fishermen hauled 
ashore their nets; now all is changed; there is no peace 
for the fish. The silt dredged out of the chann^ has 
been deposited on the banks, and their surface levels 
much improved. This was done chiefly in a season of 
- <lull trade, when the relief thus judidously given to the 
sufferii^ poor, made the operations both useM and 

The large mansion on the right ia Scotstown, the resi- 
dence of the Oswald family, one of whom was Member 
for Glasgow, when by the Reform Bill the city had two 
representatives awarded to her. Before that her poli- 
tical influence was email On the south side of the 
river is Elderslie House, held by the Spiers family, an 
influential one in the district, and a scion of which now 
represents the shire of Eenfrew. Elderslie, anciently 
cdled King's Inch — 'inch' meaning island, and such 
was it at one time, and 'Kings,' because perhaps of the 
'Stuart' family being originally &om Eenfrew, Banm 
of that place being still one of the royal titles. Ren- 
frew burgh was centuries ago a place of no small 
importance on the Clyde, 'Deus gabemat navem' — 
'God steers the barque'— beii^ the motto of the little 
town, but the shipping trade it had has wholly passed 
away. Below Eenfrew rises Blythswood House, declared 
by Pennant, a century ago, 'to be the most elegant 
and the sweetest spot in North Britain,' It is the resi- 
dence of the Campbell family, who, like the noble house 
of Westminster, in London, have become rich by the 
'west-end' acres they owned in Glasgow being built over. 

West of Blythswood, the river Cart flows into the 
.,.., Google 

Clyde.] DESCRIBED. 101 

Clyde, three mileB from Paisley, and known to the 
'wmveFbodieB'theieaa'theTraterneK' In the in&iicy 
of steam navigation, boata were toved down the Caft 
with pasaengeis for the coast ; and the distance to the 
Clyde being not great, the town councildom of Paisley 
snnk the revenues of their corporation in an effort to 
make it navigable to their doors; hut the funds were 
small and the effoili was abortive. Barges, gabarts as 
they are locally called, come up the Cut to Paisley, 
from across the Clyde, where is a short and shallow cut 
from the Porth & Clyde Canal, the latter running 
nearly parallel with the Clyde, a short way inland from 
Yoker, and on the bank opposite to Blytl^wood. Near 
where the canal referred to enters the Clyde is Kil- 
patrick, a village whence St. Patrick, the tutelar saint 
of Ireland sprung, his father having been of rank as a 
Konian l^onaiy, and stationed at Dunglass, a fortress 
of that age placed to guard the wall which stretched 
from Abercom on the Forth across Scothuid 

On south side of the Clyde is the domain and home 
of the noble family of Blantyre, the late heeid of which 
perished hy a 'stray bullet' at the revolution in Brus- 
sels in 1830, and so died after having braved the perils 
of the Peninsular battle-fields. The present lord is little 
heard of. At Bowling, on north side the Clyde, is 
what in river phrase is known as 'the dead harbour,' 
an embMiked waterway, where the summer steamers 
find berths dnring 'theirwinter of inoccupation;' there 
also the railway from Edinburgh and Glasgow for 
Loch-Lomond and Helensburgh comes near the river 
bank; and at Bowling a considerable traffic exists 
in loading minerals from the canal or railway, or 
disloading cai^o from vessels going no further, 
the does there heii^ light. Within the enclosure of 
the ruined walls of Duugless is an obelisk, raised in 
honour of Henry Bell, who constructed the Cqmet, the 
L,-., Cookie 

102 SCOTLAITD ' [Clyde. 

first steamer wbicli plied on the Clyde. The Comet 
was built at Poii-Glaegow, and on 6th Augost 1812, 
Hemy Bell advertised that his 'steam paaaage-hoat^ 
the Comet, between Glasgow, Greenock, and Helena- 
burgh, having at very mnch expense fitted up that 
handsome vessel to ply upon the Clyde, by the power 
of wind, air, and steam, he intends that the vessel shall 
leave the Broomielaw, Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, 
about mid-day, or about such time thereafter as may 
answer from the state of the tide; and the elegance, 
comfort, safety, and speed of this vessel required only 
to be proved to meet the approbation of the public' — 
'ttie t«rms are for the present fixed at 4/ for the beet 
cabin, and 3/ for the second.' The Comet waa wrecked 
in October 1820, on Craignish point, on her passage 
from Inverness, near the Crinan Gana^ but her engines 
were got out, and have been preserved. 

Below Bowling, the river expands largely, but the 
channel is not much broader, the waterway beyond the 
dykes being very shallow when the tide is out From 
Gla^ow to Port-Glasgow, stone beacon-like erections 
rise on either side the Clyde, with the mileage up or 
down marked upon them; and near the rock of Dum- 
barton, hghthouso structures appear at frequent inter- 
vals to guide the vessels safely on their way. The castle 
of Dumbarton is one of the few fbrtresses the Act of 
Union between England and Scotland requires to be kept 
garrisoned; it was strong, almost impregnable, when 
cannon were light and of short range — now its defences 
might crumble away under one broadside. In Scottish 
history, the fortress stood many a siege, and was seldom 
taken. From the little harbour on the Leven, the river 
washing the castle's base, Mary, the child' Queen of Scots, 
took shipping for Franco. On the Leven, her ' ancestor,' 
Eobert the Bruce, used to exercise his small fleet — Car- 
dross Castle, wh^ he died, being on the river bank to 

Cltfde.] DESCRIBED. 103 

the north-west. Lookiiig westward by the atrath or 
glen of the Leven, 'lofty Ben-Lomond' con be clearly 
seen; Balloch, the southern extremity of Loch-Lomond, 
being within six mOes' distance of Dumbarton Castle. 
The northern shore of the Clyde, &om the Leven to 
Helensburgh, is getting built over with villas, the rail- 
way running behind them ; and on the southem bank 
is Langaide, where aummer houses, with 'lailway pri- 
vil^jee,' are rising up, the line from Glasgow for Gree- 
nock coming near the river bank there. Port-Glasgow 
is a short way down the Clyde, and above it is the 
castle of Newark, finely situated, in ruins, half occu- 
pied, but neither ancient nor of historic lame. 

Clyde, The Frith of — irom Port-Glasgow to the 
Oiaig of Ailsa, and the Mull of Canlyre to Helens- 
bui^h. — A ferry existed from Port-Glasgow to Geilston, 
on tiie Caidross shore, and westward lie banks, bare at 
low water, and extending to below Greenock, its ter- 
mination known as 'the tail of the bank,' off which the 
royal guard-ship is-moored, and where vessels he and 
'wait for a wind' to proceed to sea. The point on the 
left is that of Garvel, near it is the old bottle-work, 
the space oreund utilised for shipbuilding; near by is 
Cartsbum, the eastward suburb of Greenock, and 
where, as at the Molendinar of Glasgow, the small 
fleet of Greenock weft wont to find berths; now 
scores of funnels and forests of masts throng the docks, 
and line the extensive quay-walls of the town of 
Greenock, which thrives apace, dividing the export 
trade of the Clyde with the city further up the river. 
Of the town, the customhouse, and the environs of 
Greenock, notice will be taken in this volume, but 
in their order. The hills on south side of the Clyde are 
green, not craggy, and along their southem slopes the 
railway for Wemyes Bay holds it« course. 

L,-., Google 

104 SCOTLAND [ayde. 

Oa the hill-dde, above the western suburb, is the 
Cemetery, extensive, well-kept, and &om its walks 
commanding fine views of the upper frith of Clyde; 
below it, near Grourock, is the Sailors' Home, a com- 
modious and comfortable pile of building, erected for 
superannuated seamen bom in the counties of Lanark, 
Benirew, Ayr, Argyle, and Dumbarton. On the low 
promontory below the 'Home' is the 'Battery' — te 
the uninitiated not very strong in appearance, but 
believed to be otherwise, the guns mounted being of 
heavy weight, and their range solficient to command 
the entrance into the reaches of the river, southward of 
Loch-Long and the Dunoon shore. The bay of Gourock, 
lying to the left, gives quiet anchorage in winter to 
die yachts, which in summer cmiao in the frith and 
round the coasts; and there of old lay the shipping 
trade of the Clyde — Gourock having been known as a 
place for such, before Greenock or PortrGIasgow were 
in existence. Gourock is notable as being where 'red 
herring" were first prepared on the Clyde. 

Loss of ship or seaman is rare on the upper Clyde, 
but near Kempoch Point, or the rocka which protrude 
below the quay of Gourock, two sad wrecks occurred — 
that of the Catherine of lona, with reapers aboard, 
which on August 10, 1822, came into collision with a 
steamer, when 42 out of 46 perished; and that of the 
Comet steamer in October 1824, which was run into by 
the steamer Ayr, the former sinking within a few yardsof 
the shore, whenupwards of 60 of those aboard went down 
with her;~the moon was shining, the passei^ra:s were 
<1ancing, the voy^e from Inverness was closing, when 
that sad fate overtook so many! When witches were 
believed in, one notable crone had a 'shop' on Kem- 
poch Point for the 'Bale of fair winds' to the credulous 
iiittriner, and she — did a large trade! 

Gourock — 'the bay of goats,' being pasaed, the villas 
L,-., Google 

Clyde.] DESCRIBED. 105 

of Asbton to the westward come in view, the tower of 
Levan oa the hill-eide above, the village of Helensbnigh 
in the diBtance, tbe 'lofty Ben-Lomond' in tte M". E., 
the point of Boseneath, the opening into Loch-Long, the 
villa-built-over slopes of Kilcr^gan, Cove, and Blair- 
moie, the Finnart bills, the Strone point, the Holy-Loch, 
Hnnter'B Quay toiDunoon and To^n>rd,thegteen hills of 
Cowal, the low iale of Bute, Arran towering- above it- 
all open out in beaaty when Cloeh point ia reached. 
At the Cloch was of old the ferry from Argyle to Ren- 
frewshire, the Highlands to the Lowlands; and boats 
can still be had there, when need is that the passive be 
made, Mid no steamer runnii^ or other means of cross- 
ing is to he found. The lighthouse at the Cloch is the 
highest up the frith; next is that of Toward, at 
the opening into the bay of Rothesay; then that of 
the little Cumbiae, off Garroch-head; Pladda, south- 
end of Airan; Sanda, east-end of Cantyre; the Corse- 
wall light, off Galloway; then across the Irish Channel, 
off Donaghadee, or the Lough of Belfast. 

The woods, doinain,andmaneionofArdgowan, thesoat 
of Sir M. B. S. Stewart, show well on the left. Inland is 
the little town of Inverkip, a place of note in the era 
when Wallace and Bruce fought for the independence 
of their coimtry — a castle havii^ been there, garrisoned 
by the Englial^ in which Sir Philip Mowbray sought 
safety when retreating from the castle of Ayr to that of 
Bothwell, but it was destroyed by the gallant Douglas: 
Quiet summer quarters can be had in Inverkip; the 
waUcsinlandaresecludedjandthe open beach on theClyde 
is within a short distance ; but there is unfortunatoly no 
pierexceptonefortheshipmentof atone; passengers being 
putashore by boat, and the railway betog at some distance. 

Westward of Inverkip, the bjlla are well wooded; 

below them is Wemyss-Bay, the modem castle-like 

building on its eastern horn being that of John Bums, 

L,-., Google 

106 SCOTLAND [Clyds. 

Esq., one of the firm ■which haa done bo much to forvard 
steatn. nsvigatioD, in maintaining the nml line from 
Glasgow to Beliaat, the splendid steamers to Liverpool, 
and the Cmiard fleet — the latter of world-wide repute. 
The villas of Wemysa-Bay are not many, hut those on 
the shore line rise in park-like enclosiirea. There haa, 
for years past, been a 'good Cook' in the hotel near hy; 
and latterly, the esteosion of railway coiumumcation 
from Port-Glasgow to the Clyde here, has done not a 
little to make the place better known to the public — 
steamers running thence to Innellan and KotJieeay on 
the north, and to Laigs, Millport, and Amin on the south. 
In Bummer the long roofed-in pier makes a pleasant 
promenade; but in a recent winter storm it suffered, scarce 
a wreck being left to ahow where it had been, and even 
the railway embankmente were injured. 

The fsir-way from the Clyde for the channel west- 
ward lies by Garroch-head, between the isles of Bute and 
Cumbrae, but there is a safe although not deep channel 
by the Largs shore and Millport to Arran. The coast 
line from the bay of Wemyes to that of Laigs is a fine 
one, each preferable site bong secured for villa erections 
or park-like domains; nor is it of late years that the 
amenities of the site have been acknowledged, the 
castle of Skelmorlie, a seat of the Montgomery femily, 
having been for centuries there, and other places west^ 
ward have been so occupied. Largs Bay is famous in 
Scottish story, as there the fleet of Haco, king of 
Norway, was assembled; and on the banks of the Gogo 
bum inland, all 'went wrong' with the Norwegians, 
when on October 2, 1263, they were utterly routed by 
the Scots, under their king Alexander — no effort being 
afterwards made by these Noise sea-kings to subjugate 
their neighbours of Scotland. 

Largs has the prospect of early railway communi- 
cation, but is at present dependent on &6 steamraa of 
L,-., Google 

Otyde.] DESCSIBED. 107 

the Clyde. On this accoont it is the leea acceeaible, but 
tame aloae making the difference, the fores on the route 
being low; 'the M'Rellar boats' have long served this 
district well. Westward of Large is FairUe, a quiet Bee- 
bathing village — all the more quiet that no pier exists 
at it; when the water is low, therefore, the boatman has 
often, for a hundred yards or so, to carry 'the ladies' 
ashore on his back. Across the bay from f airlie is the 
small town of Millport, in the larger Cumbrae, an island, 
one of whose late parish ministers was wont to close his 
pulpit petitions by an invocation for the well-being of the 
"inhabitante of GieatBrilain and the neighbouring islands 1' 

The channel between the Cumbraee and the mainland 
is a narrow one; and, holding to the left, the shores of 
West Kilbride trend onwards to Ardrosaan, the coast 
line thence to below Girvan being, the heads of Ayr 
excepted, a low one, the water often not deep, and so 
exposed that, a generation ago, when a tempeet rose, 
imd a ship missed stays, the ^ore being on the lee, the 
vessel, cotton, sugar, or tobacco laden — often perished 
there. I^Tow all is safe, as, under Fladda, Ailsa, or off 
Loch-Ryan, tug steamers may be seen lying, their 
skippers scanning the horizon, to 'cLake out' the coming 
sail; then up steam and away for her, the first securing 
the prize of towing the ship to port: the competition is 
keen, but the charges are r^ulated- 

The approach to the new harbour of Ardroason b 
made all the safer by the Horse Isle, which lies 
to seaward. This rising port has steamers running 
regularly to Arran, Belfost, and Newry, with a large 
export of minerals, delivered at the ship's aide by the 
railways from Eenfrewshire, Lanark ahire, and Ayr- 
shire. South-west of Ardrossan is the ancient seaport 
of Irvine, placed where the river Irvine flows into the 
Frith of Clyde; and farther down the coast is the 
harbour of Troon, the outport for the manufactures of 
L,.,, Google 

108 SCOTLAND [Clyde. 

Kilmarnock, which has been fostered by tiie noble house 
of Portland, as Ardrossan haa been by that of EgUnton. 
The river Ayr finds its way into the frith of Clyde a few 
miles below Troon; and such is the fertility of the dis- 
trict, the enterprise of the town's-folk, and the supply 
of coal near them, that although the exposed harbour 
is a bar one, still it has been a place of import and 
export from the Eoman era downwards. 

Rounding the ' Heads of Ayr,' the small harbour of 
Ihinure (for Maybole), the policies of Culzean Castle, 
and the sandy shore of Tumberry Point, are approached; 
the latter of historic interest to the Scotsman, as it was 
there [see the 'Lord of the Isles'] where the gallant 
Brace carried his small band across from Brodick, in 
Arran, 'crossed the Rubicon,' flung away the scabbard, 
and entered on the atru^le which culminated in euc- 
eese on the field of Bannockbum — ^the Marathon of , 
Scotland. Bruce knew well the district, Tumberry 
Caatlf^being his patrimony, where he first learned to 
shake his 'Carrick epear,' and where the partisans of 
'the Wallace wight' had been bold and many. West- 
ward of Turnberry is the rising town of Girvan, the 
terminatioiL of railway travel in that district, being 32 
miles from Ayr; but plans are in progress to carry the 
line onward to Stranraer, the railway communication 
thence for Glasgow at present being southwards to 
Dumfries, and then northwards to Gla^ow. The river 
GirvMi flows into the frith here. The water is not deep; 
but coal so abounds on its banks inland that means are 
in progress to improve the harbour and increase the 
traffic; and the traders of the town have energy and 
wealth enough to carry out their laudable object. 

The steamer which plies between Ayr and Stranraer 

has Girvan for a calling-place, and lands passengers off 

Ballantrae, 'weather permitting.' The village is email 

andoccupied chiefly by flshermen;andtheStincharwater, 

L,-., Google 

Clyde.] DESCKIBED. 109 

which runs into the Mth there, is a good one for ealmon. 
The coach road to Stranraer atrikea inland at Ballan- 
trae; croBsing the hills, it descends Glen-App, and guns 
the level on the southern shore of Loch-Ryan — a sheet 
of water giving safe anchorage, with the busy town of 
Stranraer at its S. W. extremity, and the lighthouse oH' 
Coreewall on the coast seaward. The rit^e between 
Loch-Ryan and the frith of Clyde is narrow. 

South of Coi-sewall is the steamer track for the Sol- 
way, the Isle of Man, Morecambe bay, and the Meisey, 
and 8.W. for the Irish shore, the Liffey, and fiirther. 
At no great distance to the 8.W. is the 'channel ferry' 
from Portpatrick to Donaghadee ; the Ciaig of Ailsa — 
tiiat ocean nnlestone, is in mid-channel; westward lies 
Bel&st Lough; northward the 'black head' of Antrim; 
westward the Giant's Causeway, the route for London- 
derry, and the steamer track for the broad Atlantic. 
Korth of Ailsa is the Mull of Cantyte, a lighthouse 
showing thero to the west, and guiding the steamer for 
Islay and Skye; but neu«T is the l^ht of Sanda, a 
dangerous locality, off the S.K end of Cantyre; behind 
it is the quiet little loch of St. Eiaian, the harbour 
of Campb^tewn, guaided bj its own light of Deraar. 
Across the sound are the * biown hills of Airan', east of 
tiiem the south end of that romantic island, and below 
is the light of Pladda; then Whiting Bay, the western 
entrance into the safe harbour of I^mlash, and the Holy 
Isle which shelters it; Brodick, the sound of But^ 
the little Cumbrae with ite lighthouse, the Garroch- 
head to the left, and Cumbiae on the right, 'the fair way' 
of the Clyde, Kilchattan bay in Bute, the bay of 
Rothesay, the Cowal hills, the entrance into the Kylea 
of Bute, Toward' lighthouse, the Innellan shore, the 
Bullwood villas, 'Seestu bay,' the castle of Dunoon, the 
town of that name, the acreage of villas sown broadcast 
there, but the crop, arcbitectutally, a nondescript one. 
L,-., Google 

no SCOTLAND [Crinan 

Kira, Hunter'a Quay, the quiet Holj-Loch, KUnmn, 
Stione, Blairmore, Ardentinny, Loch-Loi^, Coulport, 
Cove, Kilcreggan, the ducal house of Eoseneath, the 
Giareloch, Row, the town of Helensburgh, the point of 
Ardmore, Ardoch, the Cardroaa shore, Dumbarton 
Castle on the north, and Newark on the south, ia a 
rapid survey of the frith of Clyde, a coast and shoTe-line 
of varied beauty and unequalled attraction. The route 
is commended to the attention of some enterprising 
'Cftird' of Greenock, as a steamer station, to 'Herald' ito 
beauties to the touriet; and a 'young* commander could 
do it veil, between sunrise and sunse^ pic-nicking hie 
iareannder the hermitage at Ailsa, and his 'little' friends 
seeing to it that the steward had something more than 
Campbeltown whisky and Greenock biscuit to feed the 
excursionist ^res who were booked for the t\ul 

Crinah Cahal, Thb — for Corpach, on Looh-Eil, ia 
on the route from Glasgow to Inverness, the steamer 
'lona' carrying the tourist by Greenock, Rothesay, and 
the Kyles of Bute, to Ardrishaig on Loch-Fyne, where 
they disembark, and find the linnet, a double-screw 
steamer, constructed this season, to take them by 
the canal to Loch-Crinan, on the western coast. The 
track has for years past been known as 'the ro^ 
TOat«,' and apart from the Queen having passed through 
it in 1847, some colour to the title was kept up when 
the 'iSunbeam' passage-boat, with a span of thorough- 
bred horses, and riders in ecM'let livery, swept by the 
woods of Auehendarroeh, the green hills of North- 
Xuapdale, the braes of Kilmartin, the princely mansion 
of Follalloch, to Duntroon Castle, for the sea near 
Jura, Corryvreckan, Scarba, westward to the Atlantic, 
or eastward to Oban and the Caledonian Canal. 

The lona, leaves the Broomielaw at 7 a.m.; waits 
the arrival of the mail train from the south at Gxeraiock, 

Coma.] DESCEIBED. 1 1 1 

until 9 o'clock; and makes the ran to the Crinan canal 
in little more than three hours, where she is rapidly 
made &Bt to the quay. Portcis, Bpring-carta, and all 
needful means being at hand, at Mesera. Hutchison's 
expense, the luggage is carried from the lona to the 
'linnet' steomei, which Lies on the canal, ahout half a 
mile to the westward. In the Sunbeam, there were 
cabin and steerage divisions, but the choice seat was on 
the rooi^ where, back to back, and with limbs extended, 
a long TOW of fiist«lass tourists used to ' do the distance,' 
mileage small, but time considerable, because of the 
locks to be passed on the way. The Linnet is a 'saloon' 
Bteamer, her upper deck with seat and promenade space 
from stem to stem; and below, the cabins ore I^ht, 
that, should it rain — it comea down in bucketfiils — 
the tourists can, under cover, see all about them. 

Good pedestrians, wishful to keep down expense, by 
moving off smartly, were able to reach Ciinan loc^ 
as soon as the Sunbeam ; nor need they either stop or 
starve on the road, as the snug innofCaimban — 'lock- 
white,' is near midway — the har open, and the gill'Stonp 
at bond; or if, eschewing such 'comforts,' they will he 
beset by uichins, bareheaded, shoeless, breechleea, with 
cans of warm milk — a brick, once hot, at the bottom 
of the con — and biscuits, both for sale; and the small 
trade is actively pushed. The accommodation aboard 
the Linnet will be found admimbly adapted to meet 
the requirements of the station, the Bteoraman, Capt 
Leslie, being one of the most attentive, retiring, but 
experienced of his class, having been on the Forth & 
Clyde Canal when passengers, in numbers, went via 
Falkirk to Edinburgh, before railways were known. 
Loss of life is in small risk on the canal, but now 
and again steersmen, strangers to the track, stro^bt 
and narrow as it seems to be, tind locke under the water, 
and make holes in the bottom of their crafL 

L,-., Google 

112 SCOTLAMD [Crinan. 

Above tlie sea-beach on Loch-Crinftn there has long 
been a comfortable little inn, for 8Qch touriata aa can loiter 
by the way, the attractions for the tingler being good, and 
the district by Ballenach for Loch-Swin, although little 
visited, well worth exploring. Downie House, on the 
island of Jura, ia notable, as there Thomas Campbell, 
author of the ' Pleasures of Hope,' spent some years 
of bis student youth, his forefathers having been from 
the district. Awaiting the arrival of the ' Linnet,' the 
steamer 'Chevalier' will be found, steam up, ready to 
move aS, soon as the luggage is shipped; but the piles 
of such are often great, many of the tourists carrying not 
a little with them, especially those who spend weeks in 
the Western Highlands, at Oban, Skye, Ballachulish, 
or Banavie. Like the ' Linnet' on the Crinan, and the 
'Gondolier' on the Caledonian Canal, the steamer 
' Chevalier' has been built for, and this year placed on 
the station from Crinan to Gorpach; and all the expe- 
rience 6f the builders and Hberahty of her owners have 
been lavished in making the ship one right worthy to 
ply on the royal route, onward and eastward. 

On theS. W. lies the island of Jura, with its two moun- 
tains, the 'paps,' rising 3,000 feet above the sea level; 
eastward is the 'rugged island' of Scarba; and in the 
narrow sound between is the gulf of Corryvieckan. By 
Campbell reference is made to the distant 'sound of the 
loud Corryvreckan roar,-' and by Scott, ' Scarba's isle, 
whose tortured shore still rings to Corryvreckan' s roar,-* 
and by Leydon, 'Aa you pasa through Jura'a sound, 
bend your course by Scarba's shore, shun, oh! shun 
the gulf profound, where Corryvreckan' s surges roar.' 
The danger is more poetic than real, as at certain states 
of the tide Corryvreckan may be safely passed, the tur- 
moil of waters arising &oni iJie whirling tidal eddies of 
the seas, which strike against the pyramidal rock in 
mid channel, and fima the wild Atlantic wave sea- 
L,-., Google 

Carnal] DESCRIBED, 113 

void, the roll thence comes heavilj when the winds 
blow high; the channel is narrow, one hundred fethoms 
deep, and the rock within fifteen feet of the surfaee. 

On the DurriB-More — the 'door great' point — the 
Comet, the first steamer launched by Henry Bell, was 
wrecked, the tide ninning strong off the islets which 
lie off Loch-Craignish to the right The shores of 
Nether Xiom, as the mainland on the right is named, 
show cliffs, caverns, and dykes of trap — the latter in 
many places as distinctly elevated as if built to mark 
the lines of conterminous properties. The islands by 
which the Chevalier holds her way are many — Linga, 
Shuna, Easdale, and groups known as 'the olate isles.' 
Shuna was bequeathed to the Corporation of Glasgow for 
charitable objects by a late proprietor; but the greater 
portion of the island, like the ina.inla.Ti H here, is on the 
Bteadalbane estate — Ardmaddy Castle vheie the late 
Marquis was bom, beii^ a seat of that family; and on 
the island of Sell was formed a model farm, of la^;e 
extent, maintained 'regardless of expense,' and — where 
quadrupeds were greatly better housed and cared for 
than were the bipeds ! From the island of Sell to the 
mainland there is a bridge spanning the narrow sound, 
BO high that vessels can pass under; the passage 
from file sound by the main channel of Clachan is two 
miles in extent, and narrow as a river; and for Oban it 
is at ebb tide so shallow as to be crossed at some risk. 

Easdale has been long known for the iair quality and 
vast quantity of slate produced from the quarries there; 
the island appears to be wholly of slate, ibo men work 
fer under tbe level of the sea, and the waters are kept 
out by the vast quantities of splinters &om the slate, 
which form the shore on either side the narrow channel; 
nor do the comforts of the workmen appear to be super- 
abundant, their homes being low in roof, small-win- 
dowed, slate-corared, cold-Uke, and, to an outside 
H ,Goo>;Ic 

lU SCOTLAUD [Crinan 

inspector, uninviting; but auch nu^t be looked for, 
seeing that the Atlfuitic wayes at times beat h^h and 
cold on these unsheltered shores. Passing Easdale, the 
sound of Kerreia is approached; and on the southern 
end of that rough island are the ruins of the castle 
of Gylen, notable in Scottish history, as in hie tent 
near it Alexander II. died, when on an expedition to 
curb hie unruly subjects in the Hebrides. Argyll, in 
the Monmouth rebellion, caused his small fleet to ren- 
dezvous in the sound of Kerrera before sailing for the 
south. Seaward Ues the island of Mull, with its rugged 
shore, and Ben-More rising near its centre. It is des- 
cribed in the lona route, as the steamer running there 
circumnavigates Mull, north to south, oi south to north, 
as the weather may suit. 

The sheltered bay of Oban, which is entered on 
the right, ia scarcely seen until the steamer is within it, 
the run from Crinan being made within two and-a-half 
hours. Passengers desirous of landing, are left at Oban, 
when the Cheralier again moves on by Dunolly Castle, 
the sound of Mull to the west, Dunstaffnage on the righl^ 
beyond it Loch-Etive, above it Cruachan-Ben, on the 
left the island of Lismore — 'garden greaf of Aigyle- 
shire, in times of old held by the prektes of the west. 
On the mainland to the west is the district of Eingair- 
loch, on the east that of 'green Appin,' vrith the ruined 
fortalice of Castle Stalker, Xoch-Creran, Aird'a house, 
Appin-pier, that of Ardsheal, Ballachulish, the opening 
into Loch-Leven, the mountains at the entrtmce of 
Glencoe— all make the steamer course eastward by the 
Linnbe loch, one of great and varied attraction. By 
the shore &om Loch-Leven, on the right, is the coach- 
route for those passengers who travel in that way &om 
Loch-Lomond, through Glencoe to Fort-William; and 
on the left a road winds among the mountains to 
Lech-tioaart for Ardnamnrchan and Muli 


Canal.] DESCRIBED. 115 

At Coran-Ardgonr, where Loch-LiDnlie may be said 
to end and Locli-Eil to begin, the channel is narrow, 
the current rapid, with a low-watei stone pior on the 
right, and a wooden one, new and recently erected, on 
the left. Inns are open for the tourist on either side 
the ferry, and below that on the west is a lighthoose, 
to show the course for the Caledonian Canal ; and a 
short way behind, a couple of guns are placed to guard 
the passage, if need be. The hiUs of Ardgour on the 
west ore high, and on the i^it is the chief mountain 
in North Britain, Een-Nevis, which can be safely as- 
cended from Fort- William or irom Banavie, as will be 
dsBcribed. Loch-£il spreads out to the west as the 
small town of Fort- William is approached, the river 
Lochy from the west, and the Nevis from the south 
Sowing into its upper reaches; and westward of these 
is Corpacb, the small hamlet where the Caledonian 
Canal enters Loch-Eil; houaea or huts were there cen- 
turies ago, but tha vast sum spent in constructing the 
canal has added to their number, and apace or ground 
appears to be not over valuable, as the dwellings in 
view are buUt widely apart. 

At Corpach a snug inn is kept by one &vourably 
known as the BtewMd of the steamer on the canal; 
near it is an obelisk, a monument raised in honour of 
'Colonel John Cameron,' who fell at Waterloo, in com- 
mand of the 92d regiment of Scottish Highlanders; 
the inscription is from the pen of Sir Walter Scott, and 
ends thus — 'Reader, call not his fate untimely, who, 
thus honoured and lamented, closed a life of fame by a 
death of gloiy.' FortWilliatn, and the district below 
Ben-Nevis and above Loch-Eil, is in the parish of Kil- 
malie; the chuich is near to Corpach, and the manse 
warmly placed on the greeu hill-side above it Weet^ 
of Kihnalie is the road from Gleofinnau, notable aa 
the place where Charles Edward raised hia.etantkid 

116 SCOTLAND {CrUff. 

in Ai^uBt 19, 1745. The spot b mdicated hj a nar- 
row rotmd tower, erected there by Macdonald of Glen- 
aladale, a chief whose ancestors suffered in the Stuart 
causa The tower is surmounted by a statue of the 
Prince, who, being nnfortunate, is called the Pretender; 
the figure is in full Highlajid garb, with aim extended, 
pointing the route southward to the clans who mustered 
to uphold his cause; and a tablet within the monnmeut 
details in Gaelic, lAtin, and English, the whole story. 
Loch-Sheil, which divides the ehire of Argyle from that 
of InTemeBS, is a fresh-watei lake, narrow, straight, 
near twenty miles in length, and dischargee ite waters 
into Loch-Moidart on the west Ten miles west of 
Glenfinnan inn is that of Kinloch Aylort, on the road 
thence to Barrodale on Loch-no-Gaul, where Charles 
Edward landed in 1746, and as such is one of historic 
interest, and ot great picturesque attraction. 

Cbiepp and Strathharn, in central Perthshire, offer 
attractions of no ordinary interest to the tourist or visi- 
tor. Crieff lies on the old coach road from Stirlii^ via 
Ardoeh to Perth, being 22 miles from the former, and 
17 miles from the latter; for years past it has had, by 
change of carriage at its own jimction, railway coniinn- 
nicatiou with the south; and this season the line direct 
for Perth via Methven has been opened. The town, a 
burgh of barony and of ancient date, is of considerable 
size, and has long been one of local importance. To the 
'H^hland csterans' report says it was known, as the 
'kindly gallows' of Crieff was erected there; and being 
at entruice of the passes of the Grampians, it was the 
place of execution for the freehootiug natives, who, 
tradition says, in passing saluted the 'tree,' think- 
ing it more than likely they might die under it. The 
hotel, still the chief one, is that in which the suite of 
Charles Edward fbnnd quarters in 1746; and although 

On^.] DESCRIBED. 117 

additdoDB, renoTBtionB, &o., have been made from tdme 
to time, the town and district deBerve a better house. 
Placed OB the slopeof the hill, widi dry soil, free air, good 
water, and fine exposure, the town is so salubrious that 
when Scotland severely suffeiBd from cholera no case 
occorred in the town of Crieff, although the weavers 
domiciled there. were like othere of their trade, poor 
enough, and their homes not over comfortable. 

Since CriefiF became of easy access by railway, the 
acreage southward of the town is becoming covered 
with villas — detached, laige, with ample ground about, 
and occupied, many of them, as summer quarters. 
The wooded mountains on the north, the vale of 
£am to the east, Abercaimey, Dnunmond Castle, Och- 
tertyre, Monzie, Dunira, upper Stratheam, the paro- 
chial villages of Muthill, Comrie — the whole district is 
inviting; the drive by the north of the Earn towards 
Comrie, and by its south bank to MuthUl, being one 
of varied interest, richly so, and with all the finest 
features of mountain and flood, wood and water. The 
domains of Drummond Castle and Ochtertyre are open 
to the visitor; the walks and drives are ext«nsiTe, with 
seats in many places for the valetudinarian where the 
views are finest; and 'Glen-Torrit' at Ochtertyre,. or 
the fine gardens at Drummond Castle, are visited hy 
all who enter the district, love the picturesque, and 
can spare time to indulge that excellent tast«. In the 
season there is a coach froia Crieff by Loch-Eamhcad 
to Kiltin, at the head of Loch-Tay; the roate is one 
of varied beauty; and all the year round 'buses run 
from the trains to Comrie, which is an ancient place, 
prettily situated, and notable as having been visited by 
earthquakes— the rents or fissuTea iu the walls of the 
hou^ proving the fact of the visitations. 

lie road northward by Amulrie to Aberfeldy or to 
Dunkeld, about equi-dis^t, has much to attract the 

n» SCOTLAND [Crief. 

tourist, and finds a place in moat gaide-books for Perth- 
■hiie. The ruioB of the Abbey of lachafftra; are on 
the ronte; near it is Mothven wood, where, on June 19, 
1306, Bruce was so severely defeated as to be driven 
westward to Lorn, where 'the brooch was lost,' and 
afterwards to 'Rathlin' isle; and the cavea in Anan. 
The Toad to Amuliie leads by the left up the 'sma' 
glen,' a locality of strikiug interest, nearly two miles in 
length, and at some parts so narrow as scarcely to leave 
room for the roadway between the mountain side and 
the torrent's course. Near the bottom of the pass, in 
1746, a large, cubical stone, covering a small chunber 
below, containing bones, was displaced; and there, 
tradition affirms, 'Ossian, last of all his race, lay 
buried in that lonely place.' The inn at Amulrie has 
long been known as a snug one by the anglers, who 
frequent it for the excellent sport they find in its 
ne^;hbouihood. The lOad divides thrae, being 12 
nules to Aberfeldy, S.W., and 10 to Dunkeld, N., by 
the bants of the Braan, bare at first, but beautiful as 
the river neais the Tay, and one of the attractive spots 
for the tourist quartered at Bimam or Dunkeld. 

The Boman camp at Ardoch is within a short drive 
&om Crieff and half-way to Stirling. The camp was 
formed by Agricola, when moving his forces to attack 
those of Galgacus, whose Caledonian followers occupied 
the Grampian heights on the nort^L The ctuup was large, 
is still well detined, a place of interest to the anti- 
quarian, and has been described by them in works of 
value, to follow or extract from which, the limited 
scope of this book does not allow; but it may be stated, 
that a late writer pronounces 'the camp at Ardoch to be 
unquestionably the most entire specimen of Boman 
castramentation in Scotland or in Britain.' 

, Google 

IkdTnally.] DE8CEIBED. 119 

Dauullt, in GlenoTchy, near Loah-Awe, and under 
the shadow of Cruachaa-Ben, is a locality as attractive 
to the touiist as any he may find in Argyleshiie; and 
for the angler so much sport esiste there, and the place 
is in such great request, that he may he trouhled to find 
a place to live in, when desirous to indulge his 'Wal- 
tonian fancies,' The hotel, of considerable size for the 
age, was one of those erected when the H^hlands were 
opened up by the military roads which Marshal Wade 
made &om ' rest and be thankful' in Glencroe north- 
wads. Lowness of roof and smallness of window were 
the chief faults at Dalmally and Tummell bridge; at the 
former, large additiomil accommodation has been erected, 
and now ^ere are few hotels in the west where the 
tourist may find a more pleasant home, or where he 
is likely to be better cared for, seeing that host and 
hostess, southrons both, were long at Taymouth, the 
one maid of the boudoir, and the other major domo of 
the oastla Dalmally b the stage westward from Tyn- 
drum for the coach running from Loch-Lomond to 
Oban — the next stage being that of Taynuilt on Loch- 
Etive; and is 16 nules north from Inveraray, on the 
coach route for Oban. It is at times over full, as the 
richly wooded dell in which it is placed is tempting 
for the tourist to tarry awhile in. 

The river Orchy is broad, dark, deep, and full of sal- 
mon; it flows into Loch-Awe, about a mile west of the 
hotel, and its course for some miles upwards is one of 
great beauty, the banks steep, covered with wood, and the 
stream full and rapid. TheriTerliereopeusup,aadaroad 
runs up the glen of the Orchy, which is, for Uiose hiring, 
the direct route for the Black Mount, sa vii^ the long detour 
by Tyndrum. Cruachan-Ben can be easily climbed fiwm 
the east, above Glen-Strae, the home of the clan Mae- 
gregor before they were hunted out by the Campbells, to 
seek other lands on Loch-Lomond, Loch-Katrine, and Bal- 
L,-., Google 

120 SCOTLiND [Dingwdl. 

qtuddet. The view from the equftre tower of the paiiah 
chuioh of Gltmorchy, close by the hotel, ia a fine one, 
as it commandB the broadening termination of Loch- 
Awe, the formation of the river Awe, Coalchum Castle, 
the Cladich ronte, Inveraray, and a tract of scenery 
scarcely to be matched out of the ehire of Aigyle. 

Dingwall — Strathfetfer, Sbadlt — had its charter 

as a bui^li IWm Alexander IL in 1227 ; was at one lame 
ot local importance, the Earls of Boas having a castle 
and holding their feudal courts there ; and it adll enjoys 
the advantage of the county business being transacted 
within the town — the prison, with 'buildings connected, 
forming one of the best strueturea in the place. Ding- 
wall is a neat, small town, many of the houses being 
gable'end to the street; it has gas and water, banks, 
churches, and a local trade, which it owes chiefly to 
the fertility of the district. . The place is nearly mid- 
way between Invemeaa and Tain, a station on the rail- 
way to and from the north, the point whence tourists for 
Skye and the weet^Ti coasts of Scotland start by car, 
coach, or hire — ^the frith of Cromarty coming nearly to 
the town, with which it is connected by a short ctuial, 
deep enough for the small traffic of the town, which, 
being placed low, may not on that account be the more 
healthy. As a place of trade or manufactures, Ding- 
wall never had repute worth mentioning; but society 
is excellent, and the hotels — the National and the 
Caledonian— are good, the former kept by a landlord 
fevouiably known in Oban and at the Trossachs. 

Strathpbppbr, at the mouth of wbieh Dingwall ia 
placed, is tlie spa of the north of Scotland; and, like 
Pitcaithly, Bridge-of-Allan, and Moffat, has accommo- 
dation and attraction for those in search of health-:— 
the waters at Strathpeifer being pronounced equal fa> 
those at HaiTowgat& Theviaitoisoflateyeaie, however, 
L,-., Google 


incTBBSed so much that qoarteip became scarce, altiiougli 
they aie now being pTovided for by the villa-like erections 
TisiDg in the district, which is one of considerable attrac- 

■ tion, — the land, once maraby, being reclaimed and fer- 
tile; the lofty Ben-Wyvia aheltering the strath on the 
north; the DruimBhat, or '.cat's back' ridge, ebieldingiton 
the south; the vitrified fort of Knockfarrel inviting the 
notice of the archaeologist; and the 'biiae§ plying to and 
from the railway at Dingwall rendering the place of 
easy access, while the drives all round ore fine. 

Bhauly, a village ueai where the ehiree of Bobs and 
Inverness unite, is by railway equi-diatant between 
Dingwall and Inverness, in a district whose fields carry 
wheat equal to the best produced in the Lothiana It is 
a pretty spot, and was no doubt selected on that account 
by the priesle who bnilt a priory there in 1230, the date 
when at Pluscardine in E^inahire, and Ardchattan in 
Aigyleehire, similar foundations were laid by the Cister- 

■ cian monks. The ruins of the building are of consider- 
able extent, aud roofless; but the tombs of the cbie& of 
&e clans Fraser and MacKenzie are well preserved. The 
priory was 'wrecked' by the troops of Cromwell, but 
enough remains to show that the ^ructure must have 
been beautiful as well as esteusive. 

'Beaulieu'— 'fine place' — it was so named hy Mary 
Queen of Scots, and well the situation deserved the 
title; but the Celt alleges that it should be named 'Ba- 
lua,' — the 'town of the ford,' being topographically 
descriptive of the site, as being near the crossing-place 
of a deep river, and a locality to which crowds came. 
It was the market town of the powerful clan Fraser — 
their chief, the baron of Lovat, opening their great 
&ii8 in person. These markets or fairs, although now 
removed to the bleak moor of Oid, a short way north, 
are still the leadii^ 'cattle-trysts' of the northern 
counties, the fioeks and herds dnven there fi)r disposal 
L,-,, Google 

I'M SCOTLAND [Dotiglas. 

being vast, and the extensive moor having wooden 
hute around it, where the droveni find their 'creature 
comfottfl,' and where the bankers hold temporary offices 
for the honouring of cheques, discount of bills, and 
money changing — doing sometimes a great business. 

A short drive south and west from Beauly, scenery 
which will vie for beauty or rarity with any in the 
north or south of Scotland may be seen. The magnifi- 
cent valley of the Beauly river, the falls of Kilmoiack a 
few miles up, the pass of the Druhim, Eilean-Aigae, the 
strath upwanis, the Lovat domains on the sonth, and 
the route westward for Kintail, are well worth the 
notice of the tourist, and from either Dingwall or In- 
verness they are readily accessible. At the shooting < 
lodge of Eilean-Aigas, Sir Robert Peel spent his last 
snmmer ; and in Dingwall, the maternal relatives of the 
present Chancellor of the Exchequer were residents. 

DouaiiAB, a parish and burgh of barony in the . 
Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, westward of the FaUs of 
Clyde, on the confines of Ayrahire, between Tinto and 
Caimtable, Lanark and Muirkirk, is now readily ac- 
cessible by the railway from Lanark, although the 
station is not mnch further east of Douglas than it is ' 
south of Lesmahagow — the Hue crossing the Clyde 
immediately above the falls and running by the strath 
or glen of the Douglas-water — 'dhu glass,' the dark 
green. To the tourist, or any one fiimiliar with the 
"Waverley N^ovels, the Douglas district will be one of 
interest, as the ' Castle Dangerous ' of that gallant 
family lay there; and ruins of the 'Douglas Larder' 
can be shown, with the ancient chapel of St Biyde, 
and the sepulchral ef&gies, in full length, of those 
'barons bold' whose name, in the romance of Scottirfi 
story, ranks only after those of 'the Wallace Wight,' 
and Bruce, the victor at Baunockburo. 

L,-., Google 

Douglas.] DESCRIBED. 123 

The river Clyde ia crOBsed by the railway about two 
miles BOuth of Lanark, within less than a mile of Bon- 
nington Linn, where tiie flood ie broad, deep, and still, 
before the rapida are neared, the rocks approached, the 
stream contracted, and the cascade formed. The banks 
of the Clyde are richly wooded on the Bonnington side, 
that of Lftnark — and the Harpetfield side, that of Les- 
mahagow — the Clyde dividing the parishes. Above, to 
the south, rises Tinto, small in elevation compared with 
the 'Bens' of the north, yet par excellence the bill of 
Clydesdale, as it towers high above that strath, which 
is so straight, that the hill of Tinto can be descried 
irom near Strone, where the Holy -Loch and Loch-Xoug, 
■ on the frith of Clyde, unite. 

The Campbells of Breadalbane 'birsed yont' (squeezed 
outwards their acres) from the etnith of the Tay to the 
shore of Oban, across the island — the 'dark' Douglas' 
land in the strath, to which the family gave or from 
which they took their name, extended from the eunuait 
of Tinto to that of Caimtable, and it was on the latter 
the Scottish baron retired 'to hear the lark sing' — 
when planning the capture of the fortress of his fathers. 

The course of the railway has little of interest for those 
travellii^ by it. The length from Carstairs Junction to 
the Douglas station ie 11 miles, and the speed moderate, 
being a single line, while the traffic, as yet, is inconsi- 
derable; there is prospect, however, of its increasing, as 
plans are in progress to extend the rails to Muiikak, 
11 miles further west, and onwards thence to Ayr and 
thfe lower frith of the Clyde. The present station of 
the Douglas railway is north of the Douglas river, near 
where the Poniel water flows into it, beyond the Hap- 
pendon woods, and just north of the extensive domain 
of Douglas Castle, the entrance-gate on the east being 
on the 'bus route for the town. Eastward runs the 
green valley across which ia the highway from Glasgow 
L,-., Google 

124 SCOTLAND [Douglas. 

to CailiBla, formed by Telford ia 1824, and at ttattime 
the beat road iti North Britain, when the inn of Douglas 
Mill, as a posting-houae, atood aecond to none. How 
all is changecl; the bioad road is still there, as are the 
tolls, but — the mail coaches, where are theyl , 

The vale, glen, or strath of the Douglas district is 
little more than 10 miles in extent, mns west to east, ' 
and for three-fourths its length is sheltered by 'plant- 
ings,' as the fir-woods are called in Scotland. A high 
stone wall encloses the grounds of Douglas Castle, 
which are adorned with trees, large, old, and valuable 
— one at least. of hiatoric interest, as it is known as 
' tbe hailing tree,' from whose bougbs may hare swung 
many unfortunates, guilty of crime, or of being too ' 
alow ' to do the kird's bidding !' The old tower of the 
Donglas family is in existence, but scant witbia most 
have been the accommodation, or small the garrison 
which held it. The modem castle, not wholly finished, 
replaced one destroyed last century by fire. 

Donglaa, as a town, is small, and the old street, by St. 
Bryde's, the Dungeon, &c., is straight, steep, narrow, 
without side-paths, and could well have been held by 
a small band against an oTerwhelming force. Be- 
yond and above tbe old town are villa-like abodea, 
greatly euperior in appearance to the castle of old, 
accommodation and comfort in the modem sense being 
the rule of comparison. The kirk of St. Bryde is in 
ruins, but where the barone are interred is well pre- 
served, and the tourist can have acceaa to the vault, 
see the leaden coffins in which the warrior knights aro 
enclosed, and look on the 'bleeding heart,' or the case 
in which it is held. The biirying-place ia well kept, 
the monuments preserved, and the visitor — -antiquarian, 
archffiolpgist, or only curious — will find intereat in visit- 
ing St Bryde's, liie castle, and vale of Douglas. 

L,-., Google 

Dtaniarton.] DESCRIBED. 126 

DoMBABTOR, ths Lhten. — ^Dum, or Dnn, meaning 
liill or rock— Dunbarton, the rock of the Britons — 
3ie capital of those holding rule in Stratfa-Ctyde, is 
one of the oldest of the historic sites north of the 
Tweed; and near it was erected the Boman fortrees of 
Dui^lasB — in innocent proximity they wonld l>e when 
" gunpowder was unknown, and artiUery uninTented. 
The ' Balclutha walls of towere,' referred to by Ossian, 
are localieed at Ihimbarton — -'Alcluith' being known 
as a fortress &om the earliest tradition or tale of 
Scottish history. Strong aa the castle may have been, 
it appears to have possessed little national import- 
ance, aa, in 1174, it was not one of the four fortresses 
yielded to the English, in guarantee for payment of 
the ransom of William the Lion, nor ia it heard of as 
a royal castle until yielded to Alexander II. by the 
Earla of Levenax (Lennox). 

Sun-Eriten, the capital of the Attacotti of ' Strath 
Cluyde,' rose in later times to be a fortress of import- 
ance in Scotland, having been surrendered to Edward 
of England oil the death of the Maid of 14'oTway; 
obtained by Baliol in 1292; reduced by the E tg li th - 
in 1296; held for them by Monteith, ^e betrayer of 
Wallace, in 1305-6; made the prison of Wallace; 
held by Fleming of Cumbernauld in 1333, when the 
defeat of Halidon Tfill laid the power of Scotland low; 
captured in 1425 by a son of the Regent Albany; 
besieged in 1481 by the fleet of Edward IV. of Eng- 
land, and defended by Sir Andrew Wood of L^th; held 
on ite capture against James IV. by the insoigent Earls 
of Lennox; made the naval' station for Scotland and 
the port of communication with Erance; and visited by 
Jamee V. on his voyage to reduce the Hebridean chiefs. 
Dumbarton Castle sheltered Mary, the child Queen of 
Scots, when carried there after the battle of Pinkie, 
whence she was taken to France. It was held in her 
. L,.,, Google 

126 SCOTLAHD [Dumbarton. 

canae by the Lord Fleming; and the unfortunate Mary 
vas bound thither when escaping from tbe castle of 
liOch-Leven — her course bdr^ turned and her cause lost 
OD the field of Langside. The castle was scaled, enr- 
priaed, and captured May 2, 1571, by Captain CiavfoTd 
of Jordanhill. It is one of four royal fortresses kept gar- 
risoned in terms of the treaty of Union with Englaiid; ' 
and tras visited by Queen Victoria in 1847. 

The rock on which the defences of the castle of 
Dumbarton are raised is 240 feet above the level of th« 
Clyde, and is about s mile in circuit. It is cleft in two, 
near mid height^ the western portion beii^ the higher, 
and 'crowned' with a perch placed there by the ord- 
nance surveyors. The landw^d approach is &om the 
N.E., hut the readier access for the tourist is by boat 
fifom the Leven; and there is neither diiBculty in find- 
ing a boatman for the castle, nor in picking up some of 
the garrison to do the honours of the rock — that which 
may be most noteworthy being the 'great two-handed 
sword' which 'the WalUce Wight' was wont to wield 
with such effect against the Southron invaders of his 
country. The garrison is small, and the house of the 
governor pleasantly placed. The ascent to the barracks 
and upper portion of the castle is by a 8t«ep flight of 
narrow well-wom steps. The armoury, kept in good 
order, contains weapons for 1,600 men. 

The view &om the heights of Dumbarton Castle is 
grand, as within the horizon are the upper reaches of 
the Clyde, the expanse of the lower frith, the braes of 
Glenitfer, the hills of Kilmaicohn, Port-Glasgow, Green- 
ock, Cowal, the vale of the Leven, Ben-Lomond, and 
Loch-Lomond. The river Leven — 'smooth water' — 
sweeps round the base of the rock of Dumbarton, 
flowing into the Clyde after a course of about 6 miles 
from BaUoch on Loch-Lomond; and its waten ai« so 
pure that works for bleaching and calico-printing cover 
its banks, and the villages there are populous. lolc 

Dm/ermlim.] DESCBIBED. 127 

Dumbarton buigh holds ito cbarter from Alexander 
II. in 1222, with special privil^ea as 'the naval station 
of the west of Scotland' — Glasgow and Greenock being 
then nowhere! The manu&cture of crown glass was 
long the staple industry of the burgh, and was made 
to such an extent and ao well as to be quoted in all the 
- leading markets at home and abroad. Some years ago, 
the manu&ctnre became unremuneiative, when the conea 
and buildings were cleared off; but the town thrives, and 
the yards ate Ml of shipwrighte, the port being notable 
for the construction of first^laaB vessels of iron or of 
wood. Overtown, Helenslee, Levengrove, and other 
fine mansions, make the district omato and warmlike. 

DuNFERULiHB IS a royal burgh, and one of the oldest 
and most populons in the shire of Fife. It has ample 
railway connection; but the shorter route to E!din- 
buigh, and one still much travelled, is by the coach 
load to Inverkeithing and Queensferry — a distance of 
16 miles; while by rail the detour is by Thornton 
Jnncton, for Kirkcaldy, Burntisland, and GrantoB. A 
line runs westward to Alloa and the south; another to 
Kinross and the north ; and the river Forth, within three 
miles, is reached by a short line to Charlestown. Goal 
is abundant in the neighbourhood; and the diaper 
manufecture has long been extensively carried on in 
the town, which is consequently a busy one. 

The situation of Dunfermline is pleasant; but, lying 
out of the ordinary track of the tourist, it is httl« 
visited, although the antiquarian will find much to 
interest bi-m there. A Guldee house stood at Dun- 
fermline before the Abbey was founded; and the 
erection of the castle and a palace can be traced back 
to Malcolm Canmore. The Abbey, which was founded 
by David I., that 'sair (dear) sanct to the croun' of 
Scotland, was burned in 1303 in the Wallace stni^e; 

188 SCOTLANI) [Dtmdee. 

it was afterwards rebuilt, but finally mined in 1560 — 
the Knox era. In the stormy annals of Scotland, the 
ForOi on the south, and the Tay on the north, atarved 
not a little to render 'the kingdom of Fife' a safe 
place for a royal dweUii^; hence the palace at Dun- 
fermline, and afterwards at Falkland, a few miles 
inland, and across the Lomond hills. James IV, 
built a palace at Dunfennline, and there Charles II., 
in 1660, subscribed the Covenant. The bed in which 
Charles slept, and also the sword and helmet of Bobert 
the Bruce, are preserved at Bioomhall, the seat of the 
Elgin family, near to Charlestown, on the Forth. 

The Abbey of Dunfermline was richly endowed; 
and, from Canmore to Bruce, most of the princes of 
Scotland were buried within its^ precincts. In 1818, 
when d^ii^ away the wreck of ages in the Abbey, 
the skeleton of Eobert the Bruce was found entire in 
the ruins of the choir, wrapped in its leaden shroud. 
It was reverently re-interred under the pulpit of the 
church which now occupies the site uf the Abbey. 
The luins are considerable, and care is taken to pre- 
aorve them; the lofty walla, with three tiers of windows, 
show the extent of the pile, and the strong buttressed 
nave, which is entire, is of Norman aichitectore; the 
pillars being cut aud grooved. The choir and tife tran- 
sept form the present parish church. 

Ddhfrieb, the capital of the south of Scotland, is in 
lower Nitbedale, near the Solway Frith, and within 
33 miles of Carlisle. It has railway communication 
with Ayrshire by Nithsdale, Lanarkshire by Annan- 
dale, Ireland and Salloway by Caatle-Douglaa, and 
Carlisle by a line direct, and is, therefore, of ready 
access. Its strath (Nithsdale) is fertile, the markets an 
good, and the town itself thrives apace; while of old, 
being so near the 'debateabls laud,' it figured &e- 
L,-., Google 

Dumfriee.] DESCEIBED. 129 

qaently in the stn^les between l^e Scota and their 
Engli^ opponenta — ^happily now Mends — and has been 
in all Scottish hiBtor; of local importanca 

The river Nith, which is crofaed by two bridges, ia 
navigable to the town for vessels of small tonnage, but 
the import and export trade of Dumfries has never 
%uied largely in ihe commercial returns of the coun- 
try, the eea outwards being not over«t^e. AItho%'h 
a good agricultural district it has neither coal nor 
iron, nor are there any manufactnres of other tlian 
local value. "Water is abundant, but the land is too 
low to make it a 'cheap motive power,' still Dumfries 
boasts of one or two laige woollen mills and ham- 
curing establishments, while in the making of shoes, 
clc^, hatf^ &c., occupation ia given to many of the 
industrious inhabitante of the town. 

The old bridge of thirteen arches, still serviceable 
for pedestrians, was built here by DevorgiUa, mother of 
Baliol, who also founded Greyfriars' Abbey, of which 
no remains now exist It was on its altar steps that the 
struggle between the Ked Comyn and Eobert the Bruce 
took place, on the 10th February 1306 — the dispute 
being their rival claims to the crown of Scotland, and 
the result that Comyn was stabbed by Bruce, ajid slain 
outright by Kirkpatrick of CSoaebom. This lead to the 
sanguinarywar with Edward of England, 'when the course 
was entered upon which, after sad and varying fortunes, 
resulted in Bruce being able, ten years afterwards, to 
finish the work begun by Wallace — Scotland being set 
fr«e from the thraldom of England, and Bruce of Car- 
rick and Lochmaben becomii^ the parent stem whence 
the sovereigns of Qreat Britain have sprung. 

Linduden Abbey, which ia within three miles of 
Dumfries, was a pile finely situate and of great extent, 
and the ruins are still so architecturally b^utiful as to 
proTO an object of interest to the tourist. The old 

180 SCOTLAND [Dumfries. 

caatle of Torthorwald ia ■within a few milea of Dmn- 
friea; and also Caerlaverock, which is nearwhere the Nith 
flows into the Solway. In the centre of its own loch, 
stands the caatle of Lochmaben, the paternal stroi^hold 
of Eohert Brace, which is extensive and strongly placed. 
It was an object of contention between England and Scot- 
land, notable foi the sieges it has endured, and still shows 
largely on the island, though it has been the quarry 
whence half the stones have come which form the village 
near by — an ancient one, and still enjoying nuiny privi- 
leges of land tennie, bestowed on the inhabitants as the 
'kindly tenante of the Crown'— the rentallera of Loch- 
maben being the feudal servitors of a house which rose 
to BWay the sceptte of Scotland 

As a town, Dumfries has much to attract the visitor. 
and to make it a pleasant dwelling-place. The district 
is picturesque, the schools are good, society select, and 
the law courts of the county held there. The streets, 
the modem ones in particular, are broad and well paved, 
the houses good, and the walks by the ^Nith attractive. 
The market-place of Dumfries has an ancient aspect — 
a square, with an old jail-like pile of buildings in the 
centre; and the hotels — the Kii^s Arms and the Com- 
mercisl in particular — have been long in good repute 
with the traveller ; a room in Uie latter, then a dwelling- 
house, being shown as that occupied by Charles Ed- 
ward in 1745 — the aristocracy of Kithsdale and An- 
nandale having taken a warm interest in the Stuart 
cause, which resulted te many of them in loss of life 
and of lands. 

Dumfries has been, since the close of last century, 
famous aa where Robert Burns spent the last years of 
his chequered life. EUisland, the larAi he occupied, 
is on the Nith, and about six miles above the town, 
while in Dumfries are shown the haunts of the poet — 
the ' howff ' of fiobert Bums, the fireside of the public- 

Dimifriee.] DESCEIBED. 131 

house he spent his eTenlngB at, the place he filled; 
and yet of more Bad intoreet, tiie einall two-atoreyed honse 
ia the nanow street he liv^ and died in, now called 
Bunis-street. When fanning at EUisland hecame un- 
profitable, in 1791, he letired to Dum&iea, and died 
there, July 31, 1796. 'I went to see hiin laid oat for 
the grave,' wrote Cunningham : ' He was wasted some- 
what by long illness, but death had not increased the 
swarthy hue of his &ce, which was uncommonly dark, 
and deeply marked; his broad and open brow was pale 
and serene, and around it his sable hair lay in masses, 
slightly touched with grey.' ' The impression of the 
genius of Kobert Bums is deep and graiial,' wrote Camp- 
bell, 'and viewing him merely as a poet, there is 
scarcely another regret connected with his name than 
that hu productions, with all their merits, fall short of- 
the talents which he posseased.' The failings of Bums 
were many, he felt them keenly, and entreate db 
' To gently scan our brother man — to step aside is hu- 
man;' 'Who made tbe heart, 'tis he aloue decidedly 
can try us;' 'What's done we partly may compute, 
but never what's teaisted' — lines sadly descriptive of 

'When it became known that Bobert Burns could 
not survive, Dumfries became like a besieged place. 
Wherever two or three stood together, their talk was 
of Bums, and of him alone; and they spoke of him 
with awe, as if' of some departing spirit whose voice 
was to gladden them no more.' As a member of the 
volunteer corps, the funeral was conducted with mili- 
tary honours. He was interred in the north-east end 
of St. Michael's Churchyard, the most crowded burial- 
ground perhaps in Scotland, and now so full of monu- 
mraits to the dead, that years ago their cost was esti- 
mated above ;£100,000. like the old graveyard of 
Alloway, on the Doon, many Scotchmen, from all parts 

L,-., Google 

132 SCOTLAND [Dumfries, 

of the world, Bought to lie at rest near where the bodj 
of Eobert Bums, the poet, waa laid. 

In 1815, the mausolenm laised, 'in aetemnm Hon- 
orem Eoherti Bnme,' was completed, and the lemainB 
of the poet were remoTed, that they might be placed 
under this tardy tribnto of Scotland to the genius of 
her gifted Bon. 'The coffin was decayed, but the daik 
locks of the poet were seeu to be glossy as when he 
was interred.' Crowded as the ground is with memo- 
rials to the dead, the path most trodden is that which 
leads to the mausoleum of Robert Bums; and there 
are few strangers that sojourn in DumMes but visit 
the spot — ' there pause, and through the starting tear 
survey his grave.' In his own words, 'the poor in- 
habitant below was quick to learn and wise to know, 

and kindly felt the friendly glow.' , 'Reader, 

attend, whether thy soul soars high beyond the pole, or 
darkly grubs this earthly hole — know prudent, cautious 
self-control is wisdom's root.' 

. The track which stretches athwart all other graves 
towards the mausoleum of Bums is a 'beaten thorough- 
, fare; the door is open, the floor is daily cleaned, and 
the eveigreens and flowers around it are unfadiiig' — 
'the sepulchre of the poet being never neglected. He 
waa the Mend of mankind, and for all time, and all 
generations have an interest in him.' The widow of 
Robert Bums continued to live in the house in which 
he died until March 26, 1834, when 'the home' was 
broken up, and the furniture sold at auction. The 
monument or mausoleum was erected by subaeription, 
and covers the vault in which the remains of the poet^ 
his wife, and some of his children are interred; and 
opposite the gate of 'this famed burial-place' is a latge 
piece of sculpture by Tumerelli, representing the peasant 
bard at the plough, and Coila, his genius, throwii^ the 
mantle of inspiration over him. In January, 1869, the 

L,-., Google 

rhtndee.] DESCEIBED. 133 

centenary anniversary of the birth of Eobert Burnt 
vas celebrated on both Bides the Atlantic and in tfaa 

Dundee is dtnated on the northern shore of the 
Tay, in the county of Torfar, on the east of central 
Scotland; ranks third in population in North Britain; 
and thrives largely. A poet, a Ottering one, has 
written — ' Thy maids are wie fairest; thy men are the 
bravest; thy merchants the noblest that venture to 
sea; and tJiis their indenture — ITiey prosper that 
venture, so joy to the commerce of bonny Dundee.' 
To descend to prose; the aspect of Dundee, viewed 
from across the Tay, is heautifiil; but witliin the town 
some of the older streets are execrable; while the maids, 
such as may be seen streaming from the UaK mille, are 
neither the iaiiest, the sweetest, nor the most modest. 
The men, nevertheless, may be the bravest — those ven- 
turing to sea having been undoubtedly prosperous, as 
witness the magnificent docks; those staying ashore 
seem to have been not less so, as is testified by the great 
mills and works thickly risii^ between the Tay and the 
Law — the green hill above the town. 

The docks of Dundee are within twelve miles of 
where the Tay becomes merged in the German ocean. 
Firat-rate steamers ply between the port and London, 
and others run to the Tyno and the Humber; while 
in summer a small steamer plies on the river, calling 
at Newburgh on her passage to Perth. In a town so 
populous, and where commerce and manufactures are 
so energetically pursued, railway locomotion and traffic 
are well developed. The line from Edinburgh, through 
Fife, nms to Tayport; thence passengers and cai^ are 
carried across the Tay to Broughty-Ferry on the north, 
where the estuary is comparatively narrow, and where 
stands an ancient castle, strong in situation, and which 

134 SCOTLAHD [Z>«ndee. 

a few years ago, wlien mvadon was thought immment, 
was armed so as to comiuand the channel of tlie Tay. 
From the west, the railway from Perth comes in by 
the river bonk on the north; whence the line for Strath- 
more and the north-west trends onwards — formerly by 
a heavy incline and long tunnels — now sweeping ro\md 
the base of the Law^ and by increased speed making up 
for its greater length. By the shore-line eastward runs 
the railway for Arbroath, Forfar, Montrose, &c. 

Dundee was known in the Roman era, and was called 
Ailea, 'pleasant,' by the natives. The surrounding 
lands were bestowed by William the Lion on his 
brother. Prince David, Earl of Huntii^don, the hero 
of the novel of Talisman by Scott ; who, returning from 
Palestine, narrowly escaped shipwreck in the Tay, and, 
as was the wont of those ages, in performance of vows 
made, founded the churches of Dundee, and built the 
castle. Wallace is said to have been educated at Dundee; 
' "Wallace fens' is at this day a name in the place; and 
one of his first acts against the English oppressors of 
Scotland was the slaughter of the son of the governor 
of the garrison. Wallace captured the castle; it was 
retaken; captured again, and razeil by Bruce. It was 
rebuilt by the Scots, but taken and burned in 1386 by 
the' English under the Duke of Lancaster; t^ain by 
Somerset; and by Montrose in 1646. It was the abode 
of Charles II. after he was crowned at Scone in 1650. 
Monk stormed it in 1651, when the houses were 
pillaged, the harbour destroyed, and the town so near 
ruined, that in 1669 money was gathered throughout 
the country to restore its prosperity. Queen Victoria 
visited Dundee in 1844, an event commemorated by a 
handsome and lofty arch erected on the docks, whence 
the royal pari^ were rowfld to their yacht. 

There being neither coal nor iron in the district, the 
fbrmer is seaborn from the Tyne, or from Fife, mland of 

Diwdee.] DESCRIBED. 135 

Cupar, There the pits are well worked. The flax mills 
and jute maau&ctories of Dundee are numerous, of great 
size, and ehow well, being lofty, wide, many windowed, 
and built of freestone, which is abundant. The docks 
■are large, strongly constructed, have rmls laid dowi) 
upon Uiem, and accomntodate well the fleet hailing 
from the port, many of which are built there. The 
railways from the west and from the north are con- 
nected by a line on the open quays, but plans ore in 
progress to bisect the town, and carry on the lines con- 
tinuously, involving the building of a bridge across the 
Tay, above the town — as the rival companies, the 
Caledonian and the ^orth British, who seek ' to divide 
Scotland,' both desire to possess Dundee. The contest 
now waged is a serious one, and may perhaps prove 
better for the lawyers than for the shuebolders. 

Dundee, with ita castle, was undoubtedly a place of 
strength, the town having been walled in. The remains 
of such defences still exists— the streets in the older or 
main portion of the town being named Nethei^ate, 
Overgate, Mvuraygate, and Seagate. They are narrow, 
and generally crowded with traffic, and at meal hours 
or at night, the flax-spinning population, male and 
female, make the ' crown of the .oauseway* the pleasanter 
patii for the strai^r. The slopii^ hillside, upon the 
Tay, eastward towards Broughty-Ferry, ia well enclosed, 
and adorned by handsome villas belonging to the 
manufacturers and merchants of the busy Dundee; and 
westward, by the Perth road, the environs are similarly 
enclosed and adorned, commanding fine views of the 
river and frith of Tay— of Perthshire on the west, and 
'the Kingdom of Fife' on the south. The cemetery on 
the Perth road ia a fine one; and the 'Baxter Park,' 
presented to his fellow-townamen by a success^ manu- 
fiicturer, is a boon which they cannot prize too highly 
— as was that of the 'Peel Park' in MEmoheater. t . 

136 8C0TLAKD [Diaidee. 

The public buildings of Dondee, althougli Hot many, 
are increafiing, and bear witness to tke proaperity and 
liberality of her eons. Eefoim-street, opened since the 
'bm passed,' is of no great length, but of teii breadth, 
and is well occupied by ahops,'warehousee, and counting- 
lioosea, being chiefly located in and near the Wellgate, 
High-etieet is short, and more like a square than a 
street, having a town-house, with piazza; the police- 
office is behind, where loungers, recruiting setgeanta, and 
all sorts of idlers largely congregate. The post-office is 
a recent and' handsome structure; and the churches, 
which are numerous, some of them buiit since the 
disruption, are of imposing appearance. West of the 
High-street are the old churches of the town — four 
together, in form of a cross, having a tower 150 feet in 
height, massive, and ancient The votive buildings of 
Prince David are said to have stood there. 

Behind Keform-street, on the west, there is an exten- 
sive burying-round, quaintly named the 'Howff,' where 
the natives have for centuries been laid to rest; the 
monaments are numerous, many of them handsome; 
and this 'city of the dead,' within the town of th« 
living, is well enclosed, having iron railii^s, open and 
high, and so neatly kept that the walks are much. 
resorted to. Dudbope Castle, near the town, was of 
old held by the Scrymgeoure, standard-bearers to the 
kings of Scotland; afterwards it was possessed by 
Oiaverhouse, the 'gallant Dundee' of the novelist — the 
persecutor accursed of the peasantry of the west of 
Mootland. There is a steam-ferry from the town to 
Newport, on the opposite shore of Fife, where many 
of the townspeople of Dundee reside. Dundee has so 
little to attract the tourist that commereial-travellets 
are the chief patrons of its hotels; but these are good 
and comfortable, especially the Boyal and £he' Dundee 
Arms — Lamb's being preferred by teetotalers. 



'lay, about 16 mileB north of Perth, and vithin a mile 
of Bimam Btation, on the railway from Perth to Abei- 
feldy and the weat; or to Blair-Athole, and to Stiath- 
spey, by Forrea, to Inveraese. Before the Highland 
railway was opened, it waa the second stage on the 
great road from Perth notthwards, and was dways one 
of the &TOarito resorts of tourists desirous of exploring 
the ' land of the mountain and the flood.' 

la the dawn of Scottish history, the Coldees were 
found ' doing good' on the upper Tay, in their college 
at Dunkeld. In 1127 these simple-minded propagators 
of Christianity were displaced by the Romish hirawshy, 
who then constituted Dunkeld the see of a bishop, and 
erected a cathedral, in the eastern gable of whidi a 
portion of the wall is pointed out as a remnant of the 
ancient Culdee building. The choir of the cathedral, 
built by Biahop Sinclair, ia kept in repair, and used as 
the parish church; but the tower, transepts, and naves 
have been long in ruins. Xhe present burial-place of 
the Athole famUy is in the lower part of the chapter- 
house, which was built by Bishop louder in 1469. 
In the nave there is the tomb-atone, with the figure of 
a bishop in robes, and in the porch of the parish chnrch 
is the monument of Stewart, Earl of Buchan, ' the Wolf 
of Badanoch,' a natural son of Kohert II. of Scotland, 
and of infamous memory, among whose deeds was the 
destruction of the magnificent cathedral of Elgin, 

The bishops of Dunkeld figure iu the bistoiy of 
Scotland. William Sinclair, who wore the mitre in 
1312, having been so efficient a partisan of the Bruce, 
that he met and defeated the English invaders at Auch- 
tertool in Fife, and was called by bis cbivabous prince 
' my own bishop.' He died in 1327, and was buried 
in the cathedral, where a fluted cross is shown as. the 

138 SCOTLAND [£>aK*eW. 

amioTial beaiii^B of the noble inmily of Boelin, of 
which he waa a Boion. Early in the aizteenth century, 
the mitre of Dunkeld waa worn by Gawain Doi^laa, a 
younger son of the Earl of Ai^pis of Tantallan Castle — 
a poet, translator of Virgil into the ScottiBh language, 
and an ornament of the rade age ' his lines were caat 
in.' The venerable cathedral of Dunkeld measnres 
about 80 pacea in length; the nave is roofleaa, and at 
the west end ia a buttreaaed tower 90 feet high, and 
24 feet square; near it an octagonal watch-tower; but- 
tresses project between the windows; and above are 
traceried spiracles. The great aiale is 120 by 60 feet; 
lite walls are 40 feet high, and the aide aisles 12 feet 
wide. There are some spacious Gothic arches on each 
side, with fluted soffits resting on plain Korman-like 
pillars, with shofte 10 feet h^h, 4| in diameter, and 
two half columns; and over the archea are two tiers of 
windows, the higher acute, the lower semicircular. The 
last bishop, the thirty-ninth in the see, was Ilobert 
Creighton, who died in 1650. 

In situation, Dunkeld has been pronounced scarcely 
paralleled for beauty in Scotland, or out of it. The 
Burrounding attractiona are also great — the Atfaole 
gronnda in particular, which are open to tourists, who 
must, however, inscribe their names at the entrance- 
gate, pay 'the fee exacted,' and be handed over to the 
guide appointed to wait upon them, irtio is one of a set 
kept for that work, but who does not pocket the 'back- 
sheesh' paid, as, beyoud tbew^e carried by the attendant, 
the BorpluB is understood to be apphed in keeping clean 
and in order the wide domain of the Duke of Atholet 

Dunkeld House, which ia near the old cathedrd, has 
nothii^ in its externals to attract attention; bat the 
grounds are extensive, richly timbered — some of the 
finest and largeat larchea in Europe growing there — and 
the walka are so disposed that all is secoi from the best 

Dunoon.] DESCEIBED. 139 

'vantage spote ; -while the lofty height of 'Craig-y-Bams,' 
towering overhead, is well worth climbing to eiyoy the 
view of the town, the Btnith of the Tay, Blmam, and the 
Bioan valley, which is really maguifioeiit. On being 
boated acroee the Tay, the touiiBt is led by paths, well- 
kept, and among richly wooded banks, to liie falle of the 
Braan, named 'Oeaian'a' — ^it being in the programme to be 
taken to 'the Hermitage,' wheie, &om mlrrora overhead, 
the cascade seems tumbling down on the spectator — the 
fine effect, however, is maired by a species of clap-trap, 
the door having to be opened by the tonch of a spring. 
A few years ago, a hotel, superior for site, appearance, 
extent, and accommodation, was erected at Biiuam, 
accroes the Tay, and near the railway station. Yillas 
are rapidly rising in its neighbourhood; but at Dun- 
keld, hot«I oomforta at the 'Royal' and the 'Athole 
Arms' have always been abundant and excellent. 

Ddnoos, HoNrBB'a QlJAr, Eibn — the shore line 
from the S. W. hom of the Holy-Loch to the entrance of 
Bothesay bay—have, since the application of steam to 
navigation, become thickly studded with the marine 
abodes of the manufacturers and merchants of the 
west of Scotland; and the facilities of visitii^ what 
the natives term the 'saut water' must minister, it is 
thoDght, lai^ely to their physical comfort. Whether the 
disruption of family ties for one-third of the year 
tightens those of the domeatio circle, or being two or 
' three months each year sent adrift to seek pasture 
under strange spiritual pastors be a healthy promoter 
of religion, may be a moot question, but one certainly 
not open for discussion in these pages. 

The shiie of Aigyle, &om Glencroe on Loeh-Loug 
to Glencoe on Loch-Leven, from Islay on the Atlantic 
to Cowal on the Clyde, is of wide extent, deeply in- 
tersected by saline lochs, and largely covered hy Almne 

140 SCOTLAND [Dunoon. 

heights, giving variety of scenery of river and loch, 
mountaia and flood, unequalled in 'braid Scotland,' as 
the simple North Britons of old t«tmed the land of 
which Uiey boasted. A shore with so large a coast 
line is divided into many districts— that now nnder 
review, known as Cowal, is the long peninsula between 
the Gobbler mountain at Arrochar, and Ardlamont point, 
off the weatetn entrance to the Kyles of Bute. 

The parishes in Argyleshire are many, that of Dunoon 
being at present under notice, and such is its existing 
ecclesiastical state that the 'minister' has under him 
clergymen officiating at Ardentinny, Strono, Kilmun, 
Sandbank, Kim, Innellan, and Towajd — a charge nearly 
as responsible as that of the pastor of the Bfoony 
Chinch, Glasgow. The population of Dunoon and 
Kilmun, a. conjoined chMge, was 2,177 in 1821; in 
1861 it is given as 5,461, but the census being taken 
on March 1, when the losing-houses were sbut up, 
double that number given for the acre^e from 
Hunter's Quay to Dunoon pier m^ht not exceed 
the actual population. Chambersin ISSSestimatedthe 
rental of the houses in the entire shire at £5,208, but 
that amount may now be more than realized from the 
'feu duties' payable for acres occupied; and nearly half 
this sum is netted at the piers as 'olack mail' from 
those landing on the shore — a tax pretty directly drawn 
from the pockets of the people. 

Dunoon, within the present century, was a desolate 
heath, without an object to enliven it — the kirk, the * 
school, the 'public,' and the 'smithy,' forming the 
villt^e. Now there are miles of villas scattered over 
the green slopes, from low water mark high up the 
green hill-side; and the climate being mild, the air now 
and then moist enough, renders the sparse soil capable 
of cultivation, and not the less so when within each 
gate the citizen, temporarily domiciled thra^ endea- ' 

Dmoon.] DESCRIBED. 141 

Touia to realize hia notion of a garden; and the space 
being Vithin range of spade labour, the result is that a 
parterre-like aspect is given to the land about the villas. 
These rise at all angles, are of all shapes and sizes, and 
erected independent of the rules of architecture— -the 
ovner asserting hie right to make what he likes of his 
own, and further his arcadian views as it may please 
him — the nomenclature being ordinarily an honest one, 
as Iion-bank, Muslin-hall, Sugar-ville, or such like. 

Hunter's Quat, on the verge of the Holy-Loch, is 
so called from the mansion and domain of Hafton, on 
tlie shore to the N.E., being owned by a &nii]y 
' named Hunter, whose means were mode large, and who 
were merchants at Greenock. The strip between the 
shore and the hill is narrow, and the houses so few 
that the pier is called at by few of the steamers, it lying 
rather out of their course when running from Gcnuock 
to the north-west side of the frith of Clyde. 

Kirn ie contiguous to Hunter's Quay, farther west, 
where the fields inland stretch across to Dunloskin 
bill, giving more space for the erection of villas. The 
population is considerable, the pier ia good, they have 
a church or two of their own, and a hotel, some shops, 
retailers of strong waters; and the plqce threatens to 
be town-hke — or, when Dunoon becomee a city, Kim 
may then take rank as its eastern suburb. 

Ddnook, small as it was a generation ago, yet had a 
place in Scottish history, the ferry fcom the Highlands 
being there; and, on the green conical hill west of the 
present pier, rose the castle of Dunoon, which fell into 
the hands of Baliol, was captured by Bruce, bestowed by 
him npon a chief of the dan Campbell, with the title 
of hereditary governor and lands to carry the honour, 
and is still one of the many baronies now claimed 
by his Grace of Ai^le. Years afterwards, when the in- 
snigent Earl of Lennox, aided by the fleet and guns of 

L,-., Google 

142 SCOTLAND [Dunoon. 

England, reduced the castle of Rothesay, he laid Eaege 
to that of Dimoon, which was stoutly ddended, Imt in 
Tain, as artilleTy — ^then first need as engines of war on 
the Clj^e — soon breached the walla, and necessitated 
the capitulation of the garrison. The lady of the chief 
of Ar^le of that day waa a natural daughter of James 
v., father of Mary, Queen of Scots; and the latter, who 
appears to have made ' many tours,' enjoyed the chase 
on the green hills of Cowal — taking shipping from 
Stroae, on the Holy-Loch, to the royal fortress of Dum- 
barton, which was then a naval stAtion. 

The ducal family of Ai^le made the castle of 
Dunoon their occasional abode, as they did that of the 
'Easter house' on the Gareloch — their Palace at Rosft- 
neath; for, the abode of the chief of the Aigyleshire 
Campbells being honoured with royal visitora, and courts 
held,therewasa&ir claim for calling the honse a Palace. 
When Episeopaoy gained temporary ascendance under 
Charles II. the ^hopa of Aigyle Idt their island home 
at Liamore, near Otxin, and settled for a while near 
Dnnoon; the feudal castle and the episcopal palace 
gathered round them the hnts of' their dependaota, and 
the germ of a village showed itself; but when the walls 
of Uie castle crumbled away, and the coifers of the 
bishops became ^apty — deserted was the village. 

The shore line of Dunoon, &om the castle towards 
Kim, is known as the 'east bay,' that towards lanellan 
as the 'west bay;' and inland is a street of considerable 
length and fiur breadth, with shops well stocked, 
whose windows are as large as those in Glasgow or 
Greenock — bringing all the neceesaries of life within 
reach, and not a few luxuries; novels included. A 
hot«l near the pier, 'the Argyle,' is of good size, re- 
cently erected, with all modem improvements. Other 
houses, however, claim a share of the tourist trade, and 
some of them deserve it All tastes may thus be 

L,-., Google 

Dunoon.] DESCEIBED. 143 

suited, fiom tliat of luxurions trareUere to httmble 
excureionista — the latter at times coming dovm in 
thousands, seldom crowding the street, but often black- 
ening the shore, as they stroll about the beach, and 
whUe away the time between their lauding &om the 
lona, the Sultan, the Undine, or othei steamer, and 
their re-embarkation for home — ^the day, when Icmg, 
not unfrequently turning out a merry one. 

Dunoon, vith the Tillas on the east and west bays, 
is the most populous of the sea-bathing lesoita on the 
Clyde; Eothesay may perhaps compete, but it is an 
' old town,' and has been so for centuries. To the re- 
sident or visitor at house or hotel, the means of riding 
OT driving from Dunoon are many and varied; and 
ntunerous steamers call at the pier, whose fares aie so 
low, their comforts aboard bo great, their rai^ of route 
80 extensive and varied, that people will be tempted 
to enjoy themselves. Nor are the advant^ee of lo- 
comotion confined to the steamers, as cabs, cars, 
carriages, horses for riding or driving, are to be had at 
the livery stables and the hotels; while the roads eaet- 
wmd, to TtilirrnTi, Ardentiuny, or Loch-£ck, are good, 
and much travelled, as is the louto westward, by the 
shore, for Innellan, Toward, and Rothesay bay. A 
coach, safe and well-appointed, runs daily, in the 
season, from Dunoon, by Straehur, for Inveraray, a 
route the attractions of which will have due notice. 

The view from the houses on the Dunoon shore is 
wide, Twied, and beautiful, as it embraces Goatfell 
in Allan, the low isle of Buto, the Cumbraes, Latgs, 
"Wemyss Bay, Inverkip, Aidgowan, the Cloch, Ashton, 
Gourock, Greenock, Dumbarton, Roseneath, Loch-Long, 
and the Eiunart hills above the Holy-Loch. Athwart 
this marine panorama, ever and anon, moves the swift 
steamers, from the small screw-coaster to the smart 
passenger steamer, to the stout vessel for the ' Highlands 

144 SCOTLAND [Edinburgh. 

bound,' or &iihei, for the channelB north or south, 
Ei^I&nd, Ireland, or &e Atlantic. Shipa also of all 
ligs and eizea, build and deatination, pass upward and 
downward the frith, propelled by their own canvaa, or 
towed Beawatds or iuwaids by Bteamers ao comparatively 
small, that, made fast on the off-side of the leviathian 
Teasels, they make no appearance, it may be the timnel 
excepted, or the smoke therefrom escaping. 

OftheancientcBstle of Dunoon little remains, lamps 
of masonry alone being found here and there near the top 
of the hill, which ia indented by the footmarks of the 
tboosands of people who climb to its aummit for the 
view there obtained. On the east of the Caatle-hill is 
the mansion known as Dunoon Castle, and vastly more 
comfortable it appears to be than could have been lite 
feudal fortreas, even when royalty dwelt there. From the 
west bay of Dunoon a footpath leads along the shore to 
the pier; but inland runs the carriage way, by a street 
section of the town, hid from the view of the paaaing 
steamer. The beach is good for sea-bathing purposes 
along the whole shore; while ithe water is saline, and 
deepens so gradually that loas of life rarely occurs. The 
row-boats, at anchor or hauled ashore, from Hontflr's 
Quay to Dunoon, which may he counted by hundreds, 
are indicative of the pleasures the youngsters find there. 

Edinburgh, the Metropolis of Scotland — ' mine own 
romantic town' of Scott — has much to attract the 
tourist; and few are the strangers who cross the Tweed, 
or laud on the aborea of Kortb Britain, who fail to 
visit the ancient capital of Caledonia. 

The site of Edinburgh is maguiticent, having tiie 
Craggs of Stdisbury, Arthar'e seat above them, the 
Calton hill, with its crowd of monuments, its modem 
ruin, chum-like tower, statues, institutions, buildings 
new and old — in good taste and otherwise. The frith of 

Edinburgh.} DESCRIBED. 145 

Forth in the foregtoand, l^e shores of Fife beyond, the 
docks of Leith, the piers of Gianton; the new town, 
BO finely designed, so handsomely built ; Priacea-atreet, 
with its gardens, the Scott Monument, and the fi^a- 
tional Institution ; the steep ascent of the old town, 
from the vale of Holyiood np the CssUe ridge; the 
wynds, closes, bridges of the old town; the Meadows 
on the south, tie villa-like suburbs of Newington and 
Momingside, the track of the railway westward, the 
Pentlands, the Braid hills, and the warm nooks below 
them, as seen from the battlements of the ancient 
Castle of Edinburgh, exhibit a horizon in range and 
interest of which the citizens may well be proud — 
there being some warrant for their assertion, that it 
cannot be paralleled anywhere in Europe. 

To a city of such picturesque claims, historic interest, 
and national importance, the means of access are many 
and varied. The railway lines from England, and all 
Scotland, are directly or indirectly connected with it, 
and there are few first-class stations on either side the 
Tweed, at which 'through tickets' can not be had. 
Coaches are few now, but some there are to Dunferm- 
line, and towns in the district, which ply chiefly for the 
accommodation of parties domiciled near the highway. 
From Granton, a ^ort way oflT, steamers run regularly 
for the Thames, the north-east of Scotland, the Chkneys 
and Shetland; and from Leith, the ancient seaport of 
Edinbui^h, steamers are on the berth for the Tyne, the 
Humber, the Thames, the Baltic, and the lUiine. 

The trap rock which crowns tiie ridge winning west- 
Ward, from the base of Arthur's Sea^ and endii^ in 
abrupt precipices to the west, must have attracted the 
notice of the tribes, when they ceased to roam as sa- 
vages, and were made to own allegiance to the stoutest 
of their race; and when the idea of a fortress was con- 
ceived, there was a site of Nature's own making. The 
K I ,Goo>;Ic 

146 SCOTLAND [Edin/mrffk. 

abor^inal tnbes are said to have called the rock Magh- 
dun — 'the fort of the plain', Th€a« was a plain below; 
and within a century, water filled the ravine now tra- 
versed by the railway, and part of which is also so usefiil 
as a railway station. Magh-dua, the monkish historiana 
choose to render as Castellum puellanim — castle of the 
girls— a boardii^-Bchool for the daughters of the chiefs! 
But tiiese monks knowing nothing of matrimony, could 
have known little of girls — moreover it was not the 
fashion of that age to educat« the sex. 

Edwin, king of Northumberland, having away lar 
north of the Tweed, held court on the Castle-hill, more 
than likely added to its defences, and from him it was 
named Edwinbnigh, the town of Edwin; in Gaelic, 
Dun-Edin; iu poetry, Edina. Dun-Monaidh, 'hill of 
the moor,' was another Celtic title, when all plains in 
the Highlands may have been 'moors.' Edinburgh be- 
came the acknowledged capital of the south of Scotland 
in 1020; in the Castle Queen Maigaiet died in 1093; 
and David I., who founded the Abbey of Holyrood, 
did much to improve the fcnrtress, the protection it 
yielded inducii^ the servitors of the monks to build 
their houses in the Canongate, the street on the lower 
end of the ridge leading to the Castle-hilL 

Edinlmrgh became a royal burgh, and a mint was 
established in it 1^ William the Lion. The Castle fell 
into the hands of the English in 1174; was repossessed 
by the Scots in 1186; in 1214-5, Alexander IL held 
a Parliament there; in 1239, a council of the biahopa 
was convened in the Castle; in 1291 it was held by 
Edward of England, but retaken by Randolph for Bruce 
in 1312, and besieged by Edward IL in 1322. Bruce 
held his Parliament there iu 1326-7, and Edward 
Baliol in 1333-4, when it was given up to Edward III. 
who fortified it in 1355, but it was taken by the 'Black 
Douglas' in 1341. Eohert IL held court there. Edu- 

Hdinbta-gh.] DESCRIBED. 147 

boi^ was bnmed, and the Castle beraeged hy Heniy 
lY. in 1385. James L held court there, and it was 
the birthplace of Jamea II., his son, who was crowned 
there in 1137 — Edinbui^ thereafter becomii^ the 
undisputed eapital of Scotland. Being walled in by 
James IL in 1450, it gave shelter to H^my VI. after 
the battle of Towtoa Maiy of Goeldrea wae married 
there in 1449 to James IL, and Mazgaret of Denmark 
in 1469 to James III, Jamea IV. held his first Far- 
hament in 14S8; aud in 1503 when he married 
Maif;aret the daughter of Heniy VIL 

The city was visited by the plague in 1613. Its de- 
f^ices were stiengthened in 1514, after the slaughter of 
flodden field, when the town-guaid was formed. The 
streets were lighted, and the College of Justice founded, 
in 1532. Edinbuigh was burned in 1544 by the 
Protector Someraet; gairisoned in 1648 by the French; 
'stirred up'byEnoxin 1556-7,andoocupied by his party, 
the 'liOids of theCongi^tion,' in 1558 — the adherents 
of the royal or caUioIic par^, aided by French troops, 
holding Leith. The first Assembly of the Reformed 
Church was held in Edinburgh in 1560. Mary, on her 
letum from Fiance, was received tiiere in 1561, and 
married toI>ainl^inl565. JameaVI.wasbom there in 
1566; Rizzio was murdered, Damley destroyed, a Parlia- 
ment held, and Mary united to Bothwell, but defeated at 
Carberry hill in 1567, when the Caatle was held in her 
iaterest by Kirkaldy of Grai^^ bat captured by the 
Earls Lennox and Mt^ton, Regents of Scotland 

James VX held bis first parliament in Edinburgh. 
Morton was beheaded by ' the Maid^t ' — the guillotine of 
his introduction. The town suffered from the plague in 
1686,and was entered byBethwellin 1691 in hie raid 
to seize the king. Elizabeth, the queen of Bohemia, 
daughter of James VI., and grandmother of Geoi^ I., 
was bom in Edinburgh in 1596. In 1699 a Farlia- 
L,-., Google 

148 SCOTLAKD [Edinbarffft. 

ment was held there, irhea the year was made to ran 
from January — March having been the old rule. 

James VI. left Edinburgh in 1603, when he became 
Jamesl. of England, but he visited it in 1617. Charles 
L was crowned there in 1633; he bronght in Episcopacy 
in 1637, which was repudiated by the General Assemb^ 
of Glasgow in 1638. General Leshe captured the 
Castle inl6iO; the town was the residence of Charles in 
1641; where, in 1643, he signed the Soleron League 
and Covenant; and there Montroae, ihe gallant partisan 
of the Stuarts, was executed in 1650. 

Charles IL was proclaimed in Edinburgh, which 
was taken by Cromwell ^ter the battle of Dunbar in 
1650. James II., when Dute of York, was in Edin- 
burgh in 1679, and treated the nobility to 'tea' — . 
then a Inxary, Episcopacy was displaced and Pres- 
byterianiam estabHshed in 1689; but the Castle was 
held by the Duke of Gordon for James II. until 1690. 
In 1699 the citizens witnessed the formation of the 
Darien scheme. In 1707 the Union between l^igland 
and Scotland was accomplished, the councillors of the 
city subscribing the deed in a tavern in Hunter's-squaie, 
known afterwards as the Union Tavern. In 1736 
occurred the hanging of Porteous by the mob, so 
graphically told in the 'Heart of Mid-Lothian.' In 
1745 Charles Edward, the Pretender, stayed three 
weeks at Holyrood, the palace of his fathers; while the 
clans who followed him lay encamped at Hunter's Bog. 
After Culloden, Edinburgh was visited by the Duke of 
Cumberland; and in August 1822 George TV. entered 
the city — the programme of his national reception, a 
magnificent one, being drawn out by Sir Walter Scott, 
who had been knighted by him in 1821. In 1842 Queen 
Victoria was in Edinburgh, her first visit to ScotUnd. 

The city improvement scheme made the Corporation 
of Edinhmgh bankrupt in 1833 — the debts were but 
L,-., Google 

EdinbtOT/k.] DESCRIHED. U9 

£425,196, the assets ^£271,668— emaU toub in 1866. 
The British Association fiiet met in Edinburgh in 1634; 
and the 'Free' Church Awembly there dedkred them- 
selves to be disestAbliahed in 1843. 

Edinbn^h Tetoms two Membeia to Parliament — 
vot^B at genraal election of 1866 being 10,343, from a 
population of 168,121. The national Courts of joriS' 
pradence, the UniTersity, and the numerouB public 
institutions in Edinburgh, as the capital of Scotland, 
make society select, and produce congregations of such 
clasaee as minister to the wants of the aristocracy. The 
diops are therefore good; but manu&ctoies, in their 
ordinary sense, ha-ra no seat in Edinbni^h, if the vast 
breweries for ales be excepted, and the establishmeuta 
fiir book printing, and the trades connected therewith, 
which are carried on extensively. 

As a city, Edinburgh is divided into the old and the 
new town, the former including the streets, closes, and 
vynds, &om the palace of Holyrood to the Casde on 
the west, inclusive of the Grassmarket, and its ap- 
proaches, the Cowgat«, and the ancient wynds leading 
northward for Leith. Beyond what was ^lown as the 
'Kot' (North) Loch, a small stagnant sheet of water 
bdow the Castle rock — is Prince's-street^ running west- 
ward from near the Calton Hill, the promenade of the 
city, adorned with the Scott Monument, the Xational 
Gajlety, and the finely kept gardens, open to the pulJic, 
which cover the slope between Prince's«treet and the 
Castle — ^the railway from the west coming in there, to 
the station known as the 'Waverley Bridge,' 

Parallel with Prince'a-street is George«treet^ from 
St. Andlrew-sqnare on the east to Charlotte-square on 
the west; with statues, equestrian, on pillars and other- 
wise, on the wide line of street. Below George-street 
is Queen-street, with enclosed grounds or gardens be- 
tween it and the fine houses lower down the hill 
L,-., Google 


The creecent§ and the streets forming the new town of 
Edinbui^h are of magnificent architectnre, form fit 
abodes for the aristocracy of North Britain, and are 
well occupied. 

In lei^h and breadth the city of Edinburgh extends 
about two miles, and is within that distance &om the 
frith of Forth; and her residents affirm that the reeem- 
blance between Athena and Edinburgh is striking|— 
their town being the £ner placed of the two! The 
beauties of the site, the city, and the district, are m^ 
nificently seen from the Calton Hill, Arthur's Seat, 
or the Castle. The hoosee, those especially above the 
lailway, are ten to twelve storeys in height, and, when 
lighted up by the occupants, have a picturesque (^>pe(»- 
ance from Prince's-etreet The southern sections of the 
city, between Arthur's Seat and by Blackford towards 
the Braid Hills, Newington, Momingside, and like dis- 
tricts built over, are open and look well, as do the more 
modem extension westward h^ the water of Leith, and 
the older line eastward for Fortobello. 

In Waterloo • place, Prince's - street. Queen -steeet^ 
Cockbum- street, and elsewhere, hotel accommodation 
is ample and exoeUent, as are the means of locomotion 
by cab or "bus; and little difficulty will be found hy 
the tourist in getting proper parties to map out the city 
for him, and show biTn how to 'do it — inspect all that 
is attractive or noteworthy; but, to accomplish this, 
time must be allowed, as the old town is rife with his- 
toric incidents, and tiie new one full of monnments 
raised to the brave and the good. The institutions also 
are very numerous, and many are the guide or band 
books to be had which nndertake fully to describe all 
that may instruct or interest. Some of these brochorea 
are good ventures for the publishers; one of date 1863, 
has 66 pages of information, and 80 pages of advratise- 
mente — the latter tisefiil literature, 

L,-., Cookie 

.] DESCRIBED. 151 

On aeceudii^ the Calton H'll &omW&terloo-pIace,is a 
finely designed monument to Dugald Stewart, by W. H. 
Flayfaii; near It the Royal Observatory, tmd a monu- 
ment to Frofessoi Playfeir, The old Observatory on the 
west may be unsightly, but campaie it with the modem 
one cloeely, and the advance of science will be seen. 
On the aummit of the hiU la the pillar, erected to do 
honour to the memory of Kehion; it is occupied as a res- 
taurant at the base, with liberty for those patronisiut; 
the keeper, to ascend and ei\joy the view £rom above, 
' Eastward of this monument are twelve columns, known 
as 'the National Uonument,' meant to commemorate 
the victory of Waterloi^ and to be a reproduction of the 
Parthenon of Athena; but they are likely to remain a 
modem min — an nitfinished pile- 
On the southern slope of the Calton Hill , and over- 
looking the Canougato, is the High School, a fine 
structure, with ample accommodation for classes, which 
ara well filled, and where most of the branches of 
knowledge are taught; nor is the intellect only cared 
for, as fencing and gymnastics form part of the course; 
the play-ground is large, and the views range over the 
old town, Artihui's Seat, eastward on to the south. 
Opposite the High School is a monument to Robert 
Bums, which for some time contained a statue of the 
poet, by Flaxman, but it has been plaeed in the Uni- 
vexsty library. In front of the Register-of&ce is an 
equestrian statue of the Duke of WeUington; near the 
Ifational Gallery is the statue of the Queen; and be- 
tween them, in Prince's-street, is the Scott Monument, 
the moat conspicuous erection in the city. 

The design of the Scott Monument was by Geoi^ 
M. Kemp, a self-taught architect, who died before 
this effort of his genius was completed. The foimda- 
tion-Btone was laid on August 15, 1810, and the build- 
ing was finished in 1844; the height bein^g 200 feet, 
. ,. ., Google 

162 SCOTLAND [IklinburgTi. 

and the coat £16,690. A stair of 287 stepa conducte 
to a gallery at the top, whence the view around is 
grand. On the monument are 32 niches, places for 
Btataee or impereonatioiis of the characters portrayed ' 
by the pen of the author of Waverley. Charlea Ed- 
vaxA, from Waveri^, appears drawing hia sword; Meg 
Merrileee, from Guy Mannering; George Heriot, from 
the Portimee of Nigel; the Lady of the Lake; the last 
Minstrel, with his harp, and other figures enrich the 
pile. The plate laid under the foundation-stone, and 
never likely to see light ^ain till 'all the Bunoanding ' 
structures are crumbled to dn^t,' that the ad- 
mirable writings of Sir Walt«r Scott give more delight, 
and suggest better feelings, thau those of any othex 
author, with the exception of Shakespeare. Sir Walter 
Scott was bom at Edinburgh, ISth Al^;ast 1771, and 
died at Abboteford, 21st September 1832. The marble 
statue of the author of Waverley, by Steel, was placed 
in the monument on the 15th August 1846. 

In St, AndreVs-square, a pillar, 136 feet ia h^ht, 
surmounted by a statue 14 feet high, has been nused 
in honour of Lord Melville; and in front of the Royal 
Bank, to the eastward, is a statue to the Earl of 
Kopetoun, standing beside hia charger. Where Hanover- 
street intersects Geoige-atreet is a statue of Geoige IV.; 
and one to William Pitt where Frederick-street comes 
in farther west — neither admired. Behind the old 
church of St. Giles is the equestrian statue of Charlee II.; 
and on the esplanade near the Castle is one of the Duke 
of York — the friend of the soldier. In the church- 
yards and cemeteries of the city, the monuments, pillars, 
and statues in honour of the dead are numerous, and 
many of them of historic interest. 

The National Gallery and the Royal Institution, 
west of the Scott Monument, and above the Prince's- 
etreet Gardens, are magnificent atractures. They might 

Edinburgh.] DESCEIBED. 153 

have been btdlt to better advaotege on bigber sites, 
but oa no otber co)dd tliey be more accessible to 
tbe resident or the visitor. The Coll^ of the Free 
Churcli occupies a commanding site; and behind tuid 
above it rises the tall spite of the Assembly Hall of the 
Church of Scotknd. The Eegister-office, the range of 
buildings erected for the safe keeping of the records of 
the nation, are at the east end of Frince's-atreet, facing 
the !North Bridge; they are of great extent, havii^ 
recently been considerably enlarged. Opposite is the 
Fostoffice, just finished, of great size, fine architec- 
ture, p^ect arrangement, and moat imposing site. 
The Inland Eevenue and other offices of like charac- 
ter range eastwards along Waterloo-place, the bridge 
of which spans the ravine by which the citizens of 
old found their route fivm the Castle to the port of 
Leith, Hotels around numerous. 

The North Bridge— few of the bridges of Edin-, 
burgh have water under them — leads across the hollow, 
in which are the railway stations, to the High-street; 
and being the thoroughfare between the old and new 
town, the street architecture is good, and the shops 
superior. The North Bridge, begun in 1763, was com- 
pleted in 1769; and the year after three of the vaults 
under it gave way, killii^ five persons. Although the 
South Bridge looks from above as of one arch, it is a 
series of many, spanning the valley through which the 
' cows' were of old driven to grass. From Prince's-street 
to High-street, by the iC^orth Bridge, is but a short way, 
and onwards is the South Bridge, under which may be 
seen the Cowgate, leading &om near Holyrood to the 
Grassmarket, below the (Wtle — of old a reputable dis- 
trict, now tJie poorest within the city, and offering 
scope for the efforts of those philanthropists who believe 
it to be their mission to excavate me masses from 
heathenism and savageism. On the west side of the 
L,-., Google 

164 SCOTLAKD [Edinburgh. 

South Bridge are the biuldings of the University, nearly 
on the Edte where Eirkfield stood, the country house 
of Damley, huBliaiid of Macy, who was deatroyBd by 
conspirators, led on by BothwelL 

On 24th April 1 582, the charter of the Univea^ty of 
Edinburgh was granted by James VI. of Scotland, I. of 
England, and son of the murdered Damley. In 1583 
the first professor was appointed; but it was nearly a 
oentnry ikter before the Collie was so endowed as to 
take rank with the older foundations of St. Andrews, 
Gla^ow, or Aberdeen. It was half-a-centmy later 
ere it won the name of being, what it has since been 
acknowledged, a school of medicine of high repute 
— Dr. A. Munroe, in 1720, being professor of ana- 
tomy; and Blacl^ Ferguson, M'Laurin, Bobraifion, 
Stewtoi^ and others, occupying chairs, did much to in- 
crease the fame of the University of Edinburgh. 

The buildings became insufficient for the educational 
demands of the metropolis; and, in 1789, the founda- 
tion of structures more extensive and suitable was 
laid — ^the plan by E, Adam ; which was followed in part^ 
the pile as now seen being completed from a design 
by W. H. Flayfair. In form it is a parallelogram, 
the principal entrance being on the east by a portico, 
supported with Doric columns, the arch cut out of one 
stone. The Professordiipe are 34 in number; the &- 
cnltiee — arts, law, medicine, divinity; and the patrons — 
the Crown and the legal Corporations. The bursaries, 
34 in number, yield £1,172 per annum to 80 studenta, 
the number of whom average 800, half to arts and 
divinity, 300 medicine, 100 to law; the session begins 
let Kovember and closes end of April; in summer, from 
let Monday in June till the end of the month, the 
latter term being for botany, natural history, medical 
jurisprudence, and lectures on medicine and surgery. 

On the south side of the University buildmga is the 

Edinburgh.] DESCRIBED. 165 

Library, contaimi^ about 100,000 Toliimes, and sup- 
ported by ft fund of one pound from each student, five 
pounds Irom eacli pTufesBor, and a share of the fees 
exacted from the graduates in the arte and medicine — 
ttie claim the library held on a copy of each work pro- 
duced in 'Great Britain' having been commuted for an 
annual grant of £575. The library hall is a magni- 
ficent apartment, 198 feet in length by 50 in width 
The museum of science and art, opea to the public, 
contains illuatiatione of industrial art and the natural 
hietory collectionformedby thecollege. The building is 
little more than a third part corapletad; when finished, 
it will be 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, with an 
average height of 90 feet. A little eastwards of the 
UniveTBity, and on the opposite side of the street, is the 
Boyal College of Surgeons, a building, the architecture 
of which is much admired, and within it are anatomical 
and surgical preparations worthy of the fame of the 
schools of Edinburgh. The Phrenological Museum is 
in the neighbourhood; it is open to the public on the 
Saturday afternoons; and the collection of gkulle and 
busts is extensive and interesting to those who have 
laith in the science. The etreet line southward, leads 
to the Ifewington suburb of Edinburgh. 

The spire — or 'steeple,' as the Scotch call it — of 
the church of Newington is tail and handsome; and 
a preacher, lui&ble to gather a congregation in that 
ebunth, has since become a popular minister in the 
cily of Glasgow, the men of the city in the east, it may 
be, being hwder to please than are the haid-working 
denizens of the city in the west. Near to the church 
of Newington are ' the Meadows,' the parks of Edin- 
burgh, and though neither ornate nor of great extent, 
they form 'the longa' of the southern section of the city 
of Edinburgh. A short way north of the Meadows is 
Geoi^»«quaTe, generations ago the &shionabIe locality 

156 SCOTLAND [Edinburgh. 

of modem Athens — the hooae No. 26 beii^ memorable 
aa the one occupied by Walter Scott, W. S., the father of 
the author of the Waverley aovelB. 

Proceeding &om Glearge-aquaie, the bridge of George 
lY. ia soon reached; it croeees the western end of the 
Cowgate, leada on to the High-etreet, and there the hall 
of the Highland & Agricultural Society of Scotland 
is found — an institution excellent in its influence, a 
model one to all nations, and open to the public. On 
the east of the George IV. Bridge are the pile of build- 
ing known as the Parliament House, the Advocate's 
library, and other institutions of the class. They are 
built on the alope of 'the hill, from the Cowgate to 
High-street^ the site Wording great height, good li^t> 
and all needful space. The buildings refeired to being 
of national importance, will be briefly noticed. 

The range of offices under the colonnade, and bdiind 
St, Giles's church, would need the guide proper to 
explain all about them. "Wliere the Parliament House 
B(rw stands was of old occupied as a cemetery; and the 
site on which stands the stiatue of Charles 11. is above 
the grave of John Knox ! Bat it surely cannot be; else 
would the Beformer of abnses in the Eirk not sleep 
under one whom the Covenanters believed did so muti 
to unsettle the foundations of all that was religious. 

The great bull of the Parliament House, 123 feet by 
49, wit£ a fine lofty roof -of carved oak, was built in 
1639, and used hf the Scottish Parliament until the 
Union; it is now the waiting-room of the Advocates, 
and during the session is t^e promenade of all the 
'waiters on upon justice' — a wetuy lot. The statues of 
Forbes of Culloden, 1752; Melville, 1811; Dundas, 
1819; Boyle, 1841; and Cockbum, 1854, add dignity 
to the fine room. Portraits also of Dundas, 1787, 
Bobertson, Hope, and othera, adorn the walls. The 
Advocates' library is one of the five entitled to a 

Edinburgh.] DESCfilBED. 157 

copy (often a costlj' one to the aathor) of each book 
piodaced in Great Britain; it enters from the Parlia- 
ment House, has 1S0,000 volumes, manuscripte of gieat 
nnmber and value, and is, as might be espected, tbe 
most valuable collection in Scotluid. The Signet Li- 
brary, forming part of the Parliament House buildings, 
conbiins 60,000 vohimes, and is rich in historical 
works. A branch of a Glasgow bank, and the Police- 
office for the city of Edinbin^gh, ofcupy that wing of 
Farliamentrequare which is near the High-street, 

Opposite the Parliament House are the buildings of 
the Boyal Exchange, not imposing ovra much, modern 
Athena eschewing commerce, but interesting to the 
tourist, as at offices there he must apply for orders to 
admit him to the Crown-room in the Castle, and to 
Heriot's Hospital, should he desire to vieit them. 

Turning sharp to the left, after leaving the court, 
behind St Giles's, is the Lawnnmrket, where the dra- 
pers of old used to exhibit their muslins. On tbe south, 
a short way up, is the West-bow, the descent to the 
Grassmarket, where Montrose and Argyle met theli 
&te, and to which the populace hurried Portaous to 
meet his. ffor was it noted for executions only, as up 
its narrow slope James L Charles I. Cromwell, Charles 
JX and James YII. journeyed. Weir, the warlock, 
and his sister, put to death in 1670, lived there. 

The Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland oc- 
cupies a prominent site on the ascent to the Castle — the 
spire, 241 feet high, showing high above the Free Church 
College on the north. The latter, as before alluded to, 
occupies one of the best sites in the ancient city; and 
antiquuians may i^ret it, as, to find room for the 
modem building, tiie palace of Mary of Guise was 
removed. The High-street of Edinburgh, from the 
Cross and the Tron Chnich westward, was, but it must 
have been a century ago, considered one of the finest 
L,-., Google 

158 SCOTLAND [Edinburgh. 

atreete in Europe, To Scotsmen it is one of the most 
iutereetii^, as contaimng memorabilia of bis country's 
liistoryi and it is well that due notice of such has been 
&ithfully put on record by Chambers, Cockburo, Scott, 
ood Wilson, in their volumes of high literary men^ 
and which are of great historic iat«i:est 

Ascending the hill, the eeplaoade of the Castle is 
reached, on which a monumental cross has been erected in 
memory of thooe of the 78th regiment, that of HaTclock, 
who feU in the battles consequent on the Indian mutiny. 
Traitors w^e beheaded on the esplanade centuries ago; 
and later it was the spot where witches wero bumed; 
now it is used as the site where the recruit is tau(^ 
the ' goose step.' Above the portcnllie-gat^ but across 
the moat, is the state prison where Montrose, for 
adhering to the Stuarts, uid Argyll, for opposition to 
them, were confined before their execution. 

In &e Castle the 'Begalia' of Scotland, long lost, but 
recovered in 1818, are deposited in the Crown-room, to 
which access is had by order. They consist of a sword of 
state, a soeptre, and a crown, with the Lord Treasurer's 
rod of office, and are carefully preserved, A room, 
email and in no way handsome is known as Queen 
Mary's room, and that in which James VI. of Scotland 
and L of England was bom, 'H. and M. 1566' being 
carved over the door. A chapel, restored in 1853, is 
pointed out as that of Margaret^ Queen of Malcolm 
Cumiore, who died in 1093, and as such may be the 
oldest of its class in Scotland. 

A gun, of small power compm%d with the Armstrong 
productions of 1 866, is kaown aa ' Mons Meg,' cast in 
1476, of thick iron, well hooped together, 20 inchea in 
boie, dismounted now, but employed in 1513 at the 
siege of Iforham Castie, was 1^ destroyed in 1683, 
when made use of to fire a saluto in honour of the 
Duke of Yoik, who removed it to London; but having 

Edinburgh.] DESCRIBED. 159 

a place in the traditioiml recollectionfl of tlie Scots, it 
waa aent back to the Caatle in 1829 by Gooi^ IV.— 
it may be in recognition of the warm welcome which 
was given him in 1822, when, as the £iet Fiince of the 
Hanoverian line, be appeared among them. Reference 
has been already made to the sieges and captures of the 
old fortress; and in the gable or end wall of a house 
S.E of the esplanade may be seen a ball embedded 
ttiere since 1745. The hoose is an old one, as on the 
attic window are seen 'A,M, MM. 1630.' 

The houses uoiiih of the Castle-hill, and above the 
railway access to the city, are known as Ramsay 
Gardens — Allan Eamsay having died there in 1757. 
On the north side of the lAwnmarket, David Hume 
resided, and also BosweU, the biographei of Johnson. 
Below Bank-street, on the north, is Dimbar-close, so 
named &oni Cromwell's soldiers beii^ quart«red there 
in 1650, after the Scots were routed at Dunbar; and 
a house near by still shows the date of 1567. On the 
south side of the H^h-atreet is the cathedral of St. 
Giles, the parish church of the ancient city of Edin- 
burgh, renovated in 1839, but at the sacrifice of most 
of its original and characteristic features. "Within the 
western diapel is a pillar with the shields of the Duke 
of Albany and Ardiihald the Grim, Earl of Douglas, 
supposed to have been placed there as an expiatory 
aacn£ce for the destraction, by starvation, at Falk- 
land, in liOl, of the Duke of Rothesay, son of Robert 
III. and son-in-law of Douglas. A charter, 1359, of 
David n. ia extant in lefeteace to St Giles; in 1466 
it was a coU^iate charge, with forty altars within its 
walls; and Gavin Douglas, the poet, afterwards Bishop 
of Dunkeld, was before that provost of St. Giles. At 
the Refonnation, the cathedral was partitioned off to 
contain four congregations, and the church plate seized 
to pay the cost of doing so. In 1603 James VI. 

160 SC0TLA2n> [Edinburgh. 

attended divine service, and gave a lecture to luB sub- 
jects before leaving them to mount the throne of Eng- 
land. On October 13, 1643,' the Solemn League and 
Covenant ves subscribed at St. Giles's by the ma- 
natee of church and state, commissionerB from England 
included. The 'good Earl' of Murray, shot down at 
linlithgoT, and the gallant Uaiquis of Montrose, 
beheaded in the Giaeemarket, vere interred near the 
sontli transept of the chnrch; and on the north ivall is 
a monument to !Napier of Merchiston, the mathenia- 
tioian. Until 1817 the spaces between the buttresses 
of this ancient church were occupied as stalls by the 
hucksters of the city, the smoke &om these wretched 
'krames,' or luckonbooths, as they were called, b^rim- 
mlng the walla of ancient St. Giles. 

At the north-west comer of tha cathedral of St Gilee 
stood the 'Heart of Midlothian* — the jail of Edinbui^h 
— BO notable from the tale of that name, depicting the 
heroism of Jeanie Deans, and detailing the sacrifice of 
Porteous; and the entrance-door, the padlock and key 
of the gloomy building, are at Abbotsford among the 
relics hoarded np by the novelist. The 'Anchor-close' 
in the High-street is notable as the printing place of 
William Smellie, from whose press emanated the most 
valued of the works of the latt«r half of the eighteenth 
centory; and the Douglas tavern, at the head of the 
close, was one of the haunts or 'howia' of Robert Bums 
when residing in Edinburgh. 

The Tron Church, where the North and South Brid- 
ges intersect the High-street, was so named, as the 
ve^hing-honse beam was erected there, and,to it were 
nailed the ears of 'notour male&ctora.' The chapel in ' 
Carrubber's close was built there in 1688 by the Episco- 
palian party, when they lost the ascendance in Scotland 
they had striven for; and poor as the locality now 
appears to be, it is not a century since the nobiliU of 
L,-., Google 

Edinburgh.] DESCRIBED. 161 

Scotland had their town houses there ; while the Whit 
field Chapel in the close was at one time a theatre, 
built hj AUan Bamsay, the poet, who lived at the 
head of a wynd across the street. 

From the Lawnmarket eastwards the High-street is 
btoad; at the top of Canongate — the Netherbow Port — 
it contracts to half the width; and at the north comer is 
the house of John Knox — one of the sights of the city. 
The house, which is open to the public, consists of a 
sitting-room, study, and bed-room, and is a fair specimen 
of dwelling-houses of the sixteenth century, the more 
so that the oak panelling, as now seen, has been taken 
&om the waUs of other dwellings more characteristic of 
that ago. When John Knox became minister in Edin- 
burgh, in 1559, this home was provided for and occu- 
pied by him until bis death, in 1572, Above the door, 
in antique carvii^, is the admonition — 'lufe. God. 
above, all and. your, neighbours, as. yourself;' and 
nnder the window, where the enei^etic Reformer 
used to address the people, is a rude s&gy of the 
minister in the act of speaking. Near this locality is a 
handsome building — ^the John Enox Tree Church. 

The Canongate was the approach from the palace 
of Holyrood to the Castle, and as such was hned with 
the citj dwellings of the aristocracy, few of which re- 
main. Moray House, on the south, built in 1618, was 
occupied by Cromwell in 1648, and by the Marquis of 
Argyle, who saw from the windows Montrose led to 
the prison it was his own fate to occupy soon afterwards 
— both being executed. St. John-street was the germ 
of the improvements of the city, the houses there being 
the best in Edinburgh when Burns visited it. Smollett 
the novelist lived there in 1766. The court-house 
of the Canongate has over the archway, 1591; the 
arms of the old burgh, with the motto 'Sic itur adastra;' 
and on the inner doorway that of 'esto £dus.' At the 

162 SCOXLAITD [Edinburgh. 

lower end of the bnildiug is tlie pillory, ui old stone 
cross, and the iron staple to which the 'joi^p' were 
made last. In the Canongate kirk-}'ard lie the re- 
mains of Adam Smith, Du^d Stewart, and Ferguson 
the poet The stone over the latter was erected by 
fiobert Bums, who inscribed on it — 'This simple stone 
directs pale Scotia's way to pour her sorrows o'er her 
poet's duBt.' Robert Fei^aon was bom 5th Septem- 
ber 1751, and died 16th October 1774. 

Across the street is the house of Huntly, who burned 
the Earl of Moray in 1591 in bis home at Dooibristle; 
and bis son, the second Marquis of Huntly, was brought 
to the block at Edinburgh in 1619, In the court near 
by, the Duchess of Gordon dwelt in 1753. Queens- 
berry House, which was the abode of the noble family 
of that name, now serves as a ' House of Eefi^e for the 
Destitute.' In the '"White-Horse close,' near Galloway's 
entry, was the oldest hostelry in Edinburgh, where 
Dr. Johnson found quarters in 1773. At the Abbey 
Court-house, debtors seeking refuge in the precincte 
behind obtain letters of protection; and near it is the 
approach to the court-yard of the palace of Holyrood. 

Holyrood Palace, which is open to the visitor, ia of 
quadrangular form, the court within being 94 feet 
square, and the front flanked with double towers, those 
on the N. W. erected by James V. The picture gallery 
is 150 feet long by 27 broad, the walls displaying por- 
traits, by one De Witt, of 106 kings of Scotland! 
The portrait of Mary Queen Scots is good; and there 
is a painting, 1484, of James III. and his queen, with 
other figures, which was executed as an altar-piece for 
the collegiate church of the Holy Trinity, Edinburgh, 
and has recently been sent to Holyrood Palace from 
the royal gallery at Hampton Court. Queen Mary's 
apartments remain nearly as they were left by that 
unfortunate princess: the small audience cbaaiber, the 

Edinburgh.] DESCRIBED. 163 

bed-room, with its ancient fumiture, and on one side 
th.e door hy which Damley and Earl Morton entered, 
and reached the cabinet where Kixzio fell under their 
dc^gers, the queen vainly trying to shield him. 

The Abbey of Holyrood House was founded in 1128 
hy David I., and bestowed on canons regular of St. 
Augustine ftom St Andrews — hence the name Canon- 
gate. The weat front is finely aculptuced, and of ancient 
date; -but the windows above are of Charles I.'»time, 
that prince having fitted up his 'chapel royal' there, 
which was meant as a model for those he sought to 
establish throughout Scotland, Charles was crowned 
in it in 1633; and his sou James II. adapted the chapel 
for Catholic worship in 'his' attempt to make 'that' 
the religion of his people. The roof feU in 1768, 
and has not been replaced. On the K.E. is a marble 
monument, 1639, to Lord Eelhaven, with many other 
tombs of t^e nobility; and in the S.£. comer is the 
royal vault, where the bodies of David II,, James IL, 
James V., his queen, Damley, and other magnates of 
Scotland, were interred. Tlw grave of Eizzio is in 
the passage leading &om the quadrangle. The Abbey, 
Arthur's Seat, and about a hundred yards townward 
from the palace, give a sanctnary to debtors. In front 
of the palace of Holyrood a fountain, like that ab 
Linhthgow, was erected nnder the direct superintend- 
ence, and at the coat of the late Frince-Consort, whose 
taste in all things artistic was excellent. 

Behind the palace of Holyrood, on the S.W., is 
Arthur's Seat, 823 feet high, ajid one of the features in 
Uie landscape of Edinburgh. It is traditionary that 
Arthnr, a prince of the Britons, defeated the Saxons 
here 1300 years ago, and hence the name; while the 
Craigs below the western slope of the hill were called 
Salisbury, an earl of that name having been a leader 
in the English army which invaded Scotland under 


Edwaid III. A carri^e drive, 'the Queen's,' fdnned 
some years ^o, leads round Artlmr's Seat, and afforde 
views of the Frith of Forth, East-Lothian, and the city 
under all its aspects. Overlooking the palace, are the 
ruins of St Anthony's Chapel, where a hermitage once 
stood; but the looahty, as having been depicted in the 
pt^es of the 'Heart of Midlothian' — Jeanie Deans 
and her tsialB, and the associations thereof, are now 
femilinr to those who visit Edinburgh. 

In the church of the 'Greyfriars,' 8. W, of George IV. 
Brit^e, were interred Geoi^e Buchauau, Allan Bunsay, 
Principal Robertson, Black, Blair, M'Lanrin, M'Crie, 
Tytler, and other 'men of their time,'' hut the spot 
most venerated is the lower part of the cemetery, where 
are inscriptions relating that 'ftom May 27, 1661, the 
most noble Marquis of Argyle suffered, to February 17, 
1688, that Mr. James Eenwict suffered, wore executed 
at Edinburgh about one hundred noblemen, gentlemen, 
ministers, and others, noble martyrs for Jeaus Christ; 
the most part of them lie here.' The first signatures 
to the ^National Covenant of 1663 were appended in 
Greyfriars' Church, which was built in 1612; its spirewas 
blown np in 1718, the magistrates having lodged 'their 
powder there;' and in 1845 the church was destroyed 
by iire, but has been re-erected. The cemeteries of 
Edinburgh are hnely placed; in that of the Dean, to 
the N.W., lie buried Lords Cockhum, Jeffrey, Murray, 
Eutherfuid, and Professor Wilson^-Chriatopher North. 
In the Grange cemetery, on the south, are iutorred Dr. 
Chalmers and Hugh Miller. 

The institutions of Edinbui^ are numerous. That of 
George Heriot, who, in the 'Fortunes of Nigel,' is repre- 
sented assaying 'The wealth God has sent me, it shall 
not want inheritors while there are orphan lads in Auld 
Reekie,' is one of the oldest, and may be also the finest 
It was founded in 1628, complet«d in 1660, and .cost 

Edinburgh.] DESCEIBED. 165 

£27,000, a latge sum in thoae days. The architectural 
design is attributed to Inigo Jones, and the building is 
quadrangular, 162 feet each way, the court within 92 
feet square. The lads on the foundation, and maintained 
in the Hospital, number about 180, and, in addition, 
there aie ten bursaries, open to strangets, those obtain- 
ing them having X20 per annum for four years. The 
objects of the inatitution are, tlie maintenance and 
education of poor and fatherless boys, 'who Bjust be 
the sons of freemen of the town of Edinburgh,'' and 
8ueh are the advantages that the boya now sent there 
are chiefly from the middle classes. South of Heriot's 
is the Hospital of George Watson, placed there for the 
benefit of the children and grandchildren of decayed 
merchants of the city of Edinburgh, where accommo- 
dation is provided for 80 or 90 boys. Other institutions 
there are in Edinbui^h for like objects; but the largest 
is that founded by Mr. Donaldson,aprinter of Edinburgh, 
who, bestowing upon his relations a pittance to live upon, 
invested £200,000 in this effort to bo remembered, the 
hospital being for the maintenance of deaf, dumb, and 
poor children. The building, designed by Playfair, is one 
of the finest in or near the city, and the site magnificent; 
but it has not been improved by the mass of erections 
at the railway, which throws the hospital into the shade. 
TTiat portion of the new town of Edinburgh which 
lies west of Queen-street, being on the estate of the Earl 
of Moray, has been built over according to feuing plans 
prepared by Gillespie Graham, one of the most eminent 
of the architects of the last generation— hence aU is 
magnificent and massive, yet chaste, the buildings show- 
ing the better that the stone of which they are constructed 
is clear in colour, and endurii^. The house, No. 24 
Ainslie-street, was the one occupied by Lord Jeffrey; 
and No. 39 Caatle-atreet, by Queen-street, left aide, and 
near George-street, was the abode of Sir Walter Scott. 

166 SCOTLAND [Edinburgh 

The batiks and iasurance-offices in Edlnbm^h are, 
many of them, of palatial aichitecture. The church of 
St. George's m Charlotte-equare cost ^33,000; while the 
Commercial Bani in George-street, and those of the British 
Linen Company and the Eoyal in St. Andrew's-aqnare, 
haveheenrearedregardlesaofoutlay. The Scotch banking 
element in Kdinbm^h m & etrong one; the Bank of Scot' 
land, Britiah Linen Company, Commercial, National, and 
Eflyal having their head-quarters there;— the first is in 
Bank-street, off High-street, and shows largely from the 
railway stations; and the other four are within hail of 
each other, and near to Prince's-street The Insurance- 
offices are many, and seem all to prosper, if any infer- 
ence may be drawn from the eotrtly character of the 
structures in which they do business; — the lawyers 
predominate in the directorate of many, and, in the 
west, folks do not overwell like that element. 

The environs and places in the vicinity of Edinburgh 
merit notice, as the district has many daims on those 
who admire the picturesque. Boslin and Hawthomden 
will be afterwards noticed; and Granton will have dne 
attention when Leith comes under review, ag will Porto- 
bello and the shore eastward, Habbie's Howe, the 
scenery of the 'Gentle Shepherd,' a pastoral poem by 
A Hun Ramsay, and one in high &youi with the Scot- 
tish peasant^, is about 9 miles south of Edinburgh, 
and is the favourite resort of pic-nic parties from liat 
city. Leaving Edinburgh by Momingside, the plain 
extending to the west is the Borough-moor, where the 
levies of James IV. were encamped before marching for 
thebloodyheldof Flodden, foi^ht in 1513, as described 
in the tale of 'Marmion;' and a rehc of the age is shown 
in the 'Harestone' built into the wall, near the gate 
of Blackford House, as that in which the royal stand- 
ard was fixed. The Braid hUls are heautifril, and 
command the finest views to be had on this side tie 
L,-., Google 

Sdiithtrgh.] DESCRIBED. 167 

city, that fcom Blackford hill being pointed to as where 
'glnll on the spot Lord Marmion stayed, for feirer eceno 
he ne'er surveyed.' On the southern slope of the Pent- 
land hiUe is Woodhonslee, long the abode of Tytler, 
the historian of Scotland; and in a glen further off 
stood the house once owned by Bothwellhaugh, who, 
at Linlithgow, shot down the Eegent Murray. 

Beyond upper Howgate is Glencorse House, once the 
seat of the Earl of Bothwell, now that of the Lord 
Jtistice - Clerk ; end in the small glen throngh which 
the Logan bum runs is scenery of great beanty. Near 
House of Muir, now noted as a cattle market, the Ca- 
meroniflns were utterly defeated, November 28, 1666, 
byDalziel; the battle is known as Bullion Green by the 
royalists, and as that of the Fentlwds by the Came- 
ronians. In the present day the fight would but rate 
as a skirmish, the loss being 50 slain, and as many 
captured, nearly all of whom were executed for the 
faith they held — and thus became martyrs. Beyond 
Silver bnm, near the north Esk, is found 'Habbie's 
Howe, where a' the sweets o' spring and summer grow.' 
Three milee further south ie Fenicuiek House, the seat of 
Sir Geoi^ Clerk, the pleasure grounds around which are 
beauti&l, and in the mansion are fine paintings, Boman 
antiquities found in Britain, and the buff coat worn by 
Claverbonse when he fell at EiUiecrankie. Hopetoun 
House, by Craig Leith; Eavelatone, Craigcrook, Bam- 
ton, liiuriston Castle, Cramond, the Almond, Dalmeny 
Park, Dundas Castle, and other mansions near south 
Queensfeny, is a route much visited by the tourist, 
and in favour with the citizens of Edinburgh ; the road 
to Cramond having a coach daily. To Dirleton, North- 
Berwick, the Bass Eock, and Tantallan Castle; to 
Dalkeith, the Esk, Hawthomden and Boslin Castle, 
are routes of easy access, and much availed by visitor 
or resident in the pleosuie-loving dty of Edinburgh. 

L,-., Google 

168 SCOTLAND [Elffin. 

Elgin, the capital of the district of Moray, known 
now as the shire of Elgin, is a hvu^ with a charter 
dating irom William I., and ia the letoming one of the 
Parliamentary group. The district around is fertile, 
cultivated, enclosed, and alwut five miles horn Burgh- 
head on the N.E., where steamers running &om the 
Forth to Inverness coll; and in the summer a steamer 
plies on that station for IJttle-ferry, at the mouth of 
the Dornoch frith. Being on the route, by Aberdeen 
to Inverness, Elgin has ample railway connections 
— to Bui^hhead also, and a local line to Lossie- 
mouth, on the coast eastward, which ia the sea-bathing 
resort for the district. As a town, Elgin has many 
attractions, and a fair extent of local trade; but is 
- notable chiefly as the site of one of the largest, most 
ancient, and beat endowed of the ecclesiastical eatab- 
lishmente in Korth Britain, the Cathedral of Elgiu, 
'the lanthom of the north' — now in ruins. 

The diocese of Moray was made such by Alexander 
I. in 1115, and the foundation-atone of the cathedral laid 
in July 19, 1222, by Bishop Andrewde Moravia, nephew 
of St. Gilbert, who built the old cathedral of Dornoch. 
To aid the good work, thus begun, collections were 
made among the faithful in Europe, the Pope sending 
workmen from Eome to assist in the Ijuilding. In 
1390, Stewart, the 'Wolf of Badenoch,' destroyed the 
towns of Foirea and Elgin, and burned the cathedral, the 
latter described as being ' the pride of the land, the glory 
of the realm — lofty in its tower without, splendid in its 
appointments — its countless jewels, and rich vestments, 
and the multitude of its priests.' In 1402 the tower 
of E^in and the cathedral were again destroyed by a 
son of the Lord of the lales in a raid he made into the 
district; but Stewart and Macdonald had both to do 
penance for these foul deeds, and to avert the wrath of 
the outraged priests by costly presents. 

Elffin.] DESCEIBED. ' 169 

The cathedral, re-built in 1407, was completed in 
1120; but in 1606 the great tower fell, and waa not 
re-erected till 1538. "When the Eeformation era waa 
iBuuinent, was ia 1S68, the Begent and Council 
of Scotland gave orders that the roofs of the cathedrals 
of Aberdeen and Elgin should be stripped of their 
lead; but the vessel freighted with that sacrilegioua 
ctti^ foundered at sea soon after leaving the port of 
Aberdeen. The ruins of the cathedral of Elgin were 
long uncared for, but of late years some effort has been 
made to preserve them; and of the grand old building 
the two toweta on the west, 8+ feet high each, but 
without their spires, remain, the large doorway between 
them and part of the window above being entire. The 
choir and its cloistera, the grand altar, and double- 
oriel windows above, with the two eastern tenninal 
turrets and chapter-houses, are also preserved. 

The cathedral was 282 feet in length, by 86 feet 
over the walls, the transept IIS feet in length, and the 
tower in the centre, supported by massive pillars, rose 
to the height of 198 feet. A flight of spacious steps 
leads to the great western entmice, on the floor of 
which was the basement level of the building. The 
ohapter-houso was octagonal, with windows rich with 
tracery, and the fiat stone roof supported by a clustered 
pillar, nine feet in circumference, rising &pm the centre 
of the chamber below, with light groined arches running 
round, and uniting with those composing the win- 
dows. It was erected in 1480, was rich in architec- 
tural adornment, and has been much admired. The 
cathedral stands at the east end of Elgin, and was en- 
closed within a wall 1000 yards in circuit, and had 
four gates; the officials having each a manse and a 
garden within the precinct, and a glebe in the adjoining 
field. The great tower fell in 1711. 

The towers of the ruined cathedral are still con- 

no - SCOTLAND [Forres. 

spicuoue is the landscape of Elgin, a town vMch baa 
moie of the ecclesiastical aspect than any other lin Scot- 
land, St. Andrews excepted. The Main-street is broad 
and long, something of a sqnare in appearance near the 
centre, and that space being in part occupied by the 
parish ohoTch, the town-halt, and the jaiL Othera of the 
etreeta are narrow here and there. Some of the houses 
have piazzas, as of old most of them, had ; man; stand 
gable-end on to the street; but the city, as it would 
be called, being at one time the see of a bishop and 
site of a cathedral, is clean in aspect, the older houses 
having the date of erection, and the name of the owner 
carved upon them. Society in Elgin is said to possess 
an unusual proportion of persons in easy circumstances, 
as might be looked for in the capital of a large and fer- 
tile district, and at eucb. a distance from Aberdeen on 
the south, and Inverness on the nortL Moreover, the 
educatiooal advantages of Elgin are great; that of the 
'Elgin Institution,' built and endowed by General 
Andrew Anderson, and opened in 1833, being of great 
valne to the town, as, besides providing for the accom- 
modatioQ of 60 children and 10 aged pensioners, it has 
a free school for the instruction of upwards of 200 
children. The muniiioent donor was the child of a 
poor woman, who occupied a small boose near the 
cathedral. The railway is a short way west of the 
town, and the hotel built there is imposing in appew- 
ance; but Elgin has always been well provided with 
good accommodation for tourist or traveller. 

FoBRBB, one of the prettiest of the inland towns in 
Scotland, is by railway 12 miles !N. of Elgin, and 25 
S. of Inverness. It is, lite Elgin, a buigh of William 
I.'s creation, is the second in importance in the shire 
of Moray, and compares favourably with Elgin, the 
population, constituency, and corporation leveuue being. 

Forrat.] DESCRIBED. 171 

for Elgin, 7,543, 323, and ^£710; and for Forrea 3,608, 
171, and £1,131. As a paiish, Forres is of small extent^ 
being only 4 miles long, by an average breadth of 2 
miles; but the acres are fertile and highly cultivated, 
irhile the climate is not«d as the beat and driest in Scot- 
land; hence, it may be, it has been selected as the site 
of one of the most extensive hydropathic inatitutions 
of the north. The scenery along the Findhom is of 
more than ordinary attraction; and the Highland rail- 
way, westward by Strathspey for Elair-Athole, leaves 
the coast line at Forres, wh^ie the station is superior — 
item tJie refreshment-rooms placed there. 

In the town, which is half-a-mile south of the 
railway, much will be found to interest the tourist, the 
antiquarian, and the passing traveller. Trade for the 
latter is ordinarily safe; for the antiquarian the Eunic 
pillar, on the road to Elgin, is one of the most remark- 
able to be seen in North Britain; and for the tourist 
the panoramic view, 6om the Xelson Monument on 
the ClovenMUs above the town, will well reward the 
visit. Conveyances to explore the district can be had 
at Eraser's hotel — one which has been favourably 
bnown in Forres for a generation past. 

As a town Forres is built on a diy and finely-terraced 
bank, sloping gently to south and north, with one main 
street, broad and long, but numerous minor ones divid- 
ing it to east and west, with low Saxon archways lead- 
ing to closes off them, not a few of the houses being 
built gable-end to the street. Keatuess is a charac- 
teristic of the place, even to the fishwomen who crowd 
the streets on the market days. The public buildings 
are good, and the schools superior. Forres was the 
birth-place of James Dick, who, in 1828, bequeathed 
^£140,000 for the benefit of the parochial schoolmasters 
of the counties of Moray, BanfT, and Aberdeen — the in- 
terest of the sum adding &om X20 to X30 to the income 
L,-., Google 

172 SCOTLAND [Forl-Wmiam. 

of each schoolinast«r in these conndea, thua ministermg 
to the comfort of a class of men the most useful and the 
worst paid in the eoinniunity; and James Dick should 
rank as a true philanthropist. The houses in the town 
of Porres, whether the stone be white or blue, look 
clean always externally, and within they are warm 
with 'hospitable fires.' 

FOBT^iLLiAM and Ben-Nevis.— Fort -William is a 
village of neither size nor pretension; and, like most of 
its class in the Highlands, it is scarce a hundred years 
since its formation, the clans before that date living in 
the glena or by the waters, and little inclined to herd. 
At the time of the massacre of Glencoe,' when the clans 
of the west had strong reasons for preferring the Stuart 
■ claims to those of the Prince of Orange, it was held need- 
ful to erect a fort on Loch-Eil. The fort, which still 
stands, is notoverr^ulM in construction — aditch, glacis, 
raveHn, and pwapeta for twelve-pounder guna, form its 
defences, and they were found strong enough to brave 
the si^e laid to it in 1745-6, by the Camerona of 
Loch-Kl. Maryburgh was at first the name of the 
village of Fort-William — Camerontown it may be 
called, the chief of that name beii^ lord of all 

One street, running from west to east, with little ap- 
pearance of a footpath, and no great display of prosperity, 
is the aspect of Fort- William, the steam pier on the loch 
being at some distance from the Caledonian Hotel, 'the 
inn' of the place; although there are minor houses for 
poorer travellers, and lodgings also for the wayfarer. 
The parish school is at the west end of the village, 
and it may be characteristic of the place and the people, 
that when the classes for the day are about to open, a 
string of lads may be seen, breechleaB,.and with head 
and feet bare, marching in file behind the 'big hoy' of 
the school, who beats a drum at their head! 

L,-., Google 

Fort- William.] DESCRIBED- 1 73 

Modem as the plac« is, the castle of Interlooht, on 
the east, is of unknown antiquity ; it waB large, is quad- 
rftogular in shape, and forma a courtyard — of late years 
useful for the fanner to pen his cattle in. Celtic anti- 
quarians allege that on Loch-Eil, at one time, flouiLahed 
a city with largo trade— 'corraclea' were frigatea; and 
that at his castle of Inveilochy, Achaius, one of the 106 
princes of Scotland, whose veritable portraits cover the 
walla of the picture gallery at Holyrood, signed a treaty 
with Charlemagne; and when Edward I. of England 
strove to suhdue Scotland, Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, 
was an ally of his, one of the towers being called. 
Comyn'a. Inverlochy ia known in hiatoiy, as before it 
was the battle ground where, on February 2, 1645, the 
Campbell clans under Argyle were utterly routed by the 
Marquis of Montrose — when Dugold Dalgetty won his 
spurs, as told in the 'Legend of Montroae.' 

Een-Nbvis forma the attraction to the tourist who 
tarries at Fort-William, or at the Eanavie Hotel, three 
miles eastward, and on the Caledonian Caual. 

On an autumn day, some years ago, 'we'— a dealer 
in colours in Glasgow, a vendor of sweets there, and 
an artist from the Bristol channel — 'foregathered' in an 
inn tin Loch-Eil, the subject of discussion after supper 
beii^ an expedition on the morrow 'over' Ben-NeviH, 
The party got off betimes, 'we,' being in favour with 
'mine host,' got upon a pony's back, not much either 
to our comfort or advantage, the road being roi^h 
and the pace slow. Getting clear of Fort-'William, 
past the fortress of that name, also the castle of more 
ancient repute, the bridge on the river Nevia was 
GToased, the fields to the right invaded, and ere long 
the S.W. flank of the mountain was turned. The 
ascent on horseback is practicable for about half the 
distance; there the steed was turned adrift, and the 
party essayed to climb the mountain, and, as it turned 
L,-., Google 

174 SCOTLAND [FoH-WOliam. 

Out, the taak iras one of no great difBcolty, a path 
or track, pretty well trodden, leading upwarda, 'the 
gradients' not aevere, the resting-places frequent, and 
some of them acceptable — that one in particular where 
a spring of water, cool and clear, weDed out from the 
mountain side, not many hundred feet below the 
sommit, and where the ' black bottle,' fall of 'Long 
John's' beet, waa produced — and emptied. 

On gaining the top of the mountain, a lady — ttdl 
and bony, but neither 'bonny' nor young — was be- 
fore UB, alpen-stock in band, botanising on the highest 
land within the aeas of Great Britain! The bulk of 
Ben-Nevis and the precise height the Ordnance sur- 
veyors have reported; but what may not be popularly 
known is that on the top there is a very considerable 
space, nearly level as a bowling-green, with here and 
there masses of granite cropping out, many of them not 
too large to be rolled about; and it was ' the delight' of 
DonaH the guide, to dislodge these, trundle them 
eaatwaida, and with a long-drawn ' hough ' lannch them 
into the corry — the vast abyss where, in a cleft of the 
moimtain, it may be a thousand feet deep, the stones 
went downwards, raising something like smoke, cer- 
tainly a smell like that of sulphur, as they bounded 
and rebounded firom crag to cr^. Snow is said to lie 
on Ben-Nevis all the year round, which it certainly 
does in the vast chasm referred to, but not oa the moun" 
tain because of its height, as popularly understood. 

Starting not long before noon, and loitering hy the 
way, the day was well spent before the summit of Ben- 
Nevis was reached; and no baste was displayed, as 
being at the autumnal equinox, and the moon fiill, the 
party desired to see the sun set, knowing that the moon 
wonld light them home. The day was clear, the weather 
genial, tmd when the orb of day went down in the west, 
it was a sight to be remembered for a life time. !fheview 
L , _ , , Cookie 

GaUoway.] DESCRIBED. 175 

was msgnificeiit — the panorama wide as the imogma- 
tioa cotdd pictaie. To the south lay a sea of moon- 
tains bat a little lower than Ben-^Nevis, and apparently 
so equal in elevatioa as to look like mole-hills j west- 
ward, 4,000 feet below, the spectator beheld the river 
ITevis; away by Aidgour, the Linnhe Locb, and towards 
Mull, the water seemed thread-like in size, as did tlfe 
strath by Loch-Eil and Glenfimian foi Moidart and 
Skye; while the dark moss of Lochabei lay below; and 
eastward stretched 'Glenmore-nan-Albyn,' the line of 
lochs and glens through whidi lay the Canal, for Fort^ 
Augnetos, the Falls of Foyers, and luTemess. 

The descent to the south tried the limbe to the fall 
as much as did the ascent on the north; and when the 
party reached the bonk of the river 14'evis, the guide 
waded the sfareom, and came back loaded with a can of 
milk and a handful of oat^^ke — gratefol both to the 
hungry. The walk homewards by the gleu of the If evis, 
was one of singular beauty; the stream at times deep, 
contracted, and bridged over with masses of rock dis- 
lodged from the precipice, which rises 2000 feet high, 
and is of sheer descent from the western shoulder 
of the mountain. Eight hours is given to sscend Ben- 
iNevia; but it may t^e doable that time, and should 
not be undertaken without a gnide, as the mist gathers 
on the mountain, and strangers may walk over a pre- 
cipice — get lost in the moas — or lose their lives. 

Oallowat, the south-west division of Scotland, may 
be described as the district westward of the range of 
hills which nm &om Loch-Kyan on the Clyde to the 
Solway frith. In early times, both sides of the range 
above Ayrshire — west, and Nithsdale, were compre- 
hended; but latterly the water-shed of the N^ith and its 
affluents, the Girvan and the Doon, were resigned to the 
shire of Dumfries and Ayr. ThestewaitryofKi^cod- 

176 SCOTLAND [acdloway. 

bright and the shira of "Wigtown form now the district 
of Galloway; and imich of it is ahnost a 'land nnknown' 
to the tourist, though why it should be so is hard to 
tell, seeing that it is of lai^ extent, has mouutains 
many, streams not a few, a coBiSt line opposite that of 
Ireland, and its castlea, abbeys, and places aie of 
'Jtoried interest' in the annals of Scotland. 'EUan- 
govan' of 'Guy Mannering' is placed in Galloway, and 
had Sir Walter Scott localised more of his tales tiiere, 
Galloway might have been popular with the tourist. 

Maswelltown, the 'Gorbals' of Dumfries, is across the 
Nith, and connected with that town by a bridge built six 
centuries ago by Devoigilla, a lady of Galloway; it is 
in Kirkcudbright, the southern division of Gtdloway; 
and the entire district westward to Portpatrick, on the 
Irish channel, is now opened out to the public by the 
railway from Nithsdale, worked by the Caledonian, and 
where the 'aggressive' Iforth British is not likely to dis- 
turb them. From Dumfries to Portpatrick, the distance 
by railway is 80 miles, and the chief towns on the route 
are Castle-Douglas, Newton-Stewart, and StranraCT; 
Kirkcudbright being connected by a branch line from 
Caatle-Douglaa ; Gatehouse by 'bus from the station; 
and Wigtown by coaches from Newton-Stewart. 

To the tourist who has the inclination, and can afford 
time, the route by the coast, although one which de- 
mands walking or driving, is commended. New-Abbey 
is within 8 miles of Dumfries, where the ruins of the 
monastery, founded by the mother of John Baliol, 
will interest the antiquary, while the scenery around is 
beautifuL Westward by Kirkbean and Colvend is the 
Solwayehore, one frequented by the smuggler, and the 
presumed haunt of the 'Dirk Hatt«ticks' of the last 
century. The water of Urr is navigable for smaU ves- 
sels to Dalbeattie, a thriving village, within 5 miles of 
Castle-Doi^las; and the district has many mansions 

Gallouiay.] DESCEIBED. 177 

well placed, and belonging to families of repute in the 
story of Scotland. The 'moat of Urr' ia a Eoman camp, 
large, and with an outline etill well marked. 

I'ollowing the eoast line, the view across the Solway 
to the Cumberland mountains is fine; and travelling on 
the road towards the pariah of Berwick the secluded 
vale of Ihindreunan le reached, where the Abbey stooS 
which, on 15th May 1568, gave shelter to Mary, 
Queen of Scots when fleeing from ' the rout of Lang- 
aide' — to 'the block at rotheringham.' From Dun- 
drennan Abbey to the shore is about a mile and a half; 
and the little creek whence Mary departed, in an open 
boat, for Workington in Cumberlmd, i» known as 
'Port-Mary;' and the rock she embarked from, the last 
spot of the land her lathers had ruled over, is still dear 
in the memory of the peasantry of Galloway, whose 
loT^ were ever ardent partisans of the Stuart cause. 
St Mary's Isle, near Kirkcudhright, the seat of the Earls 
of Selkirk, is a beautiful place, and notable in the dis- 
trict as whete Paul Jones (who had been employed 
there) sent ashore a party, who carried oft plate wluch 
he sent back at his own cost. This seaman, held as a 
pirate at home, was r^arded as a gallant admiral abroad. 

Kirkcudbri^t will have a special notice afterwards; 
hut reference may here be made to the straths of the 
Uee and the Tarff, which, from the Ken, by Glenkena 
to new Galloway, are of great beauty, while the rivers 
and lochs in the district yield good sport to the angler. 
The scenery of the See at Tongland is fine; and 
on its light bank, not far from Newton-Stewart, 
stood the castle of Threave, the strongest of the feudal 
abodes of the 'black Douglases,' when their power 
was nearly coequal with that of those Stuart princes, 
who claimed their all^iance. A tall, square, roofless 
tower, of great extent, guarded by a strong barbican, 
which had turrets at the four angles, remains to mark 
)i ,Goo>'Ic 


tbe spot, where many a deed of Uood took place. 
Threave Castle Burrendered in 1453, when the power of 
the Douglaa femjly was broken, and their lands passed 
into the hands of the Maxwells, the last of whom, as 
Earl of !Nithadale, was attainted in 1716. 

Kenmore Castle is another historic site in Galloway. 
The old keep is in ruins, but the mansion near by ia 
tonant«d; and although the lands were forfeited in 1 7 1 5, 
the title was leatoied to the Gordon family in 1821. 
From. Kenmure to Gatehouse there is a mountain 
track throi^h the moorland parishes, which it was the 
duty of Eobeit Bums to supervise as an exciseman;" 
and the locality is said to be that in which the poet 
produced the noblest of his lyrics — the national one of 
'Scots wha ha'e wi' Wallace bled.' The night, Julj 
1793, was one of elemental warfare; and, on the morning 
after, the lines were produced to the friend who was 
travelling over the bleak district with him. 

Dairy in Kirkcudbr^ht, and Dairy in Ayrshire, ai& 
far apart; but 'dal' meaning place, and 'ry' king, 
royalty may have had to do with both. Carsphaim is 
the wUdeet of the mountain parishes of Kirkcudbrightj 
and on the confines of Ayrshire is Loch-Doon, whence 
issues the stream made so classic by the muse of Bums. 
On an island in Loch-Doon stood a castle notable in 
the Bruce struggles, and which was one of the few 
places held out successfully against Edward III. 

Gatehouse, on Fleet bay, is a town of recent erection, 
but prosperous and pleasant, the noble domain of Cally 
house being near it, while the water-power of the Fleet 
is made useful by a cotton-mill, one of the earliest in 
the district, the one at Catrine in Ayrshire being far 
off in the east. The rocky shore near the old ruin of 
Cardoness Castle is another locality supposed to be 
described as a haunt of 'Dirk Hatterick.' 

Anwoth, the parochial hamlet near Gatehouse, was 
L,-., Google 

Gardoch.] DESCEIBED. 179 

where Rutherford, the divine, was aettled. Kear Cree- 
town, within 7 miles by railway of Newton-Stewart, 
there is a ferry to Wigtown, and not fer horn the village 
are the quarries, of great extent, whence the granite 
forming tiie docks at Liverpool was taken. 

Wigtown will have its due notice in these pages, 
when the district near it comes under review. Kew- 
ton-Stewart, hke Gastle-Bouglas and Gatehouse, is a. 
town of modem erection, and being at a considerable 
distance irom Stianra«r on the west and Dumiries on 
the east^ it has attracted to itself a local trade of fail 
extent (md profit, there being 'four banks' in the place, 
with customeis to support them; and at the ' Grapes ' Inn 
the traveller has ever found attentive landlords, the 
house being on the old mail-coach road between Ireland 
and England — Fortpatrick and Dumiries. 

Glenluce, which is in a pleasant locahty at the head of 
the bay of Luce, was a stage on the road. It has not 
been famed for trade ; the attraction to the visitor beii^ 
the old Abbey of Luce, which was founded in 1190, and 
suffered little at the Eeformation, but has now fillen 
into decay, although masses of the cloisters remain, and 
the chapter house, the finest part of the building, is 
nearly entire. ^Northward and westward the district is 
known aa the 'Bhins of Galloway,' on the extreme 
southof which is the 'Mull of Gelloway,'arocky portion 
of the coast, and well known to those passing between 
the Clyde and the Mersey; hut that section of the Gallo- 
way district will be noticed under the article Stranraer. 

Gabkloch, the Gaieloch-head. — The Garelooh in 
Dumbrntonshire, and Gairloch in EoBshire— west, aie 
&r apart; in both, the word 'gare' or 'gair,' the Colt 
explains to mean ' short;' that on the west coast being 
a mere arm of the eea, little more than three miles in 
length; while ^e G^reioch on the Clyde is short com- 
L,-., Google 

180 SCOTLAND [Gardoeh. 

pared with Loch-Long, acioss the ridge of Itoseneath. 
"Accepting the Gareloch as begimiiiig from a place on 
the Helenehtu^h shore opposite to t£e Castle point of 
Boseneath, the lei^h is about 8 miles, the breadth on the 
south about 2 mil pa, on the N.W. is little more than 
one-third that distance; and so still are the^e land-locked 
waters, that steamers, those in particiilar meant for 
long voyages, go to the Gareloch to get what seamen 
term 'swung* — i. e., to have their compasses adjusted. 

A short way above Helensbiu^h is fiie point of Bhue, 
modernised into Bow, the name of tihe point on the 
east, and so called from the gravelly up-tumed beach- 
liie spot which narrows the loch by halti and is the 
ferry for the parish of Boeeneatb on the west The 
manse of Kow is in a sweet locahly; and in the kirk- 
yard is the grave of Henry Bell, long keeper of the 
Baths Inn at Helensburgh, but famous as the originator , 
of steam navigation on die Clyde. The risii^ town of 
Helensburgh is ecclesiastically in the parish of Bow. 

Steamers from Greenock and Helensburgh traverse 
the Garelocb frequently in the season, and the breadth 
is such that from the deck of the steamer the beauties 
of the shore are fully seen. The eaatle of Aidincaple, 
on the right, was built in the 12th century, and is so 
comfortable as to have lately been the residence of the 
Dowager Duchess of Argyla The hill-side westward 
ifl occupied by villas, most of them with domains — 
a lai^e extent of land about them all well wooded and 
highly cultivated. The castellated mansion of Bobert 
Kapier at Shandon, on the right, will attract attention, 
and the treasures of ait within it are many. At Gaie- 
lochhead, a comfortable hotel baa been for many years 
established; and the villas built around the 'turning of 
the loch' are numerous, well occupied, and have the 
advantage of a 'quoad sacra' and a 'Free Church' at 
hand, with schools in connection. 

L,-., Google 

Cfirvm.] DESCRIBED. 181 

Loch-Lang is within two milee of the Gareloch; and 
at Fortincaple, on the Bow Bhore, is a ferry to Loch- 
Goil, understood to be where the 'chieftain to the 
Highlands bound, cried Boatman do not tarry* — but 
'penehed there with his bride.' The drive by carriage 
road to Arrochar is one of much beauty, 

GiBVAN, Matbole, and Ballahtrae, are in the south- 
west angle of the ehire of Ayr, on the lower Mth of the 
Clyde, opposite to the Craig of Ailsa, near the entrance 
to Loch-fiyan; and Girvan is the present termination of 
railway locomotion in this district of Scotland. 

The course of the Girvan 'water'— rivers of secondary 
size being so called in Scotland — is one of much beauty 
thronghout^ rising among the wild hilla which form the 
march or boundary between GaUoway and Carrick, and 
. the upper course of 'Girvan'a fairy -Iwunted stream,' so 
called hy Bums, Ind such it is, as it winds north and 
west hy Genoch and Straiton, Crossbill an<^ Dailly. 
The strath or vale through which the Girvan flows into 
the frith of Clyde is broad, fertile, and rich in seams of 
excellent coal; and on its banks are many fine sites 
occupied by the mt^:nateB of fertile Ayrshire. 

Gu'van was erected into a hui^h of barony in 1691, 
and is populous, but increasing slowly, in that the loom 
was the main occupation of its people, and to earn bread 
by throwing the shuttle ia now hctfd. . The town being 
on the high road from the north of Ireland to the west 
of Scotland, the crowds of immigrants from Connau^t 
and Ulfit^r, fitidirig a passage at Donaghadee, and wind- 
ii^ their weary way eastwards, now and again settled 
down in Girvan. The houses occupying the larger part 
of the town are consequently poor, of one storey, with a 
room to live in and another to work in, and they are in 
striking contrast to the handsome, large, and costly build- 
ings which have recently sprung up, in the ^pei of 

183 SCOTLAND [Qlasgw. 

bania, shops, and hotel; whOe the Free Church there 
will hear comparison with that of any body whose clei^ 
eeem to hold the purse-etrings of their flocka. 

Maybole, ahout midway towards Ayr, ia chiefly built 
on the slope of a hill, above a strath, southward of which 
is DabaeUington, and the lower course of the 'bonny 
DooE.' The main street of Mayhole has some good 
erections in it; hut the lower part of the town, like 
Girvan, is occupied by weavers, and poor enough. In 
the neighbourhood, on the coast, is the castle of Culzean, 
the abode of the nohle family of Ailsa, and the locality 
ia one of great beauty. In the district, also, is the old 
Abbey of Crosan4^el, a ruin in fair preservation. 

Ballantrae, on the south shore, has a small harbour; 
fishing is the main occupation of its people; and there 
the road to Loch-Ryan runs inland by Glenap. A to- 
pographer of thirty years ago, reports that 'till the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, there was neither 
doctor, ^wyer, minister, nor justice of the peace in tile 
district.' The natives were ihen smugglers. 

GiJSGOW, the commercial metropolis of Scotland, 
may not have so mnch to attract or interest the tourist 
as the city of Edinburgh, but there is enough in its 
rise and progress, former state and present condition, 
to warrant a fair space being assigned to it in these 
pages; the Guides emanating from the eastern press 
giving but scant attention to any matter connected with 
Glasgow, the chief city in the shire of Lanark, on the 
upper Clyde, and in the west of Scotland. 

If Edinburgh savans invite comparison between 
their city and Athena, the fiith of Forth and the bay of 
Naples, the citizena of Gla^ow may not disturb them, 
having neither a Cafrtle-rock nor an Arthur's Seat 
to refer to; hut the site of Glasgow ia a pleasant one, 
and, despite all the smoke emanating &om im fiunaces 

Glasgow.] BESCfilBED. 183 

— her mann&ctureK gain wealtli thence — it is a healthy 
city, the population being fairly employed, full fed, nor 
over dissipated — the whisky statistics of the press organs 
of the east to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The size and prosperity of Glasgow have brought it 
into travelling connection with all the places of %nde 
or ttsvel on either side the Tweed, the channel, or the 
ocean, ndlways reticulating the whole district near 
Gloflgow; and on the Clyde, at the Broomielaw, are 
ehipe and flags of all the nations of commercial import- 
ance in either hemisphere. The railways to the soaat, 
on Bouth or north aide the river, carry lieir passengers 
at fares low indeed, and kept so hy the healthy competi- 
tion the fleet of steamers induces. In steamers — floating 
palaces ataaj of them are well called— no river in Bri- 
tain, or it may he beyond it, can compare with the Clyde 
for the number, appearance, accommodation, or speed 
of her steam craft, and well are they patronised by the 
half million of people located in or near the city of 

Antiquarians attempt to elicit some topographic 
meauii^ ftom the orthography of the word ' Gla^ow,' 
but their efibrta seem futile, even puerite, as few of the 
explanations ofiered are either instructive or descrip- 
tivft Glas — 'grey,' 'gow,' 'smith;' — a smithy, these 
men say, once stood near the palace of the bishop, but 
where was the latter when the wattled huts were raised 
by St. Mungo on the banks of the Molendinar bum 'i 
' Water,' the Molendinai may have been called in those 
ages when it had a current strong enough to turn 
the mills of the monks — hence Molendinar, its name. 
Others assert that 'dark glen' was the import of the 
early name of Glasgow, and point to the ravine below 
the Cathedral as the reason of its being so caUedl 

The Bomans had a station — a castle at Dunglass, 
near to I>umbarton, as has been noticed in the article 

184 , SCOTLAHU [Glasgow., 

on the Clyde, and the wall of Antoninas nmning near 
where the Forth & Clyde Canal now is, at no great 
difrtauee &om Glaagov, a camp may have been pitched 
on the Molendinax. At Paisley, where the aboriginal 
tribes might be more troublesome, was a BtaUoa for the 
Roman legions established there. 

Kentigem, or St. Mungo, is by monkish cbroniclera 
allied to have been bom near Culross, in 516, educated 
in Orkney, spent his youth in Wales, and his latter 
years in Glasgow, where he founded a 'stately church,' 
andwaaburiedonl3th January 601. Baldrid, who eiic- 
ceeded Kentigem, built a chapel at Inchinnan, £en&ew; 
hut for five centuries onw^^ there is a gap in the 
story — it may have been that the ^Norsemen, heathens, 
had found their way up the Clyde, and dispersed the 
Culdee religious community on the Molendinar. 

Circa 1115 the see of Glasgow was re-foonded by 
David, Prince of Cumberland, that province of England 
being under Scottish rule; and from that date the history 
of Glasgow, eoclesiaatioal or civil, can be traced. 

In H24, Prince David succeeded to the throne of 
Scotland; and, in 1129, he made John Achaius, his 
chaplain, bishop of Glasgow. When the Cathedral was 
renovated, and consecrated on July 9, 1136, the King 
assisted at the ceremony, and gave the bishop a grant 
of lands near to Partick. The bishopric of Glasgow 
at that time held ecclesiastical influence in Teviotdale; 
and Achaius dying there in 1147, was buried at Jed- 
burgh. Joceline, abbot of Melrose, is found to be 
bishop of Glasgow in 1174, when he extended the 
edifice Achaiue had founded. To Joceline the citizens 
of Glasgow owe their charter as a royal hui};h, such 
being obtained by him in 11 90 from William lie Lion, 
the privilege being 'to hold a fair every year, from the 
8th of the Apostle Peter (29th June), and for the apace 
of eight days complete.' That fair continues to be held 

Glasgow.] DESCRIBED. 185 

at the game period of the year, and is known in the 
west of Scotland as the 'Glasgow fair week,' and is the 
excnidoniet holiday-time for the artixanB. 

In 1272 Robert Wishart, archdeacon of St Andrewa 
in Lothian, was consecrated at Aberdeen to the see of 
Glasgow, and this prelate was one of the regents ap- 
pointed to look to the interests of Scotland when, in 
1286, Alexander IIL was killed. Theae were days of 
peril, the struggle between Baliot and Bruce beginning 
Boon afterwards. Wishart, bishop of Glasgow, was one 
of the magnates of Scotland summoned to meet Edward 
I. of England at 24'orhffln; and was the statesman who 
replied to that prince when he preferred hia claim of 
superiority, proclaiming 'that Scotland was a free and 
independent kingdom, and not subject to any other 
power whateomever,' closing with the declaration that 
'all true-heart«d Scotsmen will stand up for the liberty 
of their country, to their deaths.' When war broke 
out between Edward, 'the hammer of Scotland,' the 
patriotic bishop of Glasgow boldly withstood him, was 
imprisoned, and was not released until Robert the 
Bruce ' sot his country free ' on the field of Bannock- 
bum. Soon aft«r, in 1316, this true-heart«d Scotsman 
died; but when a captive he became blind, Ms aliment 
being 6d. a day for hia own table, 3d. for his chief 
servant, 1 Jd. for his chaplain, and Id. for his boy 1 

Anthony Beck, a fighting prelate, was appointed to 
the see of Glasgow by Edward of England, when Earl 
Percy was governor of Ayrshire and the west — the 
town of Ayr being then of more political and social 
importance than Glasgow. The southion noble was a 
frequent visitor of AnUiony Beck's ; and one of the moat 
danng deeds of 'the Walkce Wight' was the battle of 
Glaf^w; when, leaving Ayr at 10 p.m., he reached 
Glat^w at 9 a.m., crossed the Clyde by the bridge, 
then of wood, and marshalled his men where the 

186 .SCOTLAND [Glaagmo. 

Bridg^ate now is. Forming his troops into two columns, 
his lieutenant, the laird of Auchinleck, proceeding by the 
Drygate, assailed Percy on the flank; while Sir WiUiam 
Wallace marched up the High-street, and at ' the Bell 
of the Brae,' above where the old College etands, en- 
countered the English men-at«rms, 1,000 strong, and 
Blew their leader; the bishop, with 400 men, led by 
Aymer de Valance, escaping by the Eottenrow-port on 
the west. In some details the incidents of this battle 
are historically incorrect, Percy being then in England — 
but the peasantry of Scotland believe in it! 

When Wishart was bishop of Gla^ow, the banks of 
the Molendinar were clothed with wood; and below 
where the College now is, and the monastery of the 
Black&iars afterwards was, there grew a thick forest. 

In 1387, when Glendinning was bishop, the spire of 
the Cathedral was struck by lightning and burned, being 
then of wood; in 1408, Bishop louder rebuilt the spire, 
making the lower part of the tower of stone. In 1484, 
Bobert Blackadder became bishop of Gla^ow, having 
been translated from the see of Aberdeen; he did much 
for his church ; became Archbishop of Glasgow, and was 
one of the ambassadors sent in 1505 to England to 
n^otiate the marriage of James IV. of Scotland, with 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England — 
on which was founded the claim of Jamea YI., son of 
Queen Mary, to the crown of England. 

In 1506, James Beaton became Archbishop of Glas- 
gow; he enclosed the palace with a wall, and strei^th- 
ened it with a bastioned tower. In 1522, Dunbar, 
tutor to James v., and Chancellor of Scotland, became 
Archbishop of Glasgow, when the Eeformation t«nets 
were gaining favour with the people; and means to 
crush sach being deemed necessary, Lander, Olipbant, 
and Maltman were eent from Edinbui^h to urge Dun- 
bar on to the work of bringing the Eeformeis to the 
L,-., Google 

Glasgow.] DESCRIBED. 187 

stake. Jeremiah Bussell, a man of learning, and one 
of the Grey Friars of Glasgow, and John Kennedy, a 
mere youth from Ayr, were arraigned, convicted, and 
sufTenKl aa martyrs at the east end of the Cathedral of 
Glasgow. James Seaton, nephew of the former Arch- 
bishop of that name, in 1542, succeeded to the see of 
Glasgow; but the blood of the martyrs had home 
ita fruit; the populace of Glasgow, tainted with Pro- 
tesfantiBm, were so unruly that Beaton, under an escort) 
of French troops, then in Scotland, escaped to France, 
cartTing with him the documents, plat«, relics, and all 
that was valuable in his see or within his reach. 

Beaton became ambassador of Queen Mary of Scot- 
land at the Court: of France, continued such under 
James VI. until 1588, when that prince restored to 
bi m the temporalities of the see of Glasgow. He died 
in Paris in 1603, bequeathing to the Scots college 
there the treasures he had carried off fiism his native 
country; the condition of Beaton's bequest being that 
they should be sent back to Glasgow when the citizens 
of that burgh returned to the bosom of the church 
of Bomel These Scottish treasures remained in Paris 
until 1839, when most of them were sent to the Catholic 
college of St. Mary, at Blairs, near Aberdeen. 

Cameron, Bishop of Gla^ow, is described as holding 
a court resorted to by his vassals, visited by knight and 
noble, and wielding authority scarcely below that of 
any in Scotland, his retinue being splendid as that of 
royalty itaeif Near the Bishop's palace were resident 
33 rectors, each in bis own manse; and the commissary 
courts of Campsie, Glasgow, and Hamilton met three 
times a week in the Consistory at the west end of the 
Cathedral. The parson of Camj^e, the chancellor of 
the see, was lodged in Limmerfleld in the I>rygat«;aQd 
there Damley, the husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
kM^ed, when on a visit to Glasgow. The Bishop of 
L,-., Cookie 

188 SCOTLAKB [Glasgow. 

Glasgow was lord of the baronies and royalties of G-Ias- 
gow, had 18 baronies of land in the sMrea of Ayr, 
Dumbarton, DumMes, Lanark, Peebles, Een&ew, Eox- 
buigb, and Selkirk, and a large domain in Cumber- 
land, t«imed the 'spiritual dakedom' — these poseessiona 
comprising 240 parishes. In 1579, the Lords of the 
CoT^regation, the Prot«stant party, resolved that the 
Cathedral of Glasgow should be pulled down, the 
chnich being 'too I^ge' and 'an idolatrous monument,' 
the only one in SootlMid left undestroyed. Masons and 
workmen were assembled, by beat of drum, to commence 
the sacrilegious labour; when the craftsmen of Glasgow 
flew to arms, in protection of the Cathedral they were 
juatlj proud of, and prevented Melville, the Presby- 
terian president of the College, &om executing the 
plans formed by him for razing the ancient Cathedrfti. 

The manners and customs of the natives of Glasgow 
in those reforming days were curious, and their church 
discipline severe. Harlots were carted through the 
town, ducked in the Clyde, and placed in the ' jougs ' 
at the Cross. Adulterers were placed for six Sabbaths 
on the cock-stool at the piUar, in sackcloth, barefooted, 
carted through the town, and ducked in the river. The 
drum was sent through the town informing the people 
that there must be no plays on the Sabbath, and enjoin- 
ing them 'not to go to Bu'glen to see such!' 

On 21st lHov. 1638, under presidency of the Maiquia 
of Hamilton, there was convened an Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which was also at- 
tended by the nobles, barons, and most influential per- 
sons of North Britain. After a session of seven days, 
Hamilton, as Lord High Commissioner forhis sovereign 
Charles I., dissolved this ecclesiastical parliament, pro- 
ducing the royal warrant for so doing; but the 'preach- 
ers and ^eir adherents' refused to separate, decreed the 
abrogation of Episcopacy, excommunicated the Bishops 
L,-., Google 

Glatgotc] DESCEIBED. 189 

of Aberdeen, Aigyle, Brechin, Ihinblane, Ediobnrgli, 
Glaagow, Gallovay, Eobs, and St Andrews, declamig 
them guilty of avarice, sunouy, and other iniamouB 
ciimee. The whole Epiecopaliau fabric, vrhich Jamea 
and Charles had laboured so long to rear, wa^ de- 
molished; a Solemn League and Covenant signed by 
all clasees of the people; and cbnichiaeu were declared 
inedible to sit in Parliament. This remarkable Assem- 
bly continued its seBsion until the 26th of December, 
the last sitting being a ' bUthe day to all ' — they having 
destroyed Prelacy and established Preabytflrianism! 

The history of Glasgow, in its earlier centuries, 
was that of its Cathedral; and the power of the 
Bishops waned before that of the Bulies began to 
show itself. In 1581, the ConfesBiou of Faith was 
signed in Glasgow by 2,2fiO persons, male and female 
— the deed being carried from house to house. When 
the ciyil war, which resulted in the decapitation of 
Charles I., broke out, Montrose encountered the Cove- 
nanters at Kilsyth, destroying them utterly — nearly 
7,000 men perishing. The MagiBtiates of Glasgow made 
peace with the victor, inviting him to theii city, and 
heaping houom^ upon him. In 161G, vhenmisfori,une 
overiwok Montrose at Fhiliphaugh, Sept. 13, three of 
the most distinguished of his puty were sent to, and 
executed in, Glasgow, October 38, 29 — the Presbyterian 
professor of divinity in the College of Glasgow declar- 
ing that 'the gold work goes bonnily on!' 

I^ter in the civil war, when the English Inde- 
pendents gained ascendancy, the Scotch Presbyterians 
took alarm, and mustered strongly in defence of the 
crown, Glasgow contributing to the levies which, under 
the Marquis of Hamilton, invaded England, and were de- 
feated at Preaton; andon3d8eptembeTl650,thB8coteh 
were crushed by Cromwell at the battle of Thinbar. 
Cromwell in this campaign spent some time at Glasgow, 

L,-;, Google 

190 SCOTLAND [Ol^isgoa. 

leeiding in a Louse in the Saltmarket, east side, vhicli 
was removed witMa the present generation. The visit 
of the Protector resulted in good to Glasgow, as many 
of his soldiers settled in the city, and, being tradesmen, 
did not a little to foster its industry. 
, On June 17, 1652, Glasgow was nearlydestroyed by 
fire— Saltmarket, Trongate, and High-street, the town 
of that day, being burned; and to aid the city in her 
distress, money was raised throughout the countiy. 
The streets of Glasgow, compared with those of othec 
towns of the same age and size, aie wide, and regularly 
hnilt, much of which may be due to the visitation of 
1662. With the Keatoration of 1660 came trouble 
and trial to the citizens of Glasgow. The population 
being deeply tainted with the Cameronian element, the 
attempt to reinstate Episcopacy resulted in years of 
religious peisecution, the full penalties of which Glas- 
gow endured In 1662, Lord Middleton, a committee 
of the Privy Council, and W. Sharp, Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, visited Glasgow, and attempted so to regulate 
matters ecclesiastical, that 400 ministers were ejected 
6om their pariehes; Principal Gillespie, Donald Car- 
gill of the Barony Parish, and thirteen other clergymen 
of the Presbytery of Glasgow, being of the number. 

In 1678, Glasgow was again visited by a committee 
of the Privy CouncU, who stayed ten days, and made 
the provost, bailies, and many of the chief citizens 
subscribe a bond, which did violence to their con- 
sciences; and, to enforce their ends, the Commissioners 
Thought into the west the 'Highland host'— 10,000 
cateians — all hostile to Presbyterians, thirsting for 
plunder, and permitted to waste the country they 
invaded. These Celtic marauders having levied heavy 
mail, in Ayrshire especially, where the Covenanters 
were numerous, took their route for the Highlands, 
loaded with plunder; but 2,000 of them were stopped at 
L,-., Google 

Glasgow.] DESCRIBED. 191 

the bridge of GlaagofF — the river Clyde being in flood 
— by the atudenta of the Collie and the youth of the 
town, who relieved this detachment of the ' Highland 
host ' of their ba^age, and marched them onward* by 
the West-port — the street for Aigyleahire, Argylfratreet 
— not permitting them to enter the city. 

After the victory over Claverhouse at Dnimclog, a 
party of the Covenanters came to Glasgow, and en- 
deavoured to drive the ro3fal troops out of the town, 
but could not. The battle of Bothwell Bridge soon 
followed, when many of the 'Kill folk,' as the cap- 
tured Cameronians were called, were brought to Glas- 
gow, executed, their heads stuck on pikes on the 
east side of the jail, and their bodies buried on the 
north side of the Cathedral. The stone erected after- 
wards to keep iu remembrance the sad tragedy is pr&i 
served, and had inscribed on it &e names of the 
suflerers. 'These nine martyrs, irith others in this 
yard, ■whose heads and bodies were not spared, their 
testimonies foes to bury, caused beat the drums them 
in great fury; they'll know at resurrection-day, to mur- 
der saints was no sweet play.' In the wall of the 
canal baain embankment, at the ibot of Gamgad-hill, 
near St. Rollox, a reproduction of ' the Martyis' Stone ' 
may be seen; and the church on the west, a recent 
erection, is named 'the, Martyrs' Church.' Mindful of 
such scenes, the citizens of Glasgow became earnest 
partisans of William and Mary, when James was driven 
from England; and proved their zeal in the cause by 
raising, tradition alleges, in one day, a battalion, to 
guard the Convention of Estates, assembled in Edin- 
burgh, to settle the change of dynasty. 

The citizens of Glasgow had so deep a stake in the 

Danen Scheme, that its failure for some years paralysed 

the commerce of the upper Clyde; nor did prosperity 

shine upon them till the Act of Union with England, 

L,-., Google 

192 SCOTLAND [Qlaagcnp. 

and the rising trade with the Colonies in America, 
stirred them up to energy. In the Rebellion of 1715 
the m^Btrates of Gkegow caused a trench, 12 feet 
wide and 6 deep, to be drawn round the city as a 
defence sgainBt the Stuart adherents, who, on march- 
ing south, were disposed of at the battle of Preston. 

The riot of midsummer 1725 was a notable incident 
in the annals of Gla^ow. It arose from the provoet, 
Campbell of Shawfield,who6e residence was where Glass- 
ford-street now is, having rendered himself so unpopular 
with the citizens by his Tot« on the malt-tax, that they 
gutted his house and croated such disturbance that the 
military wero called out, and firedon the populace, killing 
9 and wounding 17, but had to retreat to Dumbarton 
Castle. Gener^ Wade, so femous as the mater of the 
militaty roads in ScotJand, accompanied by Duncan 
Forbes, the Lord-Advocate, better known as of Cullo- 
den, with horse, foot, and artillery, took mihtary pos- 
session of Glasgow, put the 'bailies into durance in their 
own toibooth,' transferred them to Dumbarton Castle, 
and thence to the jail in Edinhuigh, where, after some 
days' incarceration, they were liberated on bail, hut es- 
caped fiirthei penalties. The citizens who attacked the 
soldiers were more severely dealt with, 19 being tried 
in Edinburgh for the riot, some of whom were bmished, 
and others whipped through the streets. Captain 
Bushnell who commanded the troops to fire on the_ 
people was tried, convicted, condemned to death, par- 
doned — and obtained mihtaiy promotion! 

In the Hebellion of 1745, the citizens of Glasgow 
raised two regiments of 600 men each, one of which 
fought so stoutly against the rebels at Falkirk, and so 
exasperated the Stuart clans who won that battle, that 
the city narrowly escaped being given up to pillage — 
Charles Edward lettii^ the magistrates off by their 
prtnuising to pay a ransom of £15,000, yielding np the 

Cflasgoa.] DESCRIBED. 193 

(urme in their city, and huiding over to hiTn the ureara 
of taxes due to the Government. Sir John Cope, who 
&i]ed so Badly at Prestonpang, was in the field; and the 
m^ifitratee relying on hia ability to stay the rebel pro- 
gress, demurred at the demand of Charles Edward, 
which was speedily enforced by a detachmeat, under 
Macgregor of Glengyle, (the present kird of Glengyle 
ia ' mine host' of the Queen's Hotel, Glasgow ! ) who set- 
tled the claim by the bailies paying £5,000 in cash 
and £5,000 in goods. On the return of the Highland 
army from their nnhappy expedition into England, they 
appeared in force in Glasgow, en route for CuUoden; 
and were so urgent in their demands, and such dangerous 
guests to have in the city, that their speedy esit was 
purchased by a contribution of 12,000 shirts (aU linen 
then), and 6,000 cloth bonnets, cloth coats, and pairs of 
hose and shoes. ITiese exactions by the rebels cost 
Glasgow £15,000; and in 1749 the magistrates obtained 
from Parliament £10,000 in relief of the loss. 

The 'Tobacco Lords' were the commercial magnates 
of Glasgow; and, when the Americans struck for inde- 
pendence, the Yirginitm inteiesta of these traders was 
so perill^l, that a corps of 1,000 men was raised at the 
cost of the city, and their services offered for the Co- 
lonial war — leading merchants of Glasgow becoming the 
recraiting party — Einlay piper, Wardrop drummer, and 
the flag-bearera and swordsmen, heads of £uuiliee whose 
names grace the civic annals. 

In 1 77 9-80, when the Grordon anti-Catholic outbreak 
threatened to convulse Great Britain, the citizens of 
Glasgow stood heartily by the Protestant side, 85 clubs 
(12,000 members) banding themselves together for 
that end, and maintaining a correspondence with Lord 
G«oige Gordon in London. I'he wild incidents of that 
era are vividly drawn by Dickens, in the pages of 
' Bamaby Rudge.' In 1780 the 'fervid' Protestants 
H I , . , , Google 

194 SCOTLAND [Glasgow. 

proved their Ee&l hy a riot, resulting in tbfi sacking of 
the sliop of a Catholic dealer in King-street, and of his 
pottery in Tnreen-atreet, Calton, for which acta of in- 
anbotdinatioa the magistrates were made to pay. 

In 1767, a strike against reduction of wages took 
place in Glasgow, the weavers cutting the wehs Arom 
their looms, burning them on the streets, and so con- 
ducting thflmselyes tbat the military were called out, 
the Biot Act read, the people Sied upon, and three men 
killed and many wounded. It is instructive as to the 
distribution of the population of that day, that the mob 
mustered in the Diygate; and the dead were buried in 
Calton, 6,000 being at the funeral. 

In the wars, 1791 to 1815, consequent on the Ee- 
volution in France — the rise and fall of Napoleon the 
Great — Glasgow came prominently forward as a loyal 
city, her citizens musteaing for the volunteer corps of 
the time, when invasion was anticipated, and Britain 
on both sides the Tweed stood armed to repel it 

In 1819-20, when famine was in the lajid, employ- 
ment hard to find, and the artisans of the last genera- 
tion waking up to take an interest in the affairs of the 
nation — 'Eadicala' they were called — a rising took place, 
which resulted in a yeomanry tight at Bonnynmir, near 
Kilsyth, with a troop of i^juished weavers, and on 
August 20, 1820, in the decapitation of James Wilson, 
who had left his loom in Strathaven to become 'Lead 
centre' of the public movement. It is stiU a moot 
question in Glasgow whether or not the Eadical rising 
referred to was excited for party political objects, and 
a late member of the press in Gla^w 'turned the 
penny" by the discussion of the abstruse subject! 

In 1832, Glasgow felt severely the visitation of 
cholera, upwards of 3,000 persons tailing under the 
pestilence. Bince then cholera has been in the city, but 
with less virulence at each appearance; and Glasgow 

Olaegoie.] DESCRIBED. 195 

is now ao sapenbundAntlf eapplied with the finest of 
water from Loch-Katrine, that the approach of the 
pestilence is lees dreaded. The danger of decimation 
by fever and plagoe will atsd be largely abated when the 
CHI7 Improvement Scheme Act, passed June 1866, is 
brought into operation — the wynda and closes of the 
city being cleared away, dweUing-honses for the labour- 
ing claeaee erected, sud air let into the over-populated 
disttictB. The water scheme coat £1,000,000, and the 
improvement will cost one-half more, but the assesa- 
ments to meet them will be cheerfolly borne. 

To give figures for the rise and progress of the com- 
merce, manuiactores, and trade of Gla^w, is beyond 
the scope of these pages: It may sufBce to state tha^ 
Irom being a mere collection of hovels on the Molen- 
dioar, Uie etreeta of Glasgow and its subarbs extend 
for miles along the Clyde— Paikhead to Partick, east 
to west^ beii^ nearly a continuooB line httle short 
of five miles, and Fort-Dnndaa to Fort-EgUnton, north 
to sonth, about two miles — and still the city grows. 
The impfovement scheme threatens to play havoc with 
1^ 'ciaw-fitep' roof and quaint-windowed houses which 
ate so very dear to the antiquarian. 

like many other towns of its class, the city of 
Glasgow has an east and a west end — the fbrm^ the 
chief seat of manuiactures, spinning mills especially; 
the latter where the homes of the manufactorers are 
built; and for ae th^ may be apart, the system of 'bns 
accommodation is so admirably developed in Glasgow, 
that tJie intervening space is held of small account. To 
Andrew Menzies, theenterpriaingowffBrof the 'Eob-Eoy' 
tartan coloured 'bujaes, the credit of supplying hi^' f^- 
low-citizens with such frequent, cheap, and excellent 
means of transit is mainly due; and it is pleasant to know 
that the speculation has been a good one. 

Although the city of Glasgow, compared with that of 
L,.,, Google 

196 SCOTLAKD [Olaegoa. 

EdmbnTgh, is low in site, yet the ascent on the north, 
where Glai^ow proper is built, has the Gamgad, Gar- 
net, and other hills within its bounds, and they are steep 
enough to make it a hard pull for cab or cart. 

Adjacent to the Cathedral, the noble and extensive 
building of the Infirmary rises on the west; on the espla- 
nadeofwhich aatatue has been erected in honour of James 
Lumsden, Esq., late chief magistrate of the city, who, in 
his Ufetime, took a deep interest in that institution. 

The- Cathedral, the High Church of the city of 
Glasgow, is the finest and the best preserved specimea 
of ecclesiastical architecture in Scotland. Eastern critics 
pronounce the pUe to be mora masaive than elegant; 
but it well Buita the dark ravine below, the city of the 
dead beyond, and the smoke-laden atmosphere aroimd. 
Founded by Bishop Achaius, chaplain in 1133 to 
David I., to shield from baronial violence the influence 
of the priesthood partially obtained, it soon gathered 
around it those who desired to live at peace. 

The floor of the choir is 100 feet above the level of 
the Clyde; from east to west it is 320 feet; the breadth, 
63 feet; height of the nave 85 feet ; of the choir, 90 feet; 
the spire is 325 fe«t; and the building has a circum- 
fereuce of about 1100 feet The pillars supportjug the 
pile are li7, windows 157, various in size, of exquisite 
masonry, some of them 40 feet high by 20 in breadth; 
and since 1856 the beauty of this ancient Cathedral 
has be^ greatly added to by the windows beii^ 
filled in with painted glass, chiefly executed by the 
best artists of Munich. In this laudable effort to 
, adom their 'High ■Church,' the citizens of Glasgow 
were liberally aided by Parliament, the finest of the 
series of windows, that on the east, having been so pro- 
vided for. The first window was erected in 1869. Since 
then the 'good work has gone bravely on,' and to enu- 
merate the names of the donors, would be to go over 

Glaegoa.] DESCRIBED. , 197 

the names of the nobility of the Treat of Scotltmd, the 
merchaBt princes of the city, and those who have risen 
to station hy the development of the industrial energies 
and mineral resources of the country. A guide-book, 
■with views by Bower, can he had within the walls, and 
for all details the toiirist is referred to it 

It is years since the nave of the western divi- 
sion of the Cathedral was occupied on Sabbaths as the 
Outer High Chuich; and for the congregation meeting 
there, St Paul's in John-street was built, the internal 
erections removed, and the fine old Cathedral reatored 
to most of its former grandeur. In the tale of ' Rob 
Roy,' that outlaw meets with Francis Oebaldistone in 
the 'Laigh Kirk,' the vault or basement floor being 
then preached in as the Barony Eirk, that congregation 
now assembling in a building of their own, haid by 
— a house neither attractive without nor ornate with- 
in, but crowded on Sundays by those who love 'good 
words.' In 1588, the Reformation era, the aab trees 
growing round the Cathedral were cut down to form 
benches for the male members of the congregation, their 
better halves being expected to bring stools with them 
to ait upon; and l^ua it may have been that the notable 
Jenny Geddes of St Giles' flung her stool at the priest, 
and led off the riot which raged so fanoasly in the east 
and north of Scotland. If the ladies went thus armed 
to church, their lords were also provided with weapons 
of offence, carrying swords under their cloaks, and even 
the minister had hia aword by his aide— but the Presby- 
terian priests of that age were stout soldiers. 

The renovation of the Cathedral of Glasgow was 
under Government supervision, the restoration being 
intrusted to Edward Blore, Esq., au architect and an- 
tiquarian, who took care that the character and style 
of the repairs should be in keeping with the original 
design. Mouldings, finely executed, were found when 

198 SCOTLAHD [Glaagow. 

excavating, leading to the idea that tlie present GhiLrch 
had been preceded by one older. 

The kirk-yard, where generations have been interred, 
is lai^ and so thickly laid with grave-fltones that grass 
can scarcely find room to grow. It is now closed to 
the public, the cemetery across the ravine being the 
chief buiial'-place of the north-quarter of GUf^w and 
of the more wealthy of the citizens in the district. On 
the rocky eminence, high as the spiie of the Cathedral, 
are placed the pillars and monnments of the dead, 
ntuneFons and finely designed; and &om the walks 
throngh the Ifecropolia, an extensive view is obtained 
of the city of Glasgow, ite populous suhuihs, and the 
course of the Clyde from the south downwards. 

The rocky hill having been covered with firs was called 
the 'Fir Park;' and, although of rock, gaDeriea now pierce 
it at various places, where vaults are formed for the 
burial of the dead. The approach fiijm the vrest is by 
' the Bridge of Sigha ' (a rather fanciful name), which 
spans the ^olendinar, where the email stream in tlie 
depth below is dammed np, and thence forms a cascade, 
which IB useful for impelling the machinery of the mills 
andworksAutheidown the ravine. As for the Cathedral, 
a guide-hook, speciaUy descriptive of the Necropolis and 
the monumente there, can be had 1^ those deeiroua of 
cherishing recoUectiona of theii visit. 

Further south, in the small open space, are # row of 
one-storeyed houses, tradirionally Teported to be where 
the unfortunate Damley lived wlule in Glasgow. South- 
ward runs the High-street, in which a few 'old' dwel- 
lings remMB, the upper or steeper portion of which is 
known as ' the Bell of the Brae' — where Wallace met 
Percy and beat him — as the Scottish peasants believe. 
At top of the 'brae' referred to, and westward, is a 
narrow street, the Eottenrow, fashionable of old, when 
priests were powerful; and some houses there are ancient 

maagoK.] DESCRIBED. 199 

but few seem old enough to date bock eTen to the 
Knox era. A little below the Bottenrow, but across 
the 'brae,' is the Drygate, where the ^lite of the city 
abode of old; and it ia but of late years that an ancient 
pile, known aa 'the Duke's Lodging,' was taken down, 
and replaced by a barrack-like erection, meant aa housea 
for the workmen, ground being valuable, and employ- 
ment abundant. The Drygate consists chiefly of small 
houses, few of them of thu century's erection. 

Duke-street and George-street lead east and west, 
neither of them old, and both wide. In Duke-street, 
the Bridewell and Korth Prison are btdlt on the notth 
side, and on the south is an extensive thread factory, 
eton6-built,flat-roofed,andwithr6servoirB there for water 
to quench possible £ie. Further south are the Cattle 
markets, and farther on the Annfield row, and behind 
these, the villa-like suburb of Dennistoun, ao named aa 
occupying the feuable acres of Dennistoun of Golfhill, 
the mansion so called being eastward of the feus. 

For nearly a mile square, the land on the south was 
of strong clay, dug up, milled, moulded, dried, baked, 
and utilised in the mills and stalks which crowd the 
locality; and the pits thus formed were filled in by the 
loads of earth excavated elsewhere for the basement of 
houses. Freestone being as abundant in Lanarkahire 
as slates are in Lorn, Ai^leshire, the street architecture 
of Glasgow is fair, the houses being of hewn stone. In 
the G^owgate section of the city, however small the 
rooms for the labouring classes may be to live in, 
there is open space out of doors, and the fevet-rate is 
less than in the crowded wynds of the town. 

Eastward of the Gallowgate, stretch the suburbs of 
Camlachie, Parkhead, and Tolleroea, and southward are 
those of Calton and Bridgeton — the latt«T so named, 
as across the Clyde runs the highway to Eutherglen, 
a buigh and small town south of the river, and 2 miles 
L,-., Google 

200 SCOTLAND [Cflasgou. 

from Glaagov. Until the B«fonnation, it waa co-eq^nal 
ia political importance with Glasgow, and in the Bruce 
era, the greater place of the two — the castle of Bather^ 
glen being garrisoned and atrong, while that of the 
Bishop's Castle of Glasgow could not stand a siege. 

The Green of Glasgow, the park of the people living 
and labouring in the eaatem suburbs, extends along 
the north ba^ of the Clyde. The trees in it are old 
but getting fast blighted; and the carri^e drives, of 
more than 2 tulles in extent, were, a generation ago, 
frequented by the middle and upper classes. Now the 
Green is used chiefly for 'mass meetings of the people,' 
volunteer reviews, nulitary displays, gymnastic exercises, 
&c To the memory of Kekon, a pillar 143 feet in 
height has been raised, the top of which was shattered 
by lightning, but it is now wholly repaired. 

SouthwMd, from below the Eutherglen bridge to 
that near the Court-houses, flows the Clyde, deep and 
broad enough to give excellent bathing facilities for 
the youngsters of the cily, and used by the youth of the 
middle classes as the rowing-course for their regattas 
— the Isthmian games of the citizens of Gla^ow; trot^ 
ting matches coming off near Airdrie, and what are 
called horse-races at Paisley on the west. Gla^w is 
a place of commerce, and her youth have naval aspira- 
tioua; consequently, in the summer the river is crowded 
with crews, in slim, canoe-like creations, straining their 
muscles, expanding their chests, and brightening their 
complexions with this healthfrd exercise. In mid- 
summer, cups of gold and silver, and prizes of value, 
are competed for — these agnatic amusements having 
been ruled over for years past by a gentleman, ener- 
getic, enthusiastic, and liberal, but surely he might be 
called 'admiral' or 'commodore,' and not 'major' — vo- 
lunteer honour won to the contrary notwithstEUidii^. 

Northward from the Court-house building leads the 
L,-., Google 

.] DESCKIBED. 201 

Saltmocket, notable in tihe pages of 'Kob Boy,' as there 
lived 'the Bailie, and his Mtheitlie deaconafore him.' 
But the street is now one where 'decent folks' could 
scarcely abide. 'In bell or Dublin city,' Eobert Borne, 
the poet, alleged the devil was to befound! Now, had the 
Saltmarket of Glasgow been in his day what it now 
appears to be upon a Saturday night, the 'devil need 
not have beea banished furth of Scotland.' 

, Where the Saltmarket intersects the Irongate, stood 
of old the Tolboolh of Glasgow, the Cross of the city, 
there executions took place, and public flagellations 
were administered. Eastward runs the G^owgate, 
not very many years since so steep and narrow, that 
it was told by people then, when the 71st or Glas- 
gow regiment were in action at Vittoria — ' Charge 
them up the Gallowgate' was the order given by Cado- 
gan, their gallant Colonel, who fell there in the arms of 
victory. His death was avenged, and a monument has 
been raised to him in the Cathedral of Glasgow. 

The H^h-street upwards is, year by year, becoming 
less ancient in look, and, what with city improvement 
schemes and Union Bailway operations, threatens soon 
to pass wholly away, and to the advantage of those who 
now live in it. Well up High-street staads the College 
or JJniversityof Glasgow, established in 1450 by William 
Tumbull, bishopof the diocese. Its charter was obtained 
from Junes H. in 1453; and a bull from fficholaa V. 
recognised it as a school of theology, canon and civil 
law, the uis, and taculties, with power to confer degrees, 
which were valid throi^hout Christendom. 

The College was opened in 1451, but was unendowed, 
as the first patron who bestowed lands on the learned 
corporation was Lord James Hamilton; and the noble 
example thus set was soon followed by others. In 
1560, Queen Mary founded five bursaries for poor 
youths, with 13 acres of land adjacent to the College; 
L,-., Google 

303 SCOTLAND [Glasgow. 

and in 1577, James VL bestowed on the UniTeraity 
tlie vicarage and rectory of Govsn. Charles IL, in 
hia effort to establish Episcopacy in Scotland, largely 
impoverished the College of Glasgow, by alienating 
from it the revenue of the biahoprio of Galloway; but 
in 1693, these lands were partially restored. In 1702, 
the atudente attendii^ numbered 402, and since then 
the University continues to progress. 

The buildings were erected in 1656, are imposing and 
massive, but soon to pass away, the place having been 
aold for railway purposes, and the lands of Gilmore- 
hill, above the west-end of Glasgow, acquired on which 
to build the new University. The situation is com- 
manding, and the funds considerable; while no doubt 
exists that the merchanta and manulacturers of the west 
of Scotland will subscribe all that may be needful to 
carry out the architectural plans, and thus confer on 
the city one of its noblest and most ose^ piles. The 
professorial roll of the College of Glasgow has on it 
many names high in arts, literature, and science, but 
too long to recapitulate here. The Hunterian Museum, 
in rear of the CoUege huildii^, is a chaste structure, 
and the collection there of books, coins, paintings, 
and anatomical preparations, are of great value, and 
being added to yearly. The founder was William 
Himt^, M.B., an alumnus of the College. 

Betuniing to the Trongate, an equestrian statue of 
'William UL is before the Cross steeple, the latlei a 
remnantof the old Tolbooth; on the nortii is the Tontine, 
the old Exchange of the ci^. The Trongate westward 
was, £ity years ago, held te be one of the finest streets 
in Europe. It is broad, long, the houses pretty r^ular 
in outline, of Mi height, and the shops below fully 
and respeotahly tenanted; bat even in Glasgow there 
ore handsomer streete now. Westward of Trongate, 
and in a continuous line, nma Aigylenstreet, and on- 
L,-., Google 

.] DESCEIBED. 203 

VEtrds by Anderston-wdk. In Qneen-sti«et, off Atgyle- 
Btraet, is the Soyol Exchange, bnilt in 1839 at a cost of 
£50,000, and in extent, acMmmodation, and arcHtec- 
tuial beauty, ■worthy of the commeidal metropolis of 
Scotland. The Kews-ioom is 130 feet in length, 60 in 
breadth, and lofty in ceiling, the latter sapported by 
cdlnmnB. In front of the Exchange is an equestrian 
statue of the Duke of Wellington, by Maiocbetti, and 
placed there at a cost of ^£10,000, which was raised by 
Gube<aiption. Across the street is the British Linen 
Company's Bank; eastward, in Ingram-etieet, is that 
of the Union, wilJi atatuea on the walls; and opposite 
V) it is the Athenienmi B«adiDg-rooms at present but 
of old the Assembly-rooms of the city. 

Proceeding up Queen-street, George-square — 'the 
square' of Gla^w — is entered. Fonderly railed in 
and kept somewhat like a garden, it is now open to 
the public, with ornate plote at the comere, and walks 
to each point of the compass. A tall pillar is in the 
centre, surmounted with a colossal figure of Sir Waltn 
Scott; an equestrian statue of the Queen is near 11^ 
and that of her lamented consort to be placed close l^. 
MoDnmente to Sir John Moore, a native of Gla^w, 
'with his marldal cloak aronnd him,'' to James Watt^ the 
engineer, long resident in the city; and to Sir Bobert 
Peel, who was a'buige8B,'ara all in this place or sqnare. 

On the south side of Geoige-sqnare is the FostKiffice, 
plain enough, and not over large. On the north arc 
the Crown, £oyal, Queen's, and Imperial Hotels; and 
near by are the exit gates of the railway irom Edin- 
burgh and the north. On the west side are the Globe, 
Clarence, and Crow Hotels, with a costly pile in 
course of erection for the Bank of Scotland. Westward 
is St. Vincent-place; and onwards extends St. Vincent- 
street, where not many years aince the wealthy trad- 
ers of Gla^w were domiciled; now the buildings, are 

204 SCOTLAND [Olatgoui. 

being altered, he^htened, aad occupied by insurance 
companies, or merchanta vihaea transactions demand 
oiG.ce space, and '^arrant princely prenuses. 

Cioasing St. Yincent-street, and numing north and 
eouth, is Bucbanan -street, where the fair sex prome- 
nade, and the shops (' establishments' they are called) 
are most attractive, the highest rente for such being 
obtained, as it is a thoroughiare of the city, where the 
features of Cheapside, Lu(^ate-hill, and Kegent-street, 
London, are combined. Below Buchanan-street, and 
ataoss Argyle-fltreet, is St. Enoch-square, with a church 
at bottom, an open space in front, and where farmers 
and tradesmen meet on Wednesday, the market-day;' 
but the square will soon be otherwise occupied, as the 
terminal station of the City Union Bailway will be 
placed on the* eastern aide of it, — the property alrea^ 
being bought up at 'railway compensation rates.' 

On the west side of the square is the office of the 
'Evening Citizen,' produced by the Queen's printers, 
and its sale pushed by a legion of 'city arabs,' shoeless, 
and of both sexes, but labouring in this way for their 
bread; and the occupation, it is believed, keeps them 
honest, there being a marked diminution of juvenile 
offenders brought before the 'bailies' since the Messrs. 
Hodderwick offered to the public daily papers for 'one 
halfpenny each' — a Buccessfiil undertaJcing. 

South of St. Enoch-square is Clyde-street, running 
along the river side, but above the Broomielaw bridge. 
The latter is a granite structure, of recent erection, 500 
feet in length, wider than London bridge, but still 
over-crowded. In the city of Glasgow there are bridges 
across the river — at the Court-houses, the Stockwell, 
and tiiB head of the navigable waters of the Clyde— 
the Broomielaw. Opposite Maxwell-street there is a 
suspension bridge, which, having pontage exacted, is 
not much used. The bridge at Stockwell-street replaced 

Glasgaie.] DESCRIBED. 205 

one built there oentories ago, which was long the only 
one leading into the city from the west of Scotland for 
the north and the east. The view from the Broomie- 
law bridge is one of the flneat to be had in Gla^w 
or elsewhere, aa the forest of masts and crowds of 
steamers give character and animation to the scene, 
which extends !xe down the river; but to that full le- 
farence has been made in the article 'Clyde.' 

Across the bridges are the southern suburbs of Gks- 
gow; that of Hutchesontown on the east is so named as 
having been built on lands feued from Eutcheeons' 
Hospital, one of the charitable and educational insti- 
,1)ttions of the city, which are few compared with those 
in Edinburgh. Gorbala, west of Hutchesontown, was 
until lately an independent burgh, in ao far as matters 
civil went; now it has been absorbed in GJasgow; — the 
district is one of the poorest and most over-popu- 
lated, but the latter evil will soon be remedied. Ad- 
jacent to Gorbals is Laurieston, so called as the houses 
and streets (handsome and spacious then) were chiefly 
erected by the late James Laurie, a merchant in the 
city. Westward of Laurieston is Tiadeston, inland of 
the Clyde, and lately occupied by artisans connected 
with ^ips and steamers. The street southward &om 
the Broomielaw is broad, long, well-built, occupied, 
and leads on to 'the Queen's Park,' a large exl«nt of 
land recently acquired by the Corporation of Glasgow, 
tastejully laid out, and excellent in situation, — its neigh- 
bourhood being rapidly covered over with villa-like 
abodes, is in fevour with the economical, as being 
beyond reach of the heavier municipal taxes. 

The street northward from the Broomielaw bridge 
is Jamaica-street, short, but, as a leading thoroughfare, 
it is crowded, and has some fine buildings to show; 
that recently raised on the west side by Messrs. Bums, 
of the Irish, English, Continental, and Atlantic steamers, 
L,-., Google 

206 SCOTLAND [OTtHyow. 

being one of the finest, aa might have been looked 
for &om the extent and character of the business so 
long maintained hj them. Crossing Argyle-street, the 
thorooghikre holds ap Union-street, an improving one, 
and not the lesa so that it leads direct from the ship- 
ping on the Clyde to the shipping on the deep canal at 
Poit-Dundas — the passenger station of the railways 
&om Greenock, Ayrshire, and the west, being contigu- 
ous to the Bioomielaw bridge; and that of the Cale- 
donian Kailway for the south, being nearly on the line of 
Union-Street; while that of the North British Company, 
for the east, north, and vest, is but a short way off to 
the right Above Stockwell-street the Union Kailvay 
is carried across the Clyde, thence through Bridgegate, 
by Stockwell-street, to St. Eaoch-eqnare, for the pas- 
senger traffic; that for goods leads north by Saltmarket 
and Bigh-street, the station about to be formed being 
where the old College of Glasgow stands. 

Half a mile northward, by Union- street, from the 
Broomielaw, the long line of Sanchiehall-street leads 
westward, and for the greater part of its length the 
shops are the hfmdsomeat in t^e city, the pavement 
wide, and the promenade a iavourite one, as the 'belles' 
living in the palatial abodes westward find it an eli- 
gible route for the city; and when the young gentlemen 
stream homeward &om business there runs a strong 
counter 'crinoline cunent,' and one here and there 
hard to stem — and dangerous to cross. 

On the right of Sanchiehall-etreet are the Gamethlll 
aeries of streets, the space between occupied by isolated 
dwellingB, but doomed soon to give way to continuous 
ranges. The Coiporatioa Galleiiea, where aaaemblies 
of the 41it« of Glasgow society are held, are in Sanchie- 
hall-street; anid directly opposite lived Pritchaid, so 
'in&mous' that the very stone-steps of his house 
were chijqiad off for relics — if the report of a London 

Gltugow.] DESCRIBED. 20V 

pennj-a-liner may be credited. Should a stranger visi- 
tor, accuBtomed to gloat orer Madame Tuaaaad'a exhibi- 
tion in Loudon, place himself in the hands of a Glasgow 
cabman to see the sights in Gla^uw, he will be driven 
west to where Madeline Smith ia said to have offered 
the poisoned cup to her French lover; to Sauchishall- 
street, further weet, to the house notable as where 
Jessie M'Lachlan butchered her feUow-servant; oi to 
Sauchiehall-etreet east, where the most heartless of 
murders was perpetrated by Pritohard, a man of edu- 
cation, but neither bom nor bred in Glasgow. 

At the termination of Sanchiehall-street ia that of 
Kelvingrove, leading to the West-end Park of Glasgow, 
a locality known in song — 'Will ye go to Kelvingrove, 
bounie lassie, oP being long a favonrite air in the 
west The sitnatlon is the f^est within reach of the 
citizens of Glasgow; and their municipal rulers, after 
acquiring the domain, spared no cost in adorning it to 
the utmost, the late Sir Joseph Faxton being employed 
for that purpose. The trees are aged, numerous, fiiiely 
disposed, umbrageous, and well-cared for; while the 
w^ks and drives are extensive, and kept in excellent 
order. One drawback is, however, hanl to overcome, 
that of the river Kelvin, which fonoB the western 
boundary of the Park, is slow of stream, not deep, and, 
when the weather is warm, 'inodorous,' its upper wat«ra 
coming down nnaweet from the slums of MaryhilL 

The ground in and near the Weet-end Park has been 
feoed off at high rates, the view commanded from the 
windows of the houses above it being wide and magni- 
ficent — such as will bear comparison with any to be had 
in the East, due allowance being made for the difference 
in character of the olg'ectB surveyed. The lower couise 
of the Clyde, Paisley, 'the braee o' Gleniffer,' the sea of 
houses all around, and soon the noble pile of the new 
University rising in the west, are all within scope; 

208 SCOTLAND [Oleneoe. 

while the town houses of the merchants and mann- 
factmers of the city, as huilt in the Circuses and 
Qoadiants near the Park, the Claremont Gardens on 
the south-east, and Woodaide-terrace ahove, all challenge 
admiration. Lectures, balls, lonts occupy and amuse the 
modem Atiienians; but the denizens of the city of the 
"West work hard, enjoy their meat 'before it perishelii,' 
are amiably social, and not hard to get access to. 

The institutions of Glasgow are not many, and 
teachers allege that, with equal devotion to their duties, 
they could earn one-third mora in Edinburgh; etill, 
means of instruction at school or college are ample. 
Churches are numerous inGIaagow,and manyof the more 
recently huilt are fine erections; bnt it may be doubted 
if their number keeps pace with the increase of popu- 
lation, in part to be accounted for by the immigration 
of Catholics from the west and south of Ireland being 
continuous and great; and though such may go to con- 
fession or crowd to mass, few of them are, in &e Scotch 
acceptation of the term, church seat-holders, or sub- 
scribers to ecclesiastical 'sustentation fimds.' 

Glenooe — GtBKOBCHT — LocH-LoHOND. — ^tinder the 
head 'Ballachulish,' some notice having been taken of 
the route eastward from Loch-Leven, the subject matter 
of* this article will be the road westward from Loch- 
Lomond for Ballachulish — that taken by the coaches 
running in the season with tourists from the south, by 
trains &om Edinbui^h or Glasgow, parties en route 
from the TroBSachs, or coming from Strath-Tay. 

The tourist leaving Edinbm^h by train at 6.16 a.m., 
Stirling at 6.4B a.m., Glasgow at 7.35 a.m., reaches the 
steamer at Balloch at 8.45 a.m., which starts up Loch- 
Lomond at 9 o'clock, picking up at Tarbet (near Loch- 
Long), or Inversnaid (not &r irom Loch-Katrine), 
those who may have tarried by the way. 

L,-., Google 

CHeneoe.] DESCRIBED. 209 

At Anllui, near the head of Loch-Lomond, the coach 
conBtructed for the Glencoe traffic Ls ia waiting; time 
being given at Inveiaman for those bo disposed to ' touch 
glasses' at the excellent hotel there, when the horses 
ate put in' motion, and the high-wheeled roomf con- 
veyance sweeps onward by Glenfelloch ; the rule being 
to stow in or on the coach as many as will submit to 
have thor persons so disposed of, and where the load is 
ovennuch for four horses, another pair ate harnessed 
ahead «f them, and occasionally, when extra convey- 
ances are necesaaiy, tlie cort^ is a pretty long one. 

At the month of the Arnan water is a cut which had 
been made to let the steamer np when the loch is fall, 
but now seldom of service, the boats being larger and 
drawing more water than those on the Btation some 
yeais back. The shires of Perth and Dumbarton meet 
near Inveraman, and the tolls in the two counties lie 
within a hundred yards of each other. From Ardlm 
pier to some miles upwards in Glenialloch, the road is 
fringed with wood, nch and beantiM; while the river 
Falloch on the right comes down rapidly, the numerous 
cascades being beautiful and in ^1 view. The rocks 
in the river channel are water-worn, those by the road- 
side boulder-like, as if they had rolled or been borne from 
a distance, and are striated in layers of many colours, 
as if gold-bearing quartz lay there for the crushing. 

The highlands of Arrochar on the S.W., and the 
mountains on the E., beyond which is the water-shed for 
Loch-Katrine, show well from GlenfaUoch, the southern 
section of which is richly wooded. In the strath are 
two farms, that of GlenfaUoch on the south and 
KillatOT on the north, occupied by brothers, whom it 
would 'grieve' no one to get acquainted with. The 
lands they farm Me large as a Goman Principality — 
their rente great as wlwt may he paid into the elec- 
toral exchequer (gaming-table earnings included). 
I , . . , Google 


These &rmsn come ftom the southem highlindfi of 
tiootland — one of them keepa 'exceltent claret' 

A> the inn at Giianlaiicb, next a toll on the lood, ii 
reached, the distnct on the left becomes hare; and the 
inonntBUL tifdng to the N.K is that of Benmoie, at the 
head of the hraea of Balquhidder, and ahove those of 
Ulengyle, the etceam fcom whioh flows into Loch- 
Kstrine. At Giianlarich the coach eastward from 
KiUin and Aberfeldy comes into the load for Glenoo«, 
receiving auoh paeseogera as may be travelling thence, 
or from Oban, for the strath of the Tay. 'Die -drive 
through StTathmisn to lyndnim ia a ^ort one; and 
at the hotel there tiie Glencoe coaahes from east and 
west meet. The roate westward for Inveraray, via 
Dalmally, leads off here, and an for Oban. 

Tyndrnm, one of the highest inh^ted loc^tieB 
in Peithehire, was one of the old inns, and good of 
its class, built by General Wade, who, between the 
rebellions of 1715 and 1745, did so much to lay (^len 
the Uighlanda of Scotland to the progreaa of civihsa- 
Uon. Mine host of Tyndrnm claiine to be the repre- 
sentatiTe of those who, geaerations ago, owned the 
braes of Glenorohy, and he and his brother are exten- 
sive sheep farmers and right good-hearted men. In 
testimony of which see the magnificent silvor candelabra 
on the sideboard of the coffee-room, inscribed ss pre- 
sented to them by a relation who had prospested in 
China, and to whom, when friends were few, they had 
proved 'fiiends indeed.' The oensns returns give the 
name of 'Clifton' to the collectioiL of huts a short way 
north of Tyndrnm, whose occupants came to find 
employment in the 'lead mines' of Breadalbane. That 
such works existed may be Been by t^e broken aaxiaoe 
of the moantains to the left, but the mines were 
unprodoctive, and the hamlet thrives not 

Turning shaqi t» the ri^ht, and passii^ the west 

G^OTcoe.] DESCRIBED. 21 1 

toll — for there are none in ArgylsBliiie — the road leads 
up a rather steep ascent The river, vhich comes 
down so rapidly, and through a channel rocky and 
deeply cut, ia that of the highest feeder of the Tay, 
a river which brings a greater volume of water to 
the ocean than does any other in Scotland. It is 
known here as the Fillan, or the Dochart, &om near 
Crianlarich to Kill in, and at Kenmore, 'the great river 
bead,' it iasnes out of Loch-Tay — as the Tay. 

Above the 'braes of Glenorchy,' fiendouran on the 
right is magniticent in outline, great in height, smooth 
and green to the sunmiit. The division between Perth- 
shire and Argyleshiie is marked by a stone dyke on the 
hill-side, and readily seen, as the water runs westward. 
Theee streams grow fast; though mere bums in appeaiaacc, 
yet from their breadth of channel, and number and size of 
water-worn stones, they must at times come down the 
'braes of Glenorchy' with vast power. A stream comes 
down £rom the east, and, following its course upwards, 
the pedestrian will And himself en ronte for Glen-Lochy, 
whence the Lochy flows into Loeh-Tay, near Kill'" — 
the latter a &moaa resort for the angler. 

Between Bendouran on the west, is the strath of the 
river Orchy, with a good road along its bank, being 
the route direct from the Black Mount for Dabnally 
and Loch-Awe. At the bridge where the Orchy is 
crossed, and the angle is a sharp one, the coach road 
turns northwards by the Orchy, which flows deep, rapid, 
and is fall of 'hah,' as salmon are called by the nativee. 
Approaching Inverouran, the hill-side has some fir trees 
to show, df^k, but pleasant to look upon — timber of 
any sort having be^ nearly lost sight of since Glon- 
faUooh was passed. Looking northward, Loch-Tulla 
comes in view, of no great extent, but deep, with 
small islands on its sur&ce. On its northern shore was 
tiie lodge of the late Marquis of Breadalbane, the bleak 

212 SCOTLAND [Glenooe. 

wild conntiy being locally known as the 'Black Mount' 
-"Without verdure, and the fewer the animals, deei ex- 
cepted — 'biped or quadruped' — the better the forest. 

Inverouran is a stage on the route, with good quarters 
for the angler, and a good dram for those who love it. 
The river Ouiau— hence Inverouran — falls into Loch- 
TuUa above the iTm, where the coach road sweeps east- 
ward. The vast extent of treeless, vegetationless land, 
stretching far by Loch-Lydoct into the Eanitoch coun- 
try, is as uninviting in the distance as could well be 
looked upon; and to venture upon these fathomless 
morasses would be not without peril of life. The 
keeper's cottage seems a snug one, the kennel near 
by noisy enough, and the di^ilay above the door of 
antleiB of deer is attractive. Deer of course there are; 
and if any simple tourist would like to see one, Boger, 
the driver, will extemporise one on the nonce — any 
homed 'animal, if &r enough off, being pronounced 
such! Stones crop out everywhere on these bleak 
wastes and steep hill-sides ; and could science so advance 
as to moke such combustible, then might the mountain 
tops of Argyleshiie he covered with cabbage gardens — 
one of the dreams of 'scheme promoters' of the last 
century] The road is well made, but the character of 
the land is boggy, as it appears to quake under the 
heavy load of the coach which rolls over it. 

Wlien the summit-level of the district is reached 
(and the guard or driver will quote the exact feet above 
sea-level), the descent begins to King's House, the 
river in the hollow then flowing on to I.och-Etive; the 
Cruachan-Ben mountains on ijie west beii^ laved by 
the waters of Loch-Awe on the south, and those of 
Looh-Etive on the north. King's House was one of 
General Wade's erections. .It is smaller than those at 
Tyndrum and Datmally, but the pubhc room is of fair 
size, and the bar is crowded when the coach arrives 
L,-., Google 

.] DESCRIBED. 213 

laden vith tourists athirst for millr or whisky, and all 
the maidB in the 'toun,' as such detached houses are 
termed, turn out to serve them — not gentlemen only, 
as it is one of the pleasing features of the Glencoe 
route that tourists come in parties — both sexes, and the 
Toad is at times right pleasantly beguiled. In the sea- 
son, half-a-dozen carriages, from east and west, may be 
seen there — King's House, by Glencoe, being mid-way 
between Tyndrum and Ballachulish. 

A road leads westward from King's House for the 
shootings at the head of Loch-Etive, where population is 
scant, as were deer also some years ^o, and die laird of 
that forest was made to refimd heavily for rent exacted 
for game where game was not. The ascent from King's 
House is long, but not severe; and on the left is Buachal- 
Etive (the herdsman, of Etire), one of the finest oat- 
linei^ mountains in the west. Sweeping past this great 
inland landmark, a cluster of huts is reached, and 
thence northward lies the pedestrian track (the Devil's 
Staircase), which leads direct for Fort-WiUiam, saving 
the distance by half — as travelled by drovers returning 
from the south, hut not commended to the tonriat; the 
road being rough, there are no hooses by the way, and 
the moontains are more bleak than beaulifiiL 

Descending into Glencoe, the glance onwards is 
magnificently grand. Some notice of Glencoe, as ap- 
proached from the west, appearsin this work underarticle 
'Ballachulish,-' but the route is one of such attraction 
for the tourist, and so full of interest, that space should 
be given to scan its beauties bom the east The glen 
has mountains on both sides; those on the right may 
be the higher, but it is on the left where they are most 
imposing; the stream coursing down in frequent cascades 
along their base, and the wall of rocks rising high and 
precipitous above it. The lofty and scarcely accessible 
rocky mountains would be a fitting place-for the eyrlee 

2U SCOTLAND [Gleruxe. 

of the eagle — the king of birds. That snch are fonnd 
there, we are inCanned in the glowing pages of Mao- 
aulay, but — ^they are raiely seen. High as flieae moan- 
taisB appear to be, there are loftier heights beyoad, from 
whose fiiTTOwed aides there stream down, what in the 
south are called 'grey mares' tails'— cascades discharged 
over the precipitooe mouutain sidse. 

The load thiough Olencoe is well engineered; and 
heavily laden aa the high-wheeled coaches usually are, 
neither life nor limb are in m.uch peril, as the drivers 
are experienced, and the powerful drags are worked by 
careful guards. As the water-laden clouds, when driven 
across tbese mountain wastes, are now and again tapped 
by the sharp peaks, they burst as waterspouts and 
sweep all downwards in wreck and ruin. Such storms 
account for the deep water-courses which fissure the 
mountains on the right, where an elemental outbreak 
occurred last season, when the road was swept away, 
and the gentlemen coming down in the coach had to 
OEory the ladies across the flood and the debris, to the 
sister coach, which was despatched from the west to 
meet them. It was some weeks before the road was 
quite safe; and when 'we' passed that way — one of a 
pleasant party, and under cover— a heavy lureh of the 
cOach disturbed us, a stop took place, and all scrambled 
out as best they could, when we discovered that the 
flood from the mountains had undermined the roadway, 
and the off hind wheel had sunk down as deep aa the 
strong frame of the coach would pennit! No mishap 
befel, beyond some little delay, when, applying the 
strength of all to the work, the wheel was lifted up; 
but happy it was for the travellers that the accident 
occurred on the left side of the road, as on the right 
the glen lay hundreds of feet sheer below. 

Kear the foot of Glencoe horses are changed, and the 
small inn there on the left is so uninviting in appeai- 

OlMetoe.] DESCEIBED. 215 

anct^ that the ' needful ' liquora are ofifared on a table 
by ibe roadnde. The pair of black bottles costoin 
tbft ' best ' whi^y foe gentlemen-^for others a. cheaper 
fluid, — bnt both from the same cask! Glencoe is the 
resort of artiste; and on a sign-post by the roadside 
BQch are inibrmed that Icxlgings may be had — ^trees 
surround the place, and the locality is a Taan one. 

Olknobok. — Tarbert, Loob-Lomond, by Cwmdow to 
iDTeiaiay — The glen of ' Oesianic' &me on Loch-Leven, 
upon the confines of Invemess-flhire, and that of i^e 
'Cobbler' guarded Groe on the confines of Dumbar- 
tonfdiiie, are jumbled in the minds of those toniists 
who are made to believe that 'grilse' is the feminine 
of 'grouse' — those simple traTellera who confound 
Loch-Leven in KinrosMihire, where Mary Queen of 
Scots suj^'ered durance, with Loch-Leven at Ballaohu- 
lieh, below Glencoe and near the linnhe-Loch! 

In the season, well-appointed coaches, running in 
connection with the steamers on Loch-£atrine and 
Loch-Lomond, start from the m^uiScent hotel at Tar- 
bet, and cross the isthmuB via BaQyheuan toU-bai for 
Airochar, at the head of Loch-LooKi a distance of a 
conple of miles. At Arroehar a road leads oS to the 
left for Garelochhead, the Garo-Loch, and Helensburgh, 
and tbe drive is a beautiful one. Ronnding^ Loch-Loag 
on &6 right, the last toll in the county of Dmnbarton- 
ahire (and there are none in the ehiie to the west) is 
passed through, the finely sitoated mansion of Aid- 
garten is left b^iiind, the shores of Loch-Long departed 
from, and the vale of the Croe entered. 

This glen is veil - sentindled by the mountain, 
quaintly named ' the Cobbler,' and drawn as ' at work ' 
or ' at rest,' aa it may be viewed nnder Tanous aspects, 
the height across the glen being called ' tdie Cobbler's 
Wife,' and natives aU^ they are a sulking pair. The 

216 SCOTLAND [Qlencroe. 

amnmit of the Cobbler is crowned with. grBnite rooks ; 
and the task of ascending such, tradition says, was the 
t«8t of the powers of the sons of the chieftains of old, 
he best able to climb it being made chief by the clan 
Macfarlane, who were in Arrtjchar as the Johnatones in 
Annaiidale{the8onthem Highlands of Scotland), notable 
thieves, the northern clans livii^ by the prey they 
could drive in the moonlight irom the Levenax. 

Glencroe is lees savage in grandeur and magnificent 
in outline than Glencoe on the west; but the solitadee 
are dreary, and the ascent is long, severe, and continu- 
ous, until the stone seat of ' Kest and be thankful ' is 
reached — a place on which it is allied Earl Russell 
eommended John Bright to place himself; and the 
latter knows the district, as he is no stranger in the 
Highlands. This' stone, so famous, is inscribed as 
having been erected by the soldiers of the 2 2d regiment^ 
the road-makers under General Wade — 

The summit level being reached, the small tarn of 
Loch-Restal is in dgbt, and by it a road leads off for 
the head of Loch-Goil; that for Cairndow, on Xoch- 
Fyne, keeps onward for a abort way, then trends to the 
left^ and approaches the policies of Ardkinglasa, wbere 
another route leada on to St. Catherine'a — the steam- 
ferry across Loch-Fyne for Inveraray. Approaching 
Cairndow, the route becomes of increasing beauty; 
and the locality of the old inn, long known as that of 
'Dugald Paul, is one of the quietest and aweeteat the 
'pedestrian could desire to tarry in — the coaches chang- 
ing horses there ; while for the sparse population there 
is a chapel in connection with the parish church at 
Lochgoilhead, this diatrict being that of Kilmorich, 
at one time an independent parish. 


:.] DESCRIBED. 217 

The shore of Loch-Fyne ia but a few hundred yards 
ttom the inn, and the pedestiian can be rowed across; 
but the coach must travel round the head of the loch, 
the distance to Inveraray beii^ about ten miles — there 
being few drives witbiu the Highlands or the Lowlands 
morebeautifuL TheFyne,thefeedingstreamofthelocb, 
is crossed by a bridge of many arches, the fitrm-houses 
are large and well placed, the strath stretching south- 
wards Jar as the eye can reach, the heights on the north 
lofty, with trees to their base, and the finely-wooded 
domains of Ardkinglass are second only in district 
importance to that of Argyle, and show well 

Where the loch widens, the ancient castle of Dune- 
deragh is seen, of old the feudal abode of the chin 
Macnai^ton, a worthy scion of which race perished 
in command at CabnL The vicinity of the castle and 
town of Inveraray is richly beautifiil, and will be elae- 
wheie described. The jioach &om Tarbet runs on to 
Oban, by Loch-Awe; but time is given to dine at the 
Argyle Hotel, and to have a turn in the Castle grounds, 
through which the highway runs. 

Grantowb — Strathspey, in the north-east of central 
Scotland — is on the Highland railway, 23 miles west of 
Forres, 60 miles north of Blair-Athole, and has many 
attractions for those visitors to the district who can find 
time to tarry by the way. The river Spey, from its 
rise in the west to its efflux into the German ocean 
at Garmouth, near Fochabers, has a course of about 
90 miles; the stream runs fast, the rapids are many, 
and, draining a district so extensile and mountainous, 
the flood is vast which it carries to the ocean. Ita 
course was marked by the wildest wrecks of the deso- 
lation caused by the Moray flood of 1829, and few 
bridges then escaped being swept seaward. 
'Now tiie aspect of the district is greatly altered in 

218 SCOTLAIID [Gnmtoten. 

Strethspey, aa it ia penetrated &om the coast by the 
greet HigMatid railway for Kioguseie, £laJi-A;tiu>le, 
and Perth; and farther down hy a line more nearly 
following the strath of the riTar upwards to Abemethy, 
at no great distance ftom Grantown. In the annals of 
Scotland, the chie& north and east of the Cairngorm 
moontains were a turbulent race, from ' the Wolf of 
Badenoch' to the Grants of Castle Giant — the last act of 
the drama, opened in 1689 ^y Dundee at Killiecrankie, 
having been closed at the Haugha of Cromdale, in 
Strathspey, in 1690, whmi the clans encamped theie 
were sorpmed, lont^ and slaughtered. 

Anderson, an authority in all matters descriptiiiie of 
the Highlands of Scotland, remarka that 'no viJlage ia 
the north of Scotland can compare with Gruitown in 
interest and regularity, and in beauty of eituatioa.' 
The hotels are superior; while the houses of the village 
are gmall in size, uniform in appearance, and built of 
the fine cleargraiaed granite which abounds in the 
district Xhe village was founded, towards the close 
of last century, by the noble femHy of Seafield, whose 
ancient mansion of Castle Grant is in the neighbour- 
hood, and is one of the attractions of upper Stra&- 
spey, which were not many years ago explored by our 
Queen, who crossed the Grampians fioia Braemai, amd 
made a short stay in the hotel at Grantown. 

By railway and road Strathspey is now well opened 
up to the tourist; and to the angler the river and 
numerous lochs near the upper Spey afford excellent 
sport, and ordinarily well rewarded. The woods in 
which Castie Grant is embowered are extensive, tbo 
timber valuable and aged; and the forests on the Spey 
have been for generaticms past the most extenuve in 
the north-east of Scotland, the rafts being forsied and 
floated down the Spey to Garmouth and Kingabm, or 
cut and conveyed by railway for use in the south. 
L,-., Google 

GtmUoim.] described. 219 

The nnge of mountains which divide tlie ska^L of the 
Dee and the Spey are magnificent in outline, lofty, but 
scc«esihle. The drive eastward has many attractions for 
the tourist, and the climb upwards for the geologist, 
who is rewarded now and again by Caimgoim stones, 
which are beautiful, ialling In his way. 

Before the Bruce era, the Comyna were the ruhng 
powats in upper Strathspey, and their ancient castle of 
liOch-in-Doib is notable as having withstood the siege 
of the English invaders. The ruins which exist are of 
great extent, and wholly cover the square rock which 
risefl as an island, access to the fortress being at ona 
point only, and there the defences were strong. 

Locb-an-EUan is anothw fortress of repute in national 
history; but the whole district is marked with such evi- 
dences that the time has been when 'the Wolves of 
Badenoch,' or the 'Catenms of Lochaber,' were wont to 
sweep the biaee of Moray, ravage the Lowlands, and 
drive the prey to theii wild homes, safety in such inroads 
being fbund in the embattled abodes of the chiefs. 

The district teems with objects of interest, &om the 
fins polides of Kinrara on the west to those of Am- 
diUy on the east; while the straths near Dulnain and 
the Findhom are well worth exploring, and means 
to do so can be had ftom Grantown or &om Forres on 
the coast. If^ear Inveiavon is the mansion of Ballln- 
dalloch, finely placed; and at Aberlour, larther down 
the strath, the district becomes warmly settled, many 
well-built houses rising up in the district. The 
iron bridge of CraigeUachie, spanning the Spey, is of 
great advantage to those settled there; and three miles 
behind is the small town of Bothes, on the route to 
Elgi", the capital of the shiie of Moray. 

The great mail road from Perth, by Blair-Athole, 

crossed the upper strath of the Spey at Kingussie, and 

onwards l^ Aviemore for Carrbridge and the Findhoin. 

L,-., Google 

230 SCOTLAND [Gremoek 

KingOBsie is still a town of local importance, a station 
on &e railway, aad whence the mail coach runs daily, 
by Loch-Laggan, Ardverike, and the parallel roads of 
Glenroy, to the banks of Loch-Eil, Fort-WiUiam, and 
the west. Aviemore is now a shooting-lodge, there 
being little traffic on the road northward; but near it 
is Belleville, where 'Ossian Macpherson' resided; and 
to him a monumeift, which ia an ornament to the dis- 
trict^ has been raised as a Gaelic scholar. 

GBEEKopK, on the lower Clyde, where the noble river 
becomes a Mth, is, by water and railway, eqtii-distant 
&om Glasgow 22 miles, and shares with that city the 
large import and export trade of Scotland ; the docks 
{tidal ones) being extensive, the harbour of easy access 
and perfectly sheltered. In lai^age of the Celt, Green- 
ock is called 'Gramaig,' the ' sunny bay,-" and such it 
may have been, when, two centuries ago, it became a 
free barony, having in 1635 obtained right to hold fiiirs 
and markets, and such privileges were in 1691 con- 
firmed to the infant town, the lord of the manor having 
signalised himself at Worcester as a partism of the 
royal cause. So slow was the progress of Greenock, 
that it was at Cartsbum, now its snbnrb on the east^ 
whence the ships, fitted out in Renfrewshire, sailed on 
the ill-&ted expedition to the isthmus of Darien. 

Sir John Shaw sought in vain for aid from Parliament 
to form a harbour at Greenock; but his feuars agreeing 
to pay him a tax of one shilling and fourpence for each 
sack of malt they brewed into ale, construction of a har- 
bour was undertaken in 1707 and completed in 1710, 
at a cost of £5,000 — a large sum when the Darien scheme 
had brought Scotland to the verge of ruin, In 1740, the 
hftrboui trust of Greenock had a surplus of ;£1,500; and 
in 1833, the report of the Parliamentary eommissionera 
informs us that 'affairs in Greenock were flonriBhing, 
L,-., Google 

.] DESCRIBED, 221 

ably managed, ezpendltoie moderate, remoneTation to 
serraBta just, and accoimta clear and acciu&te.' 

In 1710, a cuBtomhouae, subordinate to tbat of Port- 
Glaagow, was oatablished at Greenock ; and in 1719, the 
merchanta despatched their first abip to the American 
colonies. The trade of the port is now vast. Greenock 
has long held a high reputation on the Clyde for its 
shipbuilding and engineering establishments; Caiid, 
Scott, Steele, and others, dividing the profits of that 
branch of industry with the Kapiers and other eminent 
firms in Glasgov, Dnmbarton, and Beoftew. In 1696, 
the town is returned aa containing under 1,700 soula. 
The census of 1861 shows the population to be 42,098 ; 
corporation revenue £60,730; constituency 1,871. It 
waa made a Parliamentuy burgh by the E^orm Act 
of 1833, and sends one Member to Parliament As 
a port, Greenock has been distanced in the race for 
wraith, by its rival (Glasgow), on the upper Clyde. 

The burgh of ForUila^ow, and the ancient village 
of Gourock, are — the first some two miles by railway 
east of Greenock; the latter at present, by road or 1:^ 
water, as far to the west. Lord Brougham gave no 
small offence when, addressing the 'bodies' of Paisley, 
he informed them that they occupied a western suburb 
of Glasgow. The accomplished speaker had gone from 
attending a meeting of Uie British Aseociation in the 
College of Glasgow, was driven vest in the carriage of 
an ex-Provost — a civic baronet; and the aged lawyer 
may just have waked up iiom a doze when ^e carriage 
rolled over the Cart to the Cross of Paisley. Before a 
continuous line of street unites Tradeston of Glasgow 
with WiUiamsburg of Paisley, the ship-yards and works 
crowding the shore eaatwaid from Greenock to Porb- 
Glasgow, and the villa-like abodes westward, and a con- 
tinuation of these toward Gourock, are likely to make 
Greenock stretch &om the green hills of J^malcolm 
L,-., Google 

222 BCOTLABD [Grtmoei. 

on the east, to the Bmooth braea of Inverkip on the 
west— Port-Glasgow having been cat out of the former, 
(md Gonrock out of the latter parish. 

Abore and below the town of Greenock the hills 
an (^ no great height, but press close on the river 
Clyde, iea™^ bat email apace for houae-building pur- 
poses. Hence, the well-paid artizans of Greenock are 
miserablr domiciled; and the fever rate in the vensels 
there is higher than in the wynds of Glasgow or ths 
closes of Edinburgh — the text that 'cleanlinesB is next 
to godlineaa' havii^ apparently small weight there, 
among the labouring classea gathered firom the Hebri- 
dean ialea of Scotland and the ruder parts of Iteland. 
The rain-fall in Greenock is great, and the complexion 
of the ladies is fair. 'Does it rain always in Greenockf 
inquired a visitor — 'Na,' replied the native, 'itaome- 
timea snaws.' The reservoir on the hillB on the S.W. 
gives a &ii supply of water; and the frith of Clyde 
being so sear by, the tonn should be healthy, but it 
is notoriously otherwise. The seafaring population find 
too many harpies and crimps in Drummer's-cloee to 
waste their wt^es, and with whom to melt their advance 
notes;- — to find a remedy for such ills it should ' grieve' 
their chief m^istxate until such be discovered. 

&B a town, Greenock has little to attract the tourist, 
the Well Park, the Cemetery, and the Cuatomhouse- 
quay excepted; and to get at the latter by the East- 
quay lane is, in sight and smell, not over-tempting the 
run being a sharp one from trun to steamer, or vice 
versa, and the let^th too short and the lane too narrow 
to charter a cab — so that the plan in progreee of the 
Caledonian Railway carrying its tourist trafEo to the 
quay of Gourock is a move in the r^ht direction. 

The town of Greenock is notably prospering in ship- 
building, sugar-refinii^, and other maritime connec- 
tions; and tile hotels, althou^ their coffee-rooms widaly 


SamOion.] DESCBIBED. 323 

differ from those at the Trossacha, Oban, BaUschuIiah, 
Bnemoi, or Blair-Athole; yet the snuggeries within 
ioora are inviting to the we^thy Hhipmasters who havs 
cwt anchor for life in the pracincte of Greenock; and 
they ace excellent cuetomeM, the keepers of houaee for 
theii •atertainment T"ftl(ing a good thing of it^ as at 
least did the keeper of the good old hoose over the way, 
and not f&r irow. the railway station — bat in ft town 
where liquor is in demand, it does seema a little strange 
that tJie second of the hotels should this season have 
&llen into the hands of a lady teetotaler! 

Of the rise, progreea, and prospects of the town of 
Greenock, figures in abundance might be quoted, but 
not being within the scope of these topograhic pages, 
titkey are eechewedj and this article ma; be closed by 
commending to Uie notice of the tourist who finds tJie 
town on his route— it may be, waiting until the lona 
receives the mail-hags from England — to look across 
the frith to the white houses of Helensburgh; the lofty 
Ben-Lomond beyond them; the wooded domaims of 
Soseneath on the N.W.; the high hill of Snocklarrel, 
aboFe Loch-Long, and beyond Ardentinny; the rugged 
outline of 'Aisle's Bowlii^-green,' neat Loch-Goil; 
the Finnart hilts, above Kilmun; the crowd of vessels, 
flteamera and others, lying at tbe Tail-of-tho-Bank out- 
aide, and those rounding the Battery Point to the west, 
the latter in haste to cateh ihe train, and the 'racing 
and ehaaing' is sad — as poor Park the poet had it — 
that takes place between the Customhouse-quay of 
Gre^iock and the station, within half-e^mile to the south 
— and reached by a lane in no respects beautiful 

HuuLTON, BoTHWEiLi., Blaniyre, ou the river Clyde, 
aire eight, nine, ten miles southward from Glasgow, and 
in guide-books described as being in the enviiona— -su- 
burbs they are not likely to become, as tiiey lie eaatwaid. 

L,-., Google 

224 SCOTLAND [ITamilton. 

Hamilton ia the chief town in the Middle Ward of 
LanarkBhire. The county courta are held there; and 
it is a bni^h of the Beform Bill era, although how it 
escaped being made such when Charles I. and 11. were 
so liberal in their distribution of these honours seems 
strange, as the noble &mily of Hamilton, soffered se- 
veiely in the civil ware, the head of the honee suffering 
on the block for his adherence to their cause. 

The population of Hamilton was, iir 1861, 10,688; 
constituency, 404; revenne, j£l,176; and when the 
sewing of muslins was prosperous, the maids of the die- 
trict were so employed, and profitably. The locality is 
one of the richest in the west of Scotland, at the foot 
of Clydesdale proper; the sites for mansions are fine, 
and well occupied, society being good; cavalry barracks 
are there; and coal is abundant in theWiahaw district, 
which lies a little way east, and iron-works where 
money has of late years been lai^ly made. 

To the tourist, the attraction of Hamilton is the 
Palace of the noble fam ily of that name, the premier 
dukes of Scotland, the iamily having been settled there 
for centuries past, and showing largely in the annals of 
Scotland. The domain suiroiinding the Palace is ex- 
tensive, much admired, and visited that the herd of the 
wild cattle of Caledonia kept within the preserves may 
he seen. The antiquarian, literaty, and artistic trea- 
sures garnered up at the magnificent Palace of the Duke 
of Hamilton well merit notice; and in the town che^ 
descriptive guides may be had. 

Botiiwell, the ancient abode and domain of the Black 
Douglases, the heroic nobles of the wars of Scottish 
independence, is within a couple of miles of Hamilton, 
lower down the Clyde, and reached by the bridge, altered 
only in being made wider, whereon the final stm^le 
of the Covenanters of Scothind took place, the incidents 
of which are bo vividly depicted in the pages of ' Old 

ffauiek.'] DESCMBED. 225 

Mortality,' by the author of W&Tc.rley. A hotel, in all 
respecte superior, has been teceatly erected here; aad 
for pitHiic portiee or honeymooa aojoumera it is most 
cor<&ally recommended. 

Blautyie Priory, farther down the river, is another 
point of interest, and much viaited; access by railway 
to Hamilton and the diBtiict near it being at frequent 
interrala and at moderate fares. 

Hawioz, Jedburgh, Ebuo, on the border of the 
Tweed, and tinder the Cheviot hills, deserve notice; 
and, altliongh different in character, are grouped toge- 
tfa«, as being all on the Korth British Eailway, and 
sear ' the Land of Scott,' the district made famous by 
the poetic and prose writings of the gifted novelist. 

Neither Hawick nor Kelso have risen to the rank of 
being Parliamentiu-y burghs, although the former has 
long prospered in the woollen industry of the south of 
Scotland, and the latter, in the richest strath of Uie 
lower course of the Tweed, is one of the most infloen- 
tial of the grain macketa of the fertile district 

Jedburgh, in the earlier annals of Scotland, was one 
of the bulwai^ foriiresees of the eastern border, and 
tiguies frequently in the sieges and storms of those 
days, when it went hard with the North Britons to 
escape subjugation by their brothers of the South. 
Jedbuigh has a charter from David I.; population, 
3,428; constituency, 174; and revenue, £29. What 
may more interest the stranger is the ruined Abbey, 
founded in the twelfth century, but tradition says 
on the site of one placed there two hundred years 
before. The castle of Jedburgh was one of the strongest 
in Scotland; and Surrey in 1623 reported to Henry 
VIII. that 'there are two times more houses than in 
Berwick, and well huilded.' When wars had ceased, 
-and tlie kii^^doms became united, Jedburgh waned in 
' ,Goo>;Ic 

226 SCOTLAND [Samde. 

importance, but, as being tbe shire town of the conntj 
of Boxburgh, and the conrts held there, it has still 
veight on the botdera. Tbe site of the ancient castle 
of Jedbui^ is occupied by the jeuI for the county; the 
building is an extenaiTe and imposing one, and the view 
from its castellated walls wide and beautifiiL 

Hawick, on the Slitrig water, where it flowa into the 
Teviot, is a town of growing importance, the etock- 
ing-weavers chiefly, and others employed there, being 
notable for their advocacy of liberal opinions; while 
their maeteni, the manufacturers, are known to be an 
enterprising and prosperous set of men, who have done 
much to improve the district. Coal not being found 
in the neighbourhood was a great bar to manufacturing 
prosperity, but tbe railways which now traverse Teviot 
dale supply tbe mineral in abundance &om the fields of 
Northumberland, or from those of Eskdale on the west. 
On tbe old coach road &om Carlisle, Hawick was one 
stage from Jedburgh and two from Kelso; and the 
rout« south by Mosspaul, though a bare one, was full 
of mOBstrooping anecdotes, which the debateable land 
lying under the Cheviots, on the straths of Teviotdale 
and Liddesdale, and the minstrelsy of the Scottish bor- 
ders, make many of the localities familiar to those who 
prize the poetry and prose of Sir Walter Scott. 

Kelso is on the northern bank of the Tweed, not 
far from Fleura Castle, the abode of the- Duke of 
Koxbnrgh, and is a well-built town, in a situation 
more healthy in appearance than in reality— the 
broad river being too near, and tbe town lying low. 
'ITie junction of the Teviot and the Tweed is a short 
way west of Kelso, which, although not the connty 
town, is the most popidous in Roxburghshire. 

Races take place annually at Kelso — the Caledonian 
Hunt sometimes meets there ; newspapers are published 
in tbe town; ^e district ia of the richest;^ and while 
L,-,, Cookie 

Hdeneburgh.] DESCEIBED. 227 

the coach roates to the south hy Coldatiaam for New- 
castle, or by Hawick for Carlisle, made it of easy access 
to the traveller in days of old, it has now its fair share 
of railway accommodation, the line for Berwick-on- 
Tweed, by Norbam Caatle and the 'Field of Flodden,' 
having its terminus across the Tweed at Kelso. 

The Abbey of Kelso wsa founded in 1128 by 
David I., who — if a 'sair saint to the crown' ia the 
eyes of James VI., his pedaatic successor— did much 
for the secular adyautc^e of his people, as protection 
was oft^i better found near the Abbey than under the 
castle wall, when the anathema of the priest was more 
feared than the brand of the baron. Of the massive 
church which stood at Kelso, and the abbot of which 
was scarce second in power to the bishops of the king- 
dom, the great centie tower and one of the transepts 
remain, the arches which support the lantern under 
the great tower being much admired. 

HBLBNeBDRGH — KvLEB 07 BuTB. — A Conjunction of 
places which, until this season, would not have been 
thought of; but, for reasons to be given, they are now 
on lie same route for the tourist, and may be fidrly 
booked for one article in this series of topographic 
sketehos, specially meant to aid the tourist in traversing 
Scotland, and to point out how 'best to do it^' and 
where he may most agreeably sojourn on the way. 

Helensburgh (by railway 24 miles from Glasgow, 
69 from Edinbiugh, and by water little more than i 
from Greenock) is ecclesiastically in the parish of Row, 
a district in the shire of Dumbarton, north of the 
frith of Clyde, east of the Gare-Loch, and with Loch- 
Long on the west. A century ago Helensburgh had no 
place in the county map, as it was 1777 before Colqu- 
houn of that ilk bethought himself of turning part of 
hia lands on the Clyde to account by founding a village, 

328 SCOTLAND iHelenOurgh. 

fenii^ off his acres, and callmg it Helensboigh — Helen 
being tihe name of Lady Colquhoim. 

In 1803, the viUs^ had thiiven bo well ihat it wai 
oonstitntod a burgh of barony, with a proroet, two 
bailiea, eight councillors, a jail, ami all the etcetene of 
municipal management. Moreover, besides the chapel 
or church subordinate to the parochial one at Bow, 
there are two Free ohurchea, one United Preahyterian 
congregatiotj, an Episcopalian chapel, with Indepen- 
dent and Baptist meeting-houses. Cbambers, in his 
Gazetteer, estimates the population of Helensbni^ as 
600 in 1821 ; by the craisua of 1861, it was reported as 
4,749 ; and may now be estimated as little under 6,000. 
The Clydesdale and Union Banks hare branch offices in 
the town, which boasts also of a gas company, tel^^ph 
office, public cemetery, two libtaries, a choral onion, an 
^^cnltuial and a hoiticultuial sociefy, with debating 
and literary societies, and other means of improvement, 
showing enterprise and progress on the part of, the 
resident population and rendering the place attractive 
to summer viaitois. There are chamung walks and 
drives westward by the Gare-Loch, eastward by CardroBB, 
and northward to Luss, on Loch-Lomond; while eteunera 
cross theClyde to Greenock frequently, at very low &res, 
and also up the Qare-Loch to itoseneath, — the walk 
thence to Loch-Long is a short one, the view of the 
frith being alike extensive and varied. 

From the promenade, in front of the shops and houses 
which line the beach, the outlook is interesting, across 
the Clyde to the busy town of Greenock; while the 
' Tail-of-the-Bank,' in the near distance, is the anchorage 
ground of deep^ea steamers and ships 'waiting a wind,' 
brfoie proceeding on their long voyages, which, with 
the crowd of fleet passenger steamers moving up and 
down the river, make the view one of animation and 
eves^varying interest. 

L,-., Google 

UdeTwburgTt.] DESCRIBED. 229 

The Queen's Hotel was loi^ known as the Baths of 
Helensbuigh, the house for many years being kept 
open by the celebrated Henry Bell, who died in 
MATch 1830, and maintained aa a hotel for more than 
twen^ years after his death by hie widow. Henry 
Bell was buried in the kirk-yard of Row, where a statue 
was placed In 1851 to his honour. Here also may be 
seen a tablet to the memory of Captain Bain, who 
navigated the Comet, the first steam-Teasel in Great 
Ikitain, built at Port-Glasgow in 1812, and wrecked 
off the Duris-More, Loch-Crinan, ia 1824. 

The North British Railway (that '^iggreasive com- 
pany,' as their modest opponent the Caledonian terms 
them), in acquiring -the lines long known as those of 
the Edinburgh & Glasgow, became proprietors of the 
extension to Loch-Lomoad and to Helensburgh. To 
develope the resources of the latter line they seem in 
earnest, having this season placed a fleet of steamers on 
the station, only a little smaUer than the lona, which 
ia of European reputation as being a floating palace. 
Indeed, the 'MegMerrilees' and the 'Dandie Dinmont,' 
on the Rothesay and Ardrishaig and Kyles of Bute 
station, threaten to hold their own. 'Dinmont' of 
' Guy Mannering,' with his dogs ' Pepper' and 'iSalt,' 
kept the 'crown of the causewa/ in modem Athens; 
and if the paddles of M^ 'move merrily' enoi^^ the 
tourist booked through by the North British system 
of railways will have no reason to complain of electing 
to travel westward without change of carriage, moving 
of luggage, or the other annoyances of travel, the 
advant^e of bookii^; through to Bute or Loch-Fyne 
being conducive to the comfort and equanimity of the. 
traveller. By the Helensburgh route the tourist gets 
on irom Edinburgh to Oban in one day's travel 

At the first-class stations of the railways in Fiance, 
a party is to be seen with a cap labelled ' This man 

230 SCOTLAND [Helensburgh. 

spieoka English.' If the handsome and magnificeatlf 
ftppointed steamers on the great routes westward, irom 
either side, had an official aboard whose special duty 
it was to instruct as to the beauties of ^e eections of 
the 'laud of the moimtain and flood' th^ swept 
through, it might be an advantage; but as this is not 
yet t^e case on the line from Helensburgh to Ar- 
drishaig, the attractioos of that route will form the 
matter of the remainder of this aiticle. 

The ti«in arrived and luggage aboard, little time 
is lost in casting off from the pier — for is not the rival 
steamer ' blowing away ' across the Clyde, waiting the 
advent of the mail train from the souUi— -ihat steamer 
being subsidised for cariying the letters west) 

The steamer moving on, one glance may be taken 
np the Gare-Loch to the right, another on Ben-Lomond 
in the distance, and it may be a look up the river - 
towards the rock of Dimilmrton; for a few minutes 
brings the steamer abreast of the finely wooded domains 
of Roseneath Castle, built in the Italian style, 184 feet 
in length, 121 in breadth, with a tower 90 feet in height, 
and occupying the site of their 'Eastern House,' an 
ancient castellated abode of the Dukes of Argyle, which 
was totally destroyed by fire in 1802. 

South of the Clyde are the cemetery and west-end 
streets of Greenock, the Sailors' Home on the slope of 
the hill, the Battery below it, the bay and town of 
Gourock, with Ashten to the west — the latter a line of 
villa-like abodes on the shore of the Clyde 

On the north is Kilcreggan, a watering-place rapidly 
growii^, just west of the poHcies of Roseneath Castle; 
and the line of buildings extending te Cove is nearly 
continuous. Roseneath is the parish of which Butler, 
the husband of Jeanie Deans, is drawn as having been 
the minister; and Cove (the shore line is full of caves) 
as the place where the smugglers encounteisd the. faus- 

ffdentburuh] DESCEIBED. 231 

band of Effle Deaits, and WListler, the wild youth who 
knew not it wae his father againat whom his gun was 
pointed- Loch-Long runs upwards to within a couple 
of miles of Loch-Lomond, the neck of land between 
Arrochar and Tarbet being within that distance. 

A few miles up Loch-Goil is the picturesque hamlet 
of Ardentinny, 'the sweet lass o' Arenteenie' being a 
popular song in Scotland. Nearer the frith of Clyde 
are the rapidly increasing vOlas on the Blairmore 
shore; and on the stony point is Stione {such places 
sa the latter are so named in Gaelic), on S. E. point of 
the Holy-Loch, with handsome houses and a couple of 
churches. Looking northward is the Holy-Loch, with 
the Tillage t)f Kilmun at its head, in the parish choreh- 
yard of which is a vault, the burial-place of the Ducal 
family of Argyle. On the western side of the Holy- 
Loch is the populous village of Sandbank. On the 
S, W. horn of the Holy-Loch is the mansion aad domain 
of Hunter of Haftou, the estate not eo extensive, as the 
aciea are valuable aa feuing ground. Hunter's Quay is 
close at hand; and a little fiirther is the pier of Kim, 
a thriving ofiahoot of Dunoon, which is soon reached. 
Dunoon is the most populous of the sea-hathing villages in 
Argylesiure,andhas a place in Scottish story, the ancient 
Castle, which crowned the green mount near the pier, 
having been a royal abode in the days of Robert the 
Bruce. At Dunoon pier, a coach, in all respects well 
appointed, waits the arrival of the steamer, to convey, by 
Loch-Eck, Strachur, and Loeh-Fyne to Inveraray, such 
tourista as are booked for that moat attractive of routes, 
which leads onwards to Innistrynich, near Cladich on 
Loch-Awe; and it may be well to know that tourists, 
before starting, should 'book through,' that places may 
be kept for them. The shore, &om Dunoon westwanl 
to Imiellan, ia covered with houses and grounds of a 
character higher than men sea-side abodes. 

232 SCOTLAND [H^maburgh. 

Across the frjtt ie the Cloch lighthouse; farther west, 
the policies of Ardgowan and the maoaion of Sir Michael 
Shaw Stewart; inland is the ancient village of Inverkip; 
and weetward the fine villas of WemysB-Bay, with the 
railway fiom Glasgow, competing for the trafiie of the 
lower Clyde, with the lines debouching at Greenock and 
Helensbui^h. Westward of Wemyss-Bay is Skelmorlie; 
farther on, the entrance into the bay of Largs, Faiiiie, 
and Millport on the larger Cnmbrae, Soawani runs the 
fair-way between the isles of Bute and Cumbtaa. 

Passing the stone pier of Innellan (a free one). Toward 
point ie soon rounded, and the bay of Kothesay entered. 
On the sonth are the policies around Mount-Stuart, the 
mansion of the Marquis of Bute, with the line of houses 
from Ascog to the ancient town of Eothesay, where the 
steamer touches. The domain of Toward Castle lies on 
the right; the hamlet of Eameaburgh or Port-Bannatyne 
on the loft; Loch-Striven leads norQiwardi and the finely 
placed mansion of Soutbfaall rises on the hill-side, 
where the £yles of Bute are entered. This most pic- 
turesque of scenery is irom east to west little more than 
ten miles; but the channel, olthot^h safe and deep, 
is in some places so tortuous and narrow that the 
steamer seems as steered stem on for the islets ahead. 
The little cluster, scarce rising above the level of the 
waters, are known as 'the Burnt Isles;' and CoLntroive 
wooden pier being passed, Loch-Ridden opens out on 
the right, within which are the ruins of the castle of 
Kilangherig on an islet ahead, and known in the annals 
of Scotland as the fortress in which the Duke of Argyle 
placed his stores when, in conjunction with Monmouth, 
he rose in rebellion against James II. of England. 
North Bute lies on the right; and on the left are the 
pier and picturesque villas of Tighuabruioh, a locality 
in high repute for picnic parties, and, being secluded, 
of growing repute as a watering-place. . 

L,-., Google 

nOenaburgh.] DESCRIBED. 233 

The extensive powder -tnills of Eames an a short 
vray to the west, on the Tighnahniich shore; on the 
south is the small island of Inchmamock, off Bute, 
the Boand of Bute, and the Island of Anan, Loch- 
Ranza, where Bmee, as told in the 'Lord of the Islee,' 
landed in his progress for the Kirk of St Bryde, Bro- 
dick Castle, Tnmheiry point, tmd— for Eannockhnm. 

On the west is the sound of Kilbrannan, the sea-way 
for Campbeltown in Cantjre; and on the 8. £. horn of 
Loch-f yne is the castle of Skipnees, on the long penin- 
sula of Cantyre. From Skipnees to Ardkinglass, above 
Inveraray, Loch-Fyne is little short of fif^ miles in 
length; and if any sea be found trying to the stomach 
of the toniist, rounding the point of Ardlamont 
and steering into Looh-Fyne, is the place to ' cast np 
accoimte.' The shore from right to left has little to 
attract until the narrow entrance into Tarhert is reached; 
and there, across the rocky ridge, less than one mile in 
width, lies the western sea. Knapdale, as the district 
above l^bert is named, improves in appearance* as 
Ardrishaig is neared^ — the latter place being whei« the 
Crinan Cuial opens into Loch-Fyne; and, if an hour or 
two can be spared, the walk by the banks of the canal, 
and Loch-Gilp to Loch-Gilphead, is a fine one. 

Parties booked for Oban £ud a coach la waiting for 
them by the pass at U elfort, a most attractive route ; or 
if more than there is room for, the s. s. Linnet may 
take them by the canal, Crinan, and Easdale to Oban, 
At Ardrishaig, another candidate for tourist favonr 
appears in the conveyance to Fordon, Loch-Awe, 
thence by steamer to Port-Sonachan, the pass of Awe, 
Taynnilt, and Oban. Another ix^ch also awaifa the 
tourist, conveying by Lochgilphead, Minaid, Crarae, 
Fumess, to the norUiem shore of Looh-Fyne, the Dhn- 
glasB water, the town of Inveru^y, and tjie Argyls 
hotel, at the gate to the castle of AJgyle. 

234 ■ SCOTLAND [Inverarap. 

INTIIRARA.T, on the uppier readies of Loch-Fyne, ii 

one of the moat attractive localities in the inland 
district of the Western Highlands of Scotland; and 
that it is ao may be inferred from the many ways of 
approaching it which are open to the tourist in the 
Beaaon, — coaches running through 'Hell's glen' from 
Lochgoilhead, in connection with the eteamei there; 
from Loch-Lomond by Glencroe and Caimdow; &om 
Dunoon by Strachur; from Ardrishaig and Lochgilp- 
head, by the northern shore of the loch; and &om 
Oban by Dalmally, or by steamer on Loch-Awe, and 
coach in connection, &om Innistrynich, Cladich. 

Pennant, in hiB Tour thiongh Sootknd, nearly a cen- 
tury ago, gives a view of the castle of Inveraray, then a 
recent erection; and the frontispiece to Ms third volume 
is a repreaentation of the bridge across the river Amy 
at its confluence with Loch-Fyne, one of General Wade's 
structures, narrow, steep, and strong, built there, was swept 
away by a storm, and replaced by the one represented. 
Pennant describes Inveraray as 'seated on a small but 
beautiful plain.' The old town stood within the shadow 
of the old castle of the Dukes of Ai^Ib. on the Inver 
of the rivor Ajay, which was removed when the present 
mansion was erect«d ; the modem town beii^ apparently 
'built to order,' aa it mainly consists of one broad street, 
with houses of a height unusual in a country locality, 
nothing village-like in character, not even in the acehi- 
tecture, but ell made of low-windowed fronts, daubed 
with lime, with access chiefly by heavy stone stairs in the 
rear; closes at regular distances give passages, and &o 
humid climate making them greenish-like. 

In the centre of t£e town is a square, half-filled by 
the church of the parish, the charge being a collegiate one, 
and the services taking place in Gaelic and in English. 
Being (a few long-leased holdings excepted) all the 
property of the noble family of Atgyle, mattere social 

Itweraray.] DESCEIBED. 235 

are veil looked to in the 'ancient baigh' of Aig^le, 
publiG-lioiiBes being scarcely tolerated, the hotel close by 
the castle gate, another of more moderate pretenaions 
near the t^urch steeple, aad a third adjacent to the 
jail, supplying ample accommodation for the visitors. 
Private lodgings may also be had; and the place is one 
of pleasant resort, the walks being beautiful, and tiie 
policies of the castle liberally laid open to the respec- 
table public. From the base of Benbuie, above Glen- 
shira on the east, to the great granite quarries of 
Fumess, above Loch-Fyne on the west, is a delightful 
diive of nearly twenty miles, open to the public, and 
with ombisgeous beech trees meeting overhead. The 
woods on the Inveraray domains are munificent — 
beech, oak, ebn, lime trees, all in rich profusion in 
their season; and on the road through the policies 
&om Loch-Awe are some of the largest and finest larch 
t3«ea to be seen anywhere in Scotland. 

The castle of the Duke of Argyle, at Inveraray, the 
chief point of attraction to the visitor, was built in 1745 
by Duke Archibald, a leading statesman of his day. The 
stone, of a blue shade, was quarried at St. Catherine's, 
across Loch-Fyne; it is durable, and resists well the 
action of the weather. Built &om a design by the elder 
Adam, the structure is quadrangular, castellated, with 
a round tower at each comer, and a paviUion-like 
cupola rising high above the turrets, throwing light 
upon the entrance-hall below and the flights of stairs 
which penetrate the building. In the great hall are 
ranged, in fine taste, the dirks, claymores, shields, and 
muskets, borne by the Campbells on the field of 
Culloden, with many another piece of armour worn 
in the feudal struggles of earlier dates in the annals 
of Scotland. The Macallum-Hore have for centuries 
past played an important part in the wara of their 
country — theii muster in 1746 having been near ono- 
L,-., Google 

236 SCOTLAND [Inveraray. 

tenth of all the clans which the House of Hanover could 
count apon as being for them — or not against them. 

InvOTaray Castle is described by a recent topographer 
as a modem equate ediiice, with a tower at each comer, 
erected on an extensive lawn, between the lake and 
a lofty range of crowded mountains. All travellers 
speak with rapture of the beauty of the scenery around 
InvOTsray Castle, as well as of the splendour of its in- 
terior decorations. The I)ukes of Ai^le are said to 
have spent no less than £300,000 in building, plant- 
ing, improving, mafadi^ roads, &0. 

In tiie 'legend of Montrose' the great novelist 
deecribes the feudal abode of the Duke of Ai^le of 
that day 'as being a noble old Gothic castle, with its 
varied outline, embattled walls, and outer and inner 
courta' — 'with those dark woods which, for many a 
mile around, surround the strong and princely dwell* 
ing;" while 'the picturesque height of Duniquoich, 
starting abruptly &om the lake, and raising its scathed 
brow into the mists of middle sky, with a solitary watch- 
tower perched on its top like an eagle's nest, gave 
dignity to the scene, by awakening a sense of possible 
danger.' As Dalgetty approached this castle, the 
novelist describes ' a rude gibbet on which hung five 
dead bodies; two, from their dress, seemed to have been 
Lowlanders, and the other three corpses muffed in 
their Highland plaids '--~a spectacle apparently of too 
ordinary occurrence in those rude agee. 

The rivOT Aray, for the three last miles of its course 
to Loch-Fyne, is through the woods and the domains 
of Inveraray Castle. On the coach road from Dalmally, 
the Aray water is seen rapidly gathering volume; and, 
a short way after it has ent«red the fine woods near the 
casUe, there is a series of cascades of great beauty, and 
well seen by a path leading from the highway, and 
which ar« commended to the attention of the tourist. 

Inveran^.] DESCRIBID. 237 

The treee in the park, near the caatle, ate finely dis- 
poaed, aged, lofty; and, from the bridge across the Aray. 
by which the hill of Dimiquoich ie reached, the prospect 
is much admired. The river above and below ie so 
partially dammed, that a fine salmon pool is formed, 
which mokes an excellent preserve for the noblest of fish. 
The wood-crowned sammit of Cuniquoit^ may be. 
reached by s winding carriage-way, or scaled by paths 
tiaced upwards on its &ce ; hut so devioiis are these 
that it is unwise for the stiangei to climb them alone, 
as an instance not long since occutred of a gentleman 
from the south attempting to asc^id the hill without 
a guide — he returned not— was sought for— and found 
cold and dead in the morass eastward. 

Althou^ Duniquoidi is little more than 700 feet 
in height, it rieee so abruptly from the level of Loch- 
Fyne, that it looks more lofty, and the view from its 
' lonely watch tower ' is one of great extent, and for 
beau^, bard to be rivalled elsewhere. Glenshira glen 
to the east, Locb-Dabh, and Bes-Bui, are points of at- 
traction to the visitor; and across the Phnglass water 
is a bridge which the natives declare to be of Bcmon 
architectiue, as they do of one on the road to Crarae; 
but it may be doubted if the legions of Borne pene- 
trated BO far into the western wilds of Caledonia. 

The charts of Inveraray as a buigb dates irom 1 S46, 
population, 1,076; constituency, 36; revenue, £460. It 
is the principal town of Argyleshire, and near the chief 
residence of the Dukes of Uiat name, it is a place of no 
small disbict importance. In Uie leading street, near 
the steamboat pier, ie erected one of the &mous 
crosses brought from lono, of which island,' and those 
near it, the Dukes of Argyle are owners. 

The chief hotel, the Argyle Arms, which spears 
to be almost within the policies, has been recently re- 
novated and le-fomlBhed ; and ' mine host ' well knows 
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238 SCOTLAND [Invemes». 

how to minister to the waute of the worthy. The 
Geoige, near the square, is an old hoiise but a good 
iiUL A new route for the tourist has been opened this 
season, as a well-appointed coach runs by the granite 
quarries of Fumess, Crarae, the policies of Minsnl, and 
Lochgilphead for Ardrishaig, in connection with the 
first-lass steamers that ply on the station from the 
railways at Greenock and at HelensbuTgh, and by it, 
the tonrist availing himself of the ' royal route ' at the 
Crinan Canal may, within the day, reach Baoavie, and 
the Caledonian Canal for Inverness. 

The town of Inveraray is well supplied with water, 
from a spring which weUs out from the monntain-aide, 
& short way to the north-west of the town, and high 
above the houses. The old burial-ground of the town 
and parish is well worth a visit; for centuries past, 
since the practice of carryii^ the chiefs to the hallowed 
shores of lona ceased, they have been laid to rest east- 
ward of the site of the old town of Inveraray, and the 
ground ia full ; the natives going forth in the world to 
push their fortunes, and, if dying far from the shores of 
their Highland birth-place, are carried back to it when 
dead — a hundred corpses in the year being thus brought 
to he interred where their forefathers sleep. 

Invsbnbsb, the capital of the north-east Highlands 
of Scotland, may have been heard of as such by the 
tourist. It is the termination of many routes, and has 
been ever famous in the b-thihIh of Scotland. 

Invemeaa holds its chari^er from William the Lion; 
has a population of 12,609; constituency, 567; and 
revenue in 1863-4 of £2,269. In electing a Member 
of Parliament it is grouped with Forres, Nairn, and 
Fortrose; it is the returning buigh, its votes being more 
than half the number on the Parliamentary roil. 

Inverness is on the 'Inver' of the 'Kese,' where die 

/nwrnflw] DESCEIBED. 239 

river of that name flows into the Beauly fritfa, at the 
head of t^e Moray frith, and near the eastern tennina- 
tion of the Caledonian Canal, which, for 60 miles west- 
ward, traverses Glenmore-nan-Albyn — the great glen of 
Caledonia. Although there is eome ehipping connected 
with the port, and, before railways invaded that dis- 
trict, Bteamers used to ply between the Ness, the Dee, 
the Forth, and the Thames, Lttle trade is now carried 
on beyond the import of eea-bome coal, and export of 
^ricnltuial produce, the latter being considerable. 

'Anderson's Guide to the Highlands' was produced 
in Inverness, and is eloquent on the district, being the 
topographic authority on the wide range of norUiem 
matters it ably and folly treats of. The fine hill which 
rises to no great height above the river Nees and on 
the westward section of the iawj^ has been called the 
'crown', and is known in the annals of Scotland as the 
site of a castle of the 'good king Duncan,' murdered by 
Macbeth (but not there), and where Malcolm Canmore 
('can,' 'head'— 'more,' ' great') slew Macbeth. He 
razed the castle at InTcmeea, erecting a stronger 
stnicture on a lofty eminence on the south. For 
centuries the castle was a royal fortress, resided in at 
times by the rulers of Scotland, and was in 1562 
visited by Mary, Queen of Scots. When William of 
Chwige came to occupy the throne of the Stuarts, the 
clans of the north were so hostile to bis rule that 
the castle of Inverness was strengthened at a cost of 
£50,000. When taken by Charles Edward in 1746 
it was destroyed, the wall of an outer rampart alone 
remaining; and the site ianow covered by the County- 
buildings — -a structure finely placed and beautiful. 

Of the four intrenched camps or forts which Cromwell 

erected to curb the Scots, one occupied the space where 

the Ness flows into the frith; the outline of which is 

not yet eSaoed, but the works wkto destroyed after the 

L,-., Google 

240 SCOTLAND [Inoemat. 

Befltoration of Charlea II., 'hy tlie chieffa in the north, 
tJien Bmarting under the atem sway of tl^ English 
capbtina. During the Commonwealth, PreebyterianiBm 
in the south and west, Episcopalianisin in the east and 
north, and Catholiciam in the north and vest, ail hated 
the Independenl^ — and loved independence. 

As to the scenery in the vicinity of Inveniese, 
M'Colloch declares that 'the frith of Forth must jield 
the palm to the Moray frith — the monntain screens 
are finer, more varied, and more near— everything is 
done that can be effected by wood and cultivation; 
each outlet is different from the others, and each is 
beautiful; the characterietica of a rich open Lowland 
country are combined with those of the wildest Alpine 
scene^; both are «lose at hand, and in many places 
intermixed; while to all is added a seriea of maritime 
landscapes not often equalled.' On the southem aide 
of the town there is a terraced bank about 100 feet 
hi^ richly wooded, covered with villas, and whence 
tl^ view seaward is extensive and grand. 

In 1686 a atone bridge, seven arches in extent, and 
a iriumph of architectuie in its day, crossed the rive; 
Nese, uniting the numerous streets, chiefly of small 
housea, with tiie town proper. Within one of the aiches 
was a apace, live or six feet square, used for the confine- 
ment of ciindnala and lunatics of the district, lighted 
by one aperture; and thia miserable den was only disused 
at the beginning of this century, when the half-insane 
prisoner locked in there overnight was in the morning 
found dead — eaten up by rats. About twenty years 
^o the old bridge was destroyed by a flood or spate of 
the Ness, and the site ia now occupied by a broad and 
strong suepeneion brii^e. Farther down the river, and 
above the harbour, is a broad and long bridge of wood, 
less liable to be destroyed by the floods, as the river 
then ia wider, the bonks lower, and eecape for the 
L,.,, Google 

/nprniew.] DESCRIBED. 241 

waters moie ready. Near the latter bridge, that canying 
the railway northward for Eoss-shire spans the riTer. 

There were no highways in the InTemees district 
□ntil those constructed by General Wade opened np 
the Highluids to Lowland civilization; asd the first 
carriage seen in Invemess was that of Earl Seaforth, 
about 1715; the first eb^e-coach reached the town in 
1806; and it was 1819 before the gentlemen of the 
counties of Soss and Sutherland could induce the Fost- 
offioe authorities to nm the ntail-coach to their district 
— before the advent of the railway ; the mail-coach line 
ftom Fahuoath to Thorso — near ihe Laud's End and 
John o' Groat's, was little less than a contimious stretch 
of 1,100 miles. Railways now reach the upper Moray 
fiith; still only one line runs northwards from Elgin 
and onward to Bonar Bridge, at the head of the Dor- 
noch fiith; thtoice the mail-coach runs onwards. 

The palladinm stone of Inverness is not that on 
which princes were crowned, as at Dunstafhage on the 
west, Irat an oblong, bine, losenge-shaped stone, which 
formerly stood in &e middle of the BUgh-street, but is 
now placed in front of the Town-house, set in a cirele 
of sand stones, called Glach-na-cludin, and useful of old 
for the maidens of l^e town to rest at, when carrying 
water from the river, which they did in tuba suspended 
from a pole carried on the shoulders of two. This stone 
marked the cross of the burgh, where proclamations 
were made, and other municipal matters transacted. 

As a town, some of the streets are broad, hand- 
some, and finely built over; the shops, many of tiiem, 
do a large business; and a draper trades there who 
appears to have a thorough belief in the benefits of 
continned and extensive advertisii^ — and long may 
' Mac ' prosper. Recently, a street, short but magni- 
ficently built, runs from the railway station to Church- 
stieet, above the river, and whece, in coaching dayi, 

242 SCOTLiND [Ima. 

the chief hotel of the town stood. It b atdll there, 
but the trade is now largely divided by the ' Station 
hotel,' where the tourist can leave his cushioned car- 
riage, and walk under cover into the carpeted coffee- 
room. The ' Union,' in High-frtTeet,was specially boilt 
some yeare ago as a hotel, and is la^;ely patronised by 
the oomntercial community; while the teetotalers now 
find refuge at the Waverley, Other houses thete are, of 
all grodes aud at all scales of chaises. 

^e enTiions of luvemeBa are 'attractive, and in the 
larger hotels cards may be had showing how beet to visit 
sudi, the 'moor of Culloden' included, while guides 
abound in the burghj and to saoh our readers are referred. 

loHA and Staffa are aoceasible to the tourist, in 
the summer months, by the steamer Mountaineer, one 
of the best of the Hutcheson line, and for years known 
as such on Loch-Linnhe iu summer, and the Clyde in 
autumn. The steamer starts early, but those going 
by her need have no fear that all the 'creatuie comforts' 
they may desire will be well found for them, the 
stewardship arrangements of these steamers having 
ever been in all details superexcellent 

As the weather may render advisable, the steamer 
holds westward by the Sound of Mull, or southward 
by that of Kerrera — the whole day being usually con- 
Bumed in the run. Selecting the first-named route, 
the steamer sweeps past the ruined keep of Dunolly, 
leaving Dunstafiiiags, Loch-£tive, lismore, and Appin 
astern. The route to the northward is by Loch- 
Linnhe for the Caledonian Canal, that southward is 
by Kertera for the Crinau Canal, the coast being 
well lighted throi^hout, and year by year more ao, 
as the stream of travel and trade grows steadily. The 
Lady Bock, with its legend of 'Glenara! Glcnara! now 
read me my dream," lies right ahead, off the N.E. coast 

lona.] DE8CEIEET>. 243 

of Mull, and ia at no great distance from the gouthem 
point of Lisinom The tale of the exposure of the lady 
of Duart, of her rescue from the tide-covered rock, her 
removal to the caatle of her brother at Inveraray, of the 
mock funeral ordered by her savage huaband, and the 
apparition of the injured wife to her cruel lord, may be 
Imown to the tourist; but the sequel of the tale may 
be told, as that prompt chastisement by the Campbell 
chief did not fell upon M'Lean, who lived to his 89th 
year, but was then murdered in hie bed, at Edinbuigh, 
by Sir John Campbell of Calder, brother of hia re- 
pudiated wife, and founder of the house of Cawdor. 

The Sound of Mull, measured from Duart Castle on 
Hbs east to Bloody Bay, south of Loch-Sunart, on the 
west, is about twenty miles, varying in breadth from 
two to three miles, and termed in the 'Lord of the 
Isles' 'Mull's dark Sound,' as the mountains on either 
aide throw their shadows heavily across; but in the 
early day, or near the setting sun, the expanse of 
waters is beautiful, the channel deep throughout, 
the islands few and small, the shores picturesque, 
varied in outline, and the sweeping bay-like inden- 
tations frequent. The bulk of Braimore — i e., the 
'great mount'- — in MuU, is to the left; that of Morven 
(file Highland parish of 'Good Words') on the right, 
close on the shore; while many of the bold headl^ids 
are crowned with ruined keeps of those chiefs of ' Cale- 
donia, stem and wild,' raised when warfare was the 
pastime of her princes; and rapine, by sea or land, the 
means of living pursuwl by those tiiey ruled over — the 
former being '^ur array'd, with brogue and bonnet, 
trews and plaid;' for arms, 'the d^ger, sword, the bow 
and spear;' their serfe ' had goatst^as or deerhides o'er 
them cast; their arms, and feet, and hands were bare; 
matted their heads, unshorn their hair; for arms, the 
caitiffs bore in hand a club, an axe, a rusty biand.' , , 

24i SQOTLAND [Zona. 

Dnart Castle, a seat of the U'Leans, lies to the 
S.W. of the Lady Rock, on the N. E. promontory of 
the iBland of MuU, and commands the entrance to the 
sound. From its rained walls a picturesque view is 
gained 'of cliff and shore which breakers lave; of 
stately tower and ruins giey; of moat and island, glen 
and bay; Jura's fair bosom, formed and fall; the dark 
and shapelesa groups of Miill; aad blue Cruachan, 
bold and riven, in everlasting war with heaven.' 
The castle stands high, accessible from the sea only, 
and that approach was guarded well by poet«rn, port- 
cullis, and barbican. The walls are on two sides 14, 
on the others 10 feet, in tte area within 44 feet 
by 22. Duart may have been as old as Dunolly or 
Gylen; butadditions to the old keep appear to have been 
mitde, as a lintel of the door bears the date of 1663, with 
&e cieet of the M'Leans, Lords of HuU. 

^rdtornish Castle lies a few miles west from Duart, 
across the sound, and on the Morven diore; but the 
ruins show little more than a square tower, althou^ 
the place must have been at one time extensive, as 
within its walla the ' Lords of the Isles ' held their 
councils of war, which ruled the chiefs there met 'from 
mainland and from isle — Ross, Arran, Islay, and 
Aigyle;' where they found, 'hewn in the rock, a pass£^ 
that— fio strait, ao high, so steep, one valiant hand 
might well the diizy pass have mann'd 'gainst hundreds 
armed with spear and brand.' Dunstafih^e was held 
by the Macdougals, Dnart by the M'Leana, and Ardtor- 
nish by the Macdonalds of Islay and Skya 

The northern shores of the sound of Mull, known 
aa Morreu, are irrEgular in surface, poor in soQ, and 
indented by Loch-Aline, which runs inland, nearly 
opposite to Aios Bay, with scenery beautiful towaida 
the top, and a castle of vast strength, sacked by Col- 
i^uitto, who made wild work among t^ese castles. 

lona] DESCRIBED. 245 

Aioa Caatle is another classic site on 'Mull's dark 
sound,' and 'Moireu's swart shores;' it crowns a lofty 
promontor}', bat the tower, oblong in form, 40 feet 
in height, and strong, consists of only one ball on each 
floor; scant accommodation this for 'Bonald from many 
a hero sprang — Lord of the Islee, whose lofty name a 
thousand bards have given to fame, the mate of mon- 
aichs, and allied on equal terms with England's pride.' 
A charter exists, dated from Aros, by Bruce, bestowing 
on Macdonald broad lands in Ardnamurchan for the aid 
aid rendered him at Bannockbum, where the motto of 
the clan was von — 'Hy faith is ateadiast in thee,' as 
the Scottish prince exclaimed when the clan, ' in plaid 
all arrayed,' swept down on the Kvigliah squadrons. 

From the classic bay of Aros, Benmoie, the moun- 
tain of Mull, 3,000 feet high, shows well; it is rugged, 
but not hard to climb, and yields a splendid view 
of the Hebridean archipelago, &om 'green Islay'a 
fertile shore,' to 'the misty hilla of Skye,' As an 
island. Mull is lit^e inferior in size to Skye and Islay; 
it has a coast line of 300 miles; inland it is rugged; 
acreage above 200,000. Seaward the coast line is bold, 
and northward 'towers steep and battled round o'erlook 
the dark Mull's mighty sound; and thwarting tides, 
with mingled roar, part its swart sides from Morven'a 
shore.' Th6 'tides' are now little cared for by the 
stoat steamer, bat 'the mii^led roar' is at times such 
that the track for lona is held on by the southern 
shore of Mull outward, and homeward by the sound — 
in both cases the island being clrcomiiavigated. 

Tobermory is the only village in Mull which can 
aapire to b^ named a town; it stands at the head of a 
capacious bay, the entrance sheltered by Calve island, 
and Uie anchorage good. The place was selected in 1788 - 
by the British Fishing Society as one of their stations; bat 
in giving off the 2,000 acres of land they had acquired 

2+6 SCOTLiND [lona. 

in cTofta to the natives, they mode s grand mistake, the 
latter preferring to vegetate ashore to risking their Tain- 
able lives in becoming fishermen; and it is alleged that 
few parishes in the Highlands can boast a larger list 
of paupers — certainly lie place aho<!VS better from the 
deck of the steamer than when inspected. The Florida, 
the Admiral's ship of the Spanish Armada, found shelter 
in the bay, bat her magazine exploding all on board 
perished; and efTorts have often been made to seek for 
treasure in the suhmei^ed galleon, but to no profit. 
The laird of Duart has the credit of destroying the 
Florida — the inducement being the gold of England. 

Loch-Sunart lies north of Tobermory, and nms so 
far inland as nearly to separate the mainland dis- 
tricts of Ardnamurchan and Morven. The road from 
Tobermory to Fort-William leads by its shores to the 
village of Strontian, at it« head, 24 miles S.W, from 
Fort^WilBam, and 20 miles N. E. of Tobermory. 

Ardnamurchan, the 'point of the great sea,' is the 
extreme west of Scotland, 140 nules distant irom Mon- 
trose, on the German ocean; the pariah, 70 miles one 
ytay, 48 mQes the other, wild in appearance, and rocky. 

Mingarry Castle, 7 miles N. from Tobermory, covers 
a rocky promontory on Ardnamurchan, where it, 'so 
sternly placed, o'erawed the woodland and the waste.' 
Although sacked by Colquitto, it is yet more entire than 
Aros, Ardtomish, I>uart, Dunstaf&i^e, or Dunolly, the 
roof being nearly unbroken; the flooring and oaken 
joists, however, are removed. The castle is of three 
storeys, of two apartments each, the laiger 50 feet in 
length, and the space wiliin the walls 200 feet; the 
sides are of unequal length, the form being hexagonal, 
adapted to the rock the castle covered, and broadest 
on the landward side, the defences of which were strong, 
with battlements surmounting the walls, but narrow 
enough for the days of inland feudal strife. 

lona.] DESCMBED. 247 

Few caatlea were built by the Norse Sea Kings; and 
in struolnre they differ from tliose of the Saxon and 
^Norman of the south, in that they laiely found room. 
for chapel or oratory; war— ita purauit, or protection 
&oin its woea — seeming to be all they cared to provide 
for. Near the headland of Caillach, in Mull, Campbell 
the poet spent some of the earlier years of his life, his 
muse being nurtured by the ' wild diapason of the deep 
Atlantic,' and by the ' roar of CorryvreckEin.' West of 
Caillach lie 'the sandy Coll,' and 'the wild Tiree' is- 
lands, united as one paiisb in 1618, but separated by 
a sound less than two miles in width. Coll is north 
of Tiiee, 7 miles from Mull, 14 loi^, 2 J broad, and 
nearly two-thiida of its surface consists of hills, mo- 
Tasses,roDkB,orshiitingsand. Dr. Johnson was the guest 
of the young laird of Coll; and records 'while these 
pages are writing' his host 'perished in the passage 
between the islands of TJlva and Inch-Kenneth.' 

Tiree is 15 milee W. of Treshinish point in Mull, and 
18 N. of lona; it is 12 miles long, 4 broad, and so low 
in level that from the Mull channel the Atlantic wave 
may be seen breaking on its western shore; yet is the 
land fertile, the scant soil being richly manured by 
showers of calcareous manore-like sand, which is swept 
ovOT by blasts from the west, and raises such crops of 
white clover as to nourish well the black cattle reared 
there. Barley and oate are abundant, bat the latter 
• so light in weight as to affect the stipend of the 
ministerl Fuel is got &om Moll, it being held onsafe 
to uncover the soil of Tiree, lest the turf being broken 
what lay under it might be carried seaward, and the 
rocks alone left behind. Coll and Tiree show sites of 
fiiteen chapels; and while 'Lismore,' near Oban, as the 
'garden of the west,' was claimed by the Bishop of the 
Isles, the 'green pastures of Tiree' were the appanage of 
' the black:Stoled brethren ' of lona. 



248 SCOTCAND [Ima. 

The Treshiniah Isles — Fladda, Lingo, Back, Caim- 
bui^-More, and Caimburg-Btg — 'the groap of islets 
grey that goatd &med Stafiia loniid,' lie 5 miles N. W. of 
Staffs, W. of Looh-Tua in Moll, and atreteh SM. to 
S.K for nearly 5 miles. Their coast line is marked by 
cliffs, 40 to 60 feet in height, their slopee are verdant, 
but there is little on them to induce landing. Back is 
known as 'the Dutchman's cap;' Fladda rises terrace- 
like nearly 300 feet in height; Buig is the Notse for 
'castle,'' More and Beg are Celtic for 'large' and 'less.' 
Caimbni^-Moie shows mine of a fortress known in 
history as held by the Iforwegians in 1249, and was 
then the place of safety songht for the records and rdica 
of lona, but which were destroyed when the castle was 
reduced hy the troops of Cromwell. The castle was re- 
built, and figures in the rebeUions of 1715 and 1745. 

The Treshinish Isles were of old the dividing line 
between the 2lorse domains of Sodorees, south to the 
Isle of Man, and Nodoreea, northwards to the Orkneys. 
Gometra, Uttle Colonsay, and Ulva lie in the sound 
between Loch-Tua and Loch-na-Keal, and in the 'Lord 
of the lalea' are described as 'Ulya dark and Colonsay," 
Irom which 'the shores of Mull on the westward lay.' 
Inch-Kenneth is a small island at the entrance to I/xJi- 
na-Keal, where Dr. Johnson was received by 'its only 
inhabitants, Sir Allan M'Lean, and two young ladies, 
his daughters, with their servants '— ' a gentleman and 
two ladies of high birth, polished manners, and elegant 
conversation, who, in a habitation raised not far above 
the ground, but ftirnished with unexpected neatness 
and conveniences, practised all the kindness of hospi- 
tality and refmement of courtiers.' A chapel is thwe, 
entire but unroofed, and the ground around ' is covered 
with generations of chiefs and ladies.' Inch-Kenneth 
is a proper prelude to I-colm-kill, and Staffs was not 
known when Dr. Johnson was in the Hebrides. 



lona.] DESCRIBED. 249 

Staffa, in the Iforw^^ian dialect ' etaffs or pillara,' 
is 3 milBB S. of Goinetra, 5 from Mull, and 8 from lona. 
Its attiactiona were first made known to the world 
by Sb Joshua Banks, who, in August 1772, wrote — 
' Compared to the scene of magnificence there displayed, 
what aie the cathedrals oi palaces huilt by men) where 
ia now the boaat of the architect) — every stone ia formed 
into a .certain number of sides and angles ; and the care 
the most magniiicent that has ever been described, sup- 
ported on each side by ranges of columns, and roofed 
by the bottoma of those which have been broken off to 
form it' Of StafEa, Sb Walter Scott haa written — 
' The stupendous columns which form the aides of the 
great cave of Fingal — the depth and strength of the 
tide which rolls its deep and heavy swell up to the 
extremity of the vault — the variety of tints formed by 
white, crimson, and yellow petrifactions which occupy 
the vacancies between the base of the broken pillars 
which form the roof, and intersect them, with a rich, 
curious, and variegated chasing occupying each in- 
terstice— the corresponding variety below water, where 
the ocean rolls over a dark red. violet-covered rock, 
firom which, as from a base, the basaltic columns arise 
— the tremendous noiae of the swelling ride, mingling 
with the deep-toned echoes of the vault, are circum- 
stances elsewhere wholly unparalleled. Here, aa it ia 
eloquently written in the ' Lord of the lalea' — 
'Hers, u if to iluune the templea deok'd 

^ skill of earthl; architect, 

Nature heneil, it Beem'd, would raisa 

A Qiinster to her Maker's praise ! 

Mor for a meaner uie aKend 

Her columiu, or her archoH bend ; 

Nor of a theme lesa solemn tells 

That mighty ni^:e that ebb* and eirella, 

And itiU between eaoh bwful paaw 

From the high vaolt an anavrer drawl, 

In varied tone, pmlong'd and high. 

That mooka the orgaa^ melod;; 



That Natore'i voice might teem to mv — 
"Well hut thoD done, frail ofaiM of a»j; 
Ibj bnmhle powen that itatel; ahrilM 
Ta^'d high ud hard — but witness mine.'" 

Sta& u oval-liie, somewhat irregular in form, little 
more than IJ miles in circuiitfereiice, and, viewed irom 
the steamer, seems a verdant expanse of table land, 
walled in by colnninar cliffs, varying in height, broken 
in upon by receding rocka, or jutting out in basaltic 
promontories. The sea usually rolls in so heavily from 
the west that it is generally approached on the east, 
near ' the Clamshell cave,' off which lies the ialet named 
'the Headsman;' and nearly opposite to this is the 
great causeway, intervening between the columnar ciiSs 
and the sea, increasing in width until a projecting mass 
is rounded, and 'the great cave of Fingal' ia reached. 
Next in order is 'the Boat cave,' accessible by sea 
only; and further on is 'the Cormorant,' oi 'Mackinnon's 
cave,'' but, besides these, the entire island seems per- 
forated with caverns, into which the Atlantic waves 
break, ever and anon, with a thunder-like sound. 

Some years ago, a cadet of the Macdonald &mily 
styled himself as 'of Staffa,' non-reaident of couiee; 
now the isle is uninhabited: Herds of black cattle used 
to fbed on ita slopes, but being little disturbed unless in 
the summer months, they became wild, even dangerous 
to approach, and hard to catch for removal; sheep only 
are now kept on these green slopes, but myriads of cor- 
morants and other fowl breed in the caves, and feed on 
the fish, which may be seen in shoals off the island 
shore. Messrs. Hutcheson, with the care so charac- 
teristio of them to 'do all things well,' have become 
leaseholders of the island, and the approaches to 
the caves are now provided for by gangways, by which 
tourists pass with firm footing to the oavems. 


lona.] DESCRIBED. 251 

'At thfl Clatnehell cave,' wrote M'Culloch, 'the 
columns on one side are bent, and form a aeriea of ribe, 
the opposite waU. being boneycombed-like witli the ends 
of columue.' The cave is 30 feet high, 1 7 broad at en- 
trance, 130 in length, but contracting gradually. The 
'Herdsman' lock ie a pile of columns about 30 feet high, 
lying on a bod of curved horizontal ones, visible only 
at low water. The causeway has an extensive Burface, 
tenninatiug in a projecting point at the western side of 
the great cave, and appears to be formed of the broken 
ends of columns, once continuous to the height of the 
clifis. The great face is formed of three distinct beds 
of rock, of unequal thickness, and inclined towards the 
vest at an angle of about nine degrees, conveying the 
impiesaion of a &bric tottering and about to lall. The 
lowest bed is a rude trap tufa, the middle one la di- 
vided into columns, placed vertically t« the plumb of 
the bed, and the uppennost is an irregular mixture of 
small colnimiB and shapeless rocks, llie thickness of 
the lowest bed is about 50 feet; the columnar bed is 
of unequal depth, iiom 36 to 54 feet; and at entrance to 
the great cave, the columns are only 18 feet, and gra- 
dually reduced to two or three feet, till they disappear, 
the inequality of the upper bed producing Uie irregular 
outline of the island. Although the columns seem 
parallel, no one is perfectly straight;. some have joints; 
some seem split by deep fissures; two feet is the average 
dimensions, but some are double that; hexagonal and 
pent^onal forms predominate, intermixed with figures 
of 3, 4, or more sides, S or 9, but rarely 10. 

lie steamer seldom reaches StafTa till near noon, 
although about stmrise is the time when the great face 
of Staffa may be seen in perfection; the island being 
undulating in Buriace, whole masses of light and shade 
are produced, and relieving that wMcl^ in a direct 
ligh^ seems a fiat insipid mass of straight walL The 

352 SCOTLAND [lona. 

broad black shadow, produced by the great size of the 
eatrance into 'the Cormoraat'e cave,' tends to relieve 
the minute ornamBnts of the colunuis which cover It 
The aperture ia 60 feet in height, S24 in lei^th, and 
48 in breadth throughout. The Sroat ia a. compli- 
cated range of columns, overhanging in part, and 
forming a sort of geometric ceiling. ' The Boat 
cave' Tesembtee the gallery of a mine, about 16 feet 
high, 13 broad, 150 in length; the columns retire in a 
concave sweep, are irr^ularly grouped, and overhung 
by the cliffe. 

Fingal's, or the great cave, is at the entruice, perpen- 
dicular at the sides, and terminates in a fine contracted 
arch; the height from top of the arch to the cliff above 
is 30 feet, and 66 feet above water level, at mean tide. 
The pillars on the west are 36 feet in height, those on 
the east 18 feet, though their upper ends seem nearly 
in the same horizoutal lines ; the dilference arising from 
the height of the broken columns which form the 
causeway, and add to the effect of the whole by afford- 
ing a solid mass of dark for^round. On the west the 
columns increase in height as they recede from the 
cave, which ia 43 feet broad at the entrance, and con- 
tinues so tilt near the extremity, when it is reduced to 
32 feet; the length ia 288 fee^ and the finest view is 
obtained from the end of the causeway, at low wat^. 
The sides of the cave within are columuM- throughout; 
the ceiling is divided by a fissure, varying in different 
places; towards the outer part of the cave it is formed 
of irregular rock, in the middle it is composed of the 
ends of columns, and at the end a portion of each rock 
seems to enter into its composition. Artists describe 
and sketch the great cave of Stafia variously, the onty 
floor being 'the beautiful green water, reflecting tints 
which vary with the dark colour of the rocks, and 
^throwing flickering lights on the columns. 

loTM.] DISCEIBED. 263 

little difficulty exists in kading on th« ialand of 
Stafia, exploring the finer of the caves, and roaming 
over tie green slopes, fair time being given to indulge 
the touriet in his tastes; but as the steamer pliea on the 
waters for little more than the midsummer months, 
touiiste desirous of visiting Stsffit at other seasons, can 
do 30 by croseii^ from Oban t« Kerreia, thence to Mull, 
and by a track westward, well-travelled, and on which 
no lack of guides for the way are to be found, whose 
proper rates of remuneration can be ascerttuned &om the 
hotel-keepers in Oban before starting on the trip. 

Dimensions of Fingal's Cave,* &c.: — 
From east high-water at entrance, - - 228 feet long. 
From span of arch to end of cave, - - 312 feet long. 
From level of high-water — arch, - - 59 feet high. 

Breadth of cave, 33 feet. 

Depth under arch at high-water, - - 24 feet. 
General depth to head of cave, - - - 27 feet. 
Height of island, above high-water, • - 129 feet. 

The caves of StafFa being left astern, the swift steamer 
soon brills lona into view, 'that illustrious island,' 
which was once the 'luminary of the Caledonian re- 
gions, whence savage clans and roi^h barbarians derived 
the benefits of knowledge and the bleesings of religion.' 
lona, once the seat of learning and religion, the burial- 
place of kings, saints, and heroes — is now solitary and 
in ruins, inhabited by a poor and primitive people, and 
washed by the evei^murmuring Atlantic, yet possessing 
most of the elements of romantic and moral beauty, and 
in interest surpassing most of the other places it may 
be compared with. I., i.e., lona, 'the island of the 
waves;' I., i.e., 'the blessed island;' I-colm-kill, 'the 
island of the cell of Columba;' are the various meanings 

•FlgUTBi aa above, were kindly given to Mr. MniTdT by the 
offleer-in-ohief of the late AdmirafW Survey d the irutam ooaiti 
of Scotland, and they irill be f ouikd ooiTMt. / ' , , .1 . 

264 SCOTLAKTt [/otw. 

of the names of the famed spot, which lies 8 miles S.W. 
of iitofis, withia I mile of Mull, and about 35 miles weet 
of the shores of Lorn. The narrow somid between 
Lorn and Mull is deep, dangerous &om sunken rocke, 
and the swell of the sea is often heavy — but no one 
fears danger aboard the steamer, The island is about 
Smiles long, 1 broad, and has an indifTerent landing-place. 

' Dun-Y,' the h^hest hill in the island, is 550 fset 
above the level of the «ea, and of the 1,800 aciee of 
land, two-thirds might be ploughed, would the crops 
ripen. Small as is the island and sparse the popu- 
lation, the ground was too hallowed to let the National 
Church have it all to themselves, and the Free Chuich 
have long had a congregation there, the proceeds of the 
sale of a well-written description of the district having 
been applied to its benefit. There is no inn on the 
island, nor can whisky be had, nor lodgii^, unless for 
a limited party, and those content to ' rough it,' 

The Dslriad tribes, or Scots of Cantyre, held frequent 
intercourse with theii kindred in Ireland, and through 
them the first tidings of Christianity may have come; 
but no record exists on the subj ect before the advent of 
St. Columba, who, bom in 522, claimed an Irish prince 
as bis parent, and a Scottish one as his paternal grand- 
father. Being learned in 'all the wisdom' of the 
Christianised Irishman, he travelled long in other 
countries, and at the age of 42 entered on the task of 
enlightening the land of his mother's forefathers. From 
Brute, monarch of the Picts, or from Gonal, kii^ of the 
Boots, converts of St, Columba, was obtained the gift of 
the island of lona; and the College was planted, whence 
his disciples, the Culdee missionary servants of God, 
'modest, unassuming, dieting with all pure simplicity, 
anddiligent observers of the works of faith and charity,' 
as the ' venerable Bede ' describes them, were as sudi, 
elccellent pioneers of religion and knowledge. - , 

lona.] DESCRIBED. 255 

The 'AnnaU of Ulster' declare that St. Columba 
formed 300 congregationiB, with abbot or prior, and 12 
priesta, the eaperintesdents settled at a distance from 
looa being named bishops, but all of ec^iial rank, hold- 
ing their goods in common, and marrying and enjoying 
home life. The duties of the earlier priests of lona 
embraced the arts of healing the body, the eimpler 
sciences, and the practice of music; and bo amiable and 
usefiil did they prove, that ere long they had colics in 
opeiation at Dimkeld and at Abemethy, the latter the 
capital of the kingdom of the Picts. 

The sanctity of these missionaries did not save them 
from the woes of war, as in 714 they were driven from 
' the island of the waves ' by the Picte; in 797 and 801, 
their chapels were razed by the ^Norsemen ; and in 805, 
eight of Uie presbyteries were destroyed by the 'savage 
worshippers of Woden "Wild." In 814, the abbot and 
his priests visited the mainland to denounce the vices 
of the Ving of Scotland; and in 818, the ' holy fkmily,' 
as the writings of that age affectionately term them, 
were forced to flee for shelter to Ireland, where they 
abode for two years. In 986, the abbot and 15 of tie 
' doctors of lona' were slai^htered by the Danes, their 
colleges destroyed, and the priests dispersed. In 1069, 
the chapels in lona were given to the flames; and in 
1203, the 'wily priests' of the 'Church of Rome ex- 
pelled irom lona these simple Christians. 

The revenues of the priesthood of lona were at one 
time great, and their possessions on island and mainland 
ext^isiva In the ' Lord of the Isles ' we read — 
"Tha Abbot oomes!— 

A ramted mas from aiunted isle. 

Httth Wtinted luiom known. 

And b; OoLnmba't itone, 

AoBeli have met him on ths iraf, 

Beode the bleued HuiTrs' bay. 

His monks have heard theii hymningB high, 

Sound from the nimmlt of Dun-T. , . , 

WleD at enoh orou on girth and wold, 

(Their number thrice > hundred fold) 

Bit praver he made, his beadi be told. 

With BTU many a one.' 

Of 'the CTOSBea,' four only remain, one of whicli is well 
preserved, b, second is in good condition, asd the third 
is broken at about 10 feet from the ground, but of the 
fourth the pediment or base alone remains. At Ctunp- 
beltown, and at InTeiaiay, crosaee are found Trhich 
have been transported &om lona; and in many a burial- 
place in the Western Highlands, as at Dunetafinage for 
example, sculptured stones which may have covered 
great ' Lords of the Isles ' have been carried off, thai 
humble chiefs of the mainland might repose under them; 
and of the numerous lettered stones which still throng 
the burial'^ound of lona, the crowds of tourists who, 
season after season, tread over them, are fiist obliter- 
ating these ' records of the past.' Would that this evil 
could be abated, were it but in setting erect the memo- 
rials of the dead which lie around! 

The tower of the ancient Cathedral, being 70 feet in 
height, shows well when approaching the island. The 
Cathedral or Abbey was built in the form of a ctobb; 
is in length 160 feet, breadth 24, the transept 70, the 
choir 60, and the tower of 3 storeys. To prevent 
further mutilation, and describe the monuments of 
lona, a guide has been appointed by the Duke of 
Argyle who is proprietor of Ibo island. The Cathedral 
was named St. Mary's Church, whence the ' savage 
clans' drew 'the benefits of knowledge and the bless- 
ing of religion.' The aisle or chapel is sepsJated 
from the body of the church by some plain columns, 
with capitals quaintly sculptured, and not a few of 
tihem have been iiyured by relic enthusiasts. 

The 'bay of Martp^' is a little to the south of the 
landing-place, and where the bier of the dead was rested 
on a green mound, still ther^ whence tha foUowen of 

lona.] DESCRIBED. 267 

the dead were formed in array, the 'coronach,' the wail 
for the departed, raised, the cofiBn borne through the 
'street of iba dead,' and 'along the narrow way' to ite 
place in the consecrated soil of Beleig Oran, in which 
chieis and princes sought to be laid — a Gaelic prophecy 
being believed in, that, 'seven years before the end of 
the world, a deluge would drown the nationa, the sea 
at one tide would cover Ireland and the green Western 
Isles, but Columba's isle shall swim above the flood.' 
Hence it is alleged that forty kings of Scotland he in 
the sacred burial-place of St Oran. 

In 1668 the principal altar, 6 feet by i, was entire, 
' made of marble, and in 1772 Pennant describes it, but 
no vestige of it now remains. On the north side of the 
altar is the tomb of Abbot MacKinnon of lona, who 
died in 1500; bis figure was ricbly eculptured on it, 
but is now nearly defaced. In the centre of the chan- 
cel ia the tomb of Macleod of Macleod, being the 
largest monument in lona. The great eastern window 
was beautiful, but has been built up in wretched taste; 
aitd few relics of the past, apart ftom the rains, now exist 
in the island. The village has been built out of the chs^ 
pels of old, and in the ruins not an inch of wood can be 
found, that material being too precious to be spared in 
an island where none was grown. In south^ Scot- 
land, a &nn-Bteading is called a 'toun,-' in lona the 
natives name their row of some forty cottages, * Baila 
Mor,* the great town, and the space between them and 
tha beach is 'Straide,' the street! The boat^ Messrs. 
Hutcheson provide for landing the passengers are good 
and well manned; but there ia no pier, if the large 
masses of gniess the tourist has to scramble over be 
excepted ; and there the visitor will be assailed by a 
flock of urchins, importunate in pushing their amatl 
trade in the vending of shells, for which they look for 
value — offering such as lahos of lona. 

B ,Goo>;Ic 

258 SCOTLAHD [Iddy. 

The Tocks whicli form the rough landing-place at 
lona, those 'in situ,' fast in the deep sound, and those 
forming the bold promontory of the Eoas — the main- 
land of Mull, are of the same ■ geological formation. 
Steering to the S.K, the steamer soon rounds the 
southern shores of MuU, which are as hold, rocky, and 
attractive ae any of the coast scenery in these western 
seas — in some places showing columnar basalt for- 
mations little inferior to those of Staffa; and the granite 
quarries inland are worked extensively and to profit. 
South of Mull are seen the islands of Colonsay, Oron- 
aay, Islay, and Jura, and the stealner route, in calm 
weather a pleasant one, is a wild one before close of 
the season; but no mishap need be feared, except it 
may be an inability to do justice to what the stewaid 
may provide. The Corsaig arches, on the shore of Mull 
and west of Loch-Buy, are of singular interest, the cliff 
they form part of being about 400 feet high; the larger 
arch, the 'perforated cave,' is about 60 feet in he^ht, 
50 to 60 broad, and runs east and west for 150 feet; 
the sea washes through the arch, and they show best 
at low water. Eastward, the coast line improves in 
grandeur; southward are the Slate isles and the steamer 
route for Crinan Canal — the shores of Lorn on the 
right, the island of Kerrera on the left, and the bay of 
Oban — ^which brings to a conclusion a route of travel 
not to be in one day paralleled elsewhere. 

IsiiAT, Jura, Scarba, Mvll, and the other islands 
in the shire of Argyle, off the peninsula of Cantyre uid 
the shores of Xedier-Lom, attract the attention of the 
tonrist, who makes the passage in the deep-sea steamera 
by the Mull of Cantyre; and, whether by the Clans- 
man, Clydesdale, or Islay, all comfort aboaid will be 
found, the trips beii^ frajuent, the fare moderate, and 
tiie numbers going that way considerable. 

L,-., Google 


&ith of Clyde, by the isle of Arran, Ailsa Ciaig, and 
the Sanda and Mull lights off Cautyre, is beautiful ; 
especially bo if the harvest moon be shining overhead 
aiid the waters still, when a silvery light is shed all 
around. The lights of the iron-worka near the low shore 
inland of Ardrossan, the shadow of the Holy Isle off 
Lamlash, Fladda, and the south-end of Arran, are all 
well seen; as are the rocks of Sanda, and the preci- 
pitous and bare heights of the Mull of Cantyre. The 
sea is at times heavy enough as the channel ia entered, 
and the steamer steers round by the small islands of 
Gigha and Cara, off the S.W. of Cantyre, which ate 
seldom visited, the population being small, and little 
there to tempt calling, tbeir rocky shores rising almost 
'sharp as a kaife' from, the deep waters around them. 

Iblat, 'greep Islay,' in language of the native and 
of the poet, is of considerable extent, fertile, and noted 
for the excellence and quantity of the whisky produced 
there. The harbour, where most of the traffic with the 
Clyde ia carried on, is that of Fort-EUeu, rather diffi- 
cult of entry, but sheltered by the rocks which appear 
to bar the passage. The small town is a neat one, and 
fair entertainment may be had in the inns above the 
harbour, a smart trade going on in consumpt of whisky; 
the stay the steamer makes, seldom a long one, being 
' improved' by the voyagers going ashore, getting under 
cover, and making themselves comfortable. 

Port-Askaig, off the sound of Jura, ia a place of call 
for the steamer Islay. It is a small harbour, well shel- 
tered, and has a considerable traffic inland; the ion is a 
fcir one, the roads westward seem good, aod there ia 
some extent of wood above the shore, but beyond that 
screen the land is low, hills of small elevation, fences not 
numerous, and the features of the district unimpreeaive, 
I . .Google 

2f>0 SCOTLAND [Way. 

At Bowmore and Brii^nd on the west, are the chief 
seats of the population; and the policies around Islaj 
Konse aie warm, extensive, and attractive. Hotel ac- 
commodation is good, and the angler will find much to 
tempt him to Imger among the lochs and streamB of 
' Green Islay.' In days of old, when the ' Lord of the 
Isles ' held sway in the Hebridean seas, the Hacdonald 
chief was crowned in Islay, a rock being etill pointed 
out as where the Bishop of Argyle annointed him; and 
in that large squaw stone are places hollowed out to 
receive the feet of the mde chiefs — to be crowned 
standing appearing to have been the rule there. 

Jura, an island, at Port-Aakaig, separated by a very 
narrow sound from Islay, is nearly as long as the latter, 
but narrow, rugged, sparse of population, and notable 
in these seas by its mountAin heights called the 'Pape of 
Jura,' which rise high above the wild district, and are 
well seen &om the sound of Kilbiannan, near Anan, 
and above the low island of Bute; and futher np the 
frith of Clyde the higher of the two Paps, 'Bwi-an- 
Noir' — 'Golden mountain,' is but 2,240 feet 

The course of the steamer for Obtm has Knapdale in 
Cantyre on the right, Jura on the left, Cra^nish on the 
Lorn shore, Crinan south of it, the 'guK of Cony- 
vreckan,' with its turmoil of waters, to the weat; rugged 
Scarba on the north, and the low islands of Colonaay 
and Oronsay westward, and on the Atlantic. These 
islea lie 7 nules west of Jura, and when the tide is full 
form but one island about ten miles in length, and have 
little to attract the tourist. The trafiic of the westward 
ielee is maintained by screw steamers of the smaller class, 
and which, week by week, keep up the intercoutee with 
the mainland, their places of call from Skye to Islay 
being numerous, their cargo miscellaneous, and the cabin 
acoomiuodatton &ir, not great, the natives herding in 
bulk in the fdie-eod (^ the ahij^ Gaelic tb^ direct, 
L,-., Google 

Itlaj/.] DESCRIBED. 261 

their dress a misture of Highland penury and Lowland 
fjneiy, and teetotalism a creed little believed in. 

Colonsay and Oronsay being in the lona aeas, like 
that noted iele, were, centuries ago, the abode of the 
prieetB of the age, and rempins to prove such abonpd 
in the islands. A ruined priory is found in Oronsay, 
the chnrch measurii^ 60 feet by 18; the cloiater 40 
feet by 28 ; and in a side chapel ezigts the monument 
of Abbot MacdufBe, date 1539, with sculptui«d figures 
of the chase, a ship, etc. Other curious monuments 
are found — a tall cross and rehcs of the past which 
have been drawn and described by the antiquarian. 
KUdonan, seat of the proprietor- — the MacNeils are 
lords of Colonsay — isao named, KilorCell, 'church' or 
'grave' of St. Oran, who, monkish records allege, was 
buried alive by St. Columba for hereey: if so, it seems 
strange he should be called a saint. 

Mull, as an island, is greater in let^th than Islay 
or Jura, liee further noriJi, is off the mainland shores 
of Morven, in the track of the tourist for lona, Staffa, 
or Skye, has been already described in part, and has 
little ashore to tempt tiie tourist to linger there. 
Tobermory, its chief town, has been also noticed, 
with the excellence of its land-locked harbour; and 
the 'castles grey' which rise above 'Mull's dark 
sound ' have bad due attention paid to them. 

In outline the island of Mull is rugged, the height 
of the mountains great, and well are they seen in the 
course of the steamer rounding these stermy shores, 
which are beaconed by light-houses, the seas being on 
the feir way of the touriat trafSo — in summer a large 
one. Lwjh-Spelvie on the S.E., and Loch-Buy on the 
S.W., penetrate the island; and on the west are Locb- 
Scriden and Loch-na-KeaL By the latter the tourist, 
when steamers are ofT the stetion, finds his route, by 
Kerrera and Mull, to Stafia and lona. A topographer 

263 SCOTLAND [Kenmore. 

of tbe ]aat geneTaMon declared that, 'Beeides the Itouses 
of a few Highland lairds, there ie nothing but hute to 
be Been over the whole island — ^the p^-styee of England 
are palaces to the huts of Mull!' The development of 
Bteun navigation, emigration to tlie lowlands, sappres- 
sion of the croftiug system, and other eauaea, have im- 
proved the diatiict, the Itmds being largely owned by 
His Grace of Aigyle, who is known to be an excellent 
landlord, anxious to promote tbe interests of his tenantry. 

Kenmore, Loch-Tat, and Killih are on the tourist 
route from Aberfeldy to Loch -Lomond, Inveraray, 
Oban, OT Glencoe; and tbe district is traversed in the 
. season by well - appointed coaches, &iily patronised, 
and deservedly, aa there ie much to attract, while 
hotels by the way are good and well looked to. 

Besides the coaches referred to, 'buses run to the 
station on the railway at Aberfeldy, to Kenmore, 
little more than six miles west, on the north bank of 
the broad Tay; and for greater part the distuLce is 
through the richly timbered and finely situated do- 
mains of Taymouth Castle, chief seat of tbe noble 
fiunily of Breadalbane, where our Queen paid one of 
the earlier of her visits to the Highlands. 

Taymouth Castle is open at certain hours, and nnder 
care of appointed guides, to be bad at the hotel; and 
tbe grounds around, the deer, tbe wild cattle, the 
princely ball, and costly paintings are objects of in- 
terest which few tourists ^who go that way but desire 
to inspect, tbe temptation to linger being great, and 
local guide-books low in price can be had. 

Tbe vill^^ of Kenmore is small, and nocess^lly neat, 
lying ao near the Castle gates. Loch-Tay laves the 
gardens behind, and the river Tay, in all its bisadth 
and depth of flood, is seen issuii^ from its parent 
lake — Ken-more, 'head, great' — ^bead of the great river 

Kenmore.] DESCEIBED. 2G3 

of Scotland. The bridge under which the Tay flows 
as it runs eastward affords a fine view; and in the 
gronnda near Taymouth Castle, auothet and a lighter 
hrid^ is thiowB aotoas the bioad river. 

The hills are richly timbered; all is ornate around — 
the most being .made of the angular richneea of wood 
and water, hill and dale, moimtaii^ and glen. On the 
south side of the Tay, and little more than two miles 
from Kenmoie, are the fidla of Aoharn, much visited 
by the tourist, and only a UtUe inferior in attraction 
to those of Monees at Abeifeldy. By the north side 
of the Tay a road runs eastward for Weem Hotel, near 
Aberfeldy, and the drive affords views varied and 
beautiful The coach load westward for Killin is on 
the north bank of Loch-Tay; and there is one also on 
the south banl;, used for local traffic. For some miles 
beyond Kenmore the road has the mountain heights on 
the right richly wooded; on the left, and close at hand, 
is the loch, about 1 6 miles in extent, 2 to 3 in breadth, 
can be ferried across at various points, is deep, has few 
rocks 'in situ,' and for many years past it has been the 
desire of the district that this inland sea be opened 
up by steam navigation, as the heights of Ben-Lawers, 
the mountain district of Perthshire, could be so well 
viewed from the deck; while, as at the Falls of Foyers 
above Locb-Kess, time might be given to view those 
of Acham here, and nearii^ Killin, where the rivers 
Lochay and Dochart pour their floods into Loch-Tay, ' 
the view would be beautiful indeed- It is only half 
seen &om the road, but is well worth exploring, as are' 
the wooded heights near the ruins of Finlarig Castle, 
the feudal home of the Breadalbane chiefs, before their 
palatial abode was raised at Taymouth, 

At the base of Ben-Lawers, and nearly equi-distant 

between Kenmore and Killin, is an inn, where fresh 

horses are got for the coach, and, by a sign-board above 

L,-., Google 

264 SCOTLAND [Kenmore. 

the dooT, ' guides and ponies' con be had to. scale the 
he^hta of Ben-Lawers, where the botanist and geologist 
will find much to attract and interest them. A short 
mile &om Killin, where the Lochay, a large river, 
comes into Loch-Tay, has long been an inn, well 
kept, and in excellent &youi with the angler. At the 
parochial village of Killin the hotel is excellent, well 
built, well placed, well managed, and where the tourist 
who can tarry a while will find all comfort. The 
scenery is richly varied, the hills high, not hard to climb, 
and fish (salmon) abundant. The parish of Killin ex- 
tends from Loch-Tay to Loch-Lomond, the kirk being 
at Killin, which has shops, banks, and sites for villas 
of the moat attractive sort, and being occupied, as tlie 
shelter is good and Hie scenery niagniiiceat. 

The coach road crosses the river Dochart a short way 
above Killin; and on a rocky island-like spot is the 
burial-place of the clan Macnab, centuries a^ of great 
influence on upper Strath-Tay — ^now ' they have passed 
away.' The course of the river is over a rocky channel, 
rapids, almost cascades, but not deep enough to hinder 
the salmon ascending the stream. A few miles on- 
wards, at Lix toll-bar, the road on the left divei^ for 
Gl(»-Ogle, Loch-Eamhead, and Callander; and tWi^ 
that mountain pass is to run l^e railway, meant to con- 
nect central Scotland, on the apper Forth, with t^e 
shoree of Lorn, Oban, and the Soimd of Mull, Heavy 
■ excureion trains — 'Cook's crowds from the south' — ^may 
give traffic; but — the people in the district — where are 
theyl And as tor miner^, the lead mines of Breadal- 
bane show well only on tourist maps or tourist descrip- 
tion books — their commercial valuation is nil! 

Following the coarse of the Dochart, the snug way- 
side inn of Luib is reached, a quiet place to stop at, 
well looked to, and auglii^ in river and loch is most 
tempting. The small loch above Lmb is named Loch- 

XUmm.] DESCfilBED. 265 

£wT«, some «we trees being there; and the elieam 
and strath onward is called Strathfillan. The moun- 
tain rising high on the left is that of Benmore, with the 
braes of Balquhidder beyond, and the basin of Loch- 
Katrine on the south. A ruined cottage on an emi- 
nence to the left is pointwd out aa one of the homes of 
Bob Roy Mai^re^or, and the biith-place of his mascu- 
line vife. Xhe warm, well ahelteied iann-steading on 
the left is tenanted by a native of Ferthahire, a ' captain 
bold' of Totunteera in Lanarkshiie, who lives well on the 
earnings of some of the beet-mtmaged of the gin palaces 
in iiie city of Gla^ow. 

At Grionlarich toll-bar the road to the westwaid leads 
on by Tyndrum for Dalmally, Oban, or the Black Mount 
on Gl^ncoe, and passengeis from KJllin change coaches 
there. The inn at Criuilarich is of moderate size; but 
the hquon served there are good, as is the lunch, 
ordinarily on the table, as it may happen that the one 
coach awaits arrival of the other. The attractions of 
Glen&lloch have been already feiily described. The 
mansion of that name, near to Inveramau on Loch- 
Lomond, was the patrimonial residence of the Campbell 
chie^ to whom has recently been given the broad lands 
of Breadalbane, with all Uie honours thereto annexed. 
At Inverwnan, where the shireaof Perth, Dumbarton, 
and Argyle converge, is the well known hotel of that 
name; and a short way onward is the pier of Ard-Lui, 
where the steamer on Loch-Lomond awaita her passen- 
gers from Aberfeldy, Oban, or Gtencoe; and the High- 
lands of AiTochat rise high on the right. Ben-Lomond 
is across the loch and farther south. 

EiLHUN and the Holt-Looh is one of the sweetest 
localitiee on the Frith of Clyde, lying between the shore 
of Loch-Long on the east, ibe str^h of the £ck on the 
north, and the Dunoon district of Cowal on the west. 

2B6 8C0TLAHD [Kilmtm. 

It is but a little way off the stream of the Clyde paa- 
8€iuger traffic, and bo accessible that there is scarcely 
an acre of nnfeued ground within a fair distance of the 
loch, or near the shore line, to be had. 

Ecclesiastically, Kilmun and Dunoon aie one parish, 
the minister of old having done duty, in Gaelic or En- 
glish, in each chnich alteniately; but the occupation of 
the green hill-sides on either shore of the Holy-Loch, and 
above the Qlyde from Hunter's Quay to Toward Point, 
has ' altered all that;' the church-going habits of the resi- 
dents, native or visiting, demanding ftie ministerial ser- 
vices of a score of clei^ymen, and as many churches, many 
of them with steeples overhead although of no great size, 
from Ardentinny to Toward, pointing upwards to the way 
in which the people should walk, and attesting the ex- 
cellence of the habits of the Scottish people. 

The parish church, of recent erection, and the an- 
cient kirk-yard of Kilmun, are near the head of the 
Loch. The ground is ' full of the dead,' having been a 
burial-place in Argyleshire ' time out of mind;' and the 
more resorted to, as in a vault there ' are laid to rest' 
the remains of the Dukes of Argyle. The buiying-place 
was open to the public, but is closed because of the vile 
habits of certain excursionists, misnamed tourists, who 
neither respect the living nor reverence the dead- 

The loch, ordinarily called 'Holy,' because of a reli- 
gious community having been in Catholic times settled 
at Kilmun, is by others named 'hilly,' as the Finnart 
range of hills on the east is high and near the shore; 
and those on the north, Ben-More — ' hill, great,' is cliief 
hill of the vale between Loch-Eck, the river Echaig, 
and the top of the loch. The 8.K extremity is known 
as Strone — i. e., stony point, and in the last gene- 
ration, stones only marked where Loch-Long and the 
Holy-Loch nearly met, when merged into the upper 
filth of Clyde. How, the space or point is built over 

KHmwi.] DESCRIBED. 267 

with villa-like houses on the east, bat bouse and Bhop- 
like oreclaoiia as the point is rounded. To the N. W., 
are a couple of churches rising to the view. 

The woodrai pier at Strone, on the Holy-Loch, ie not 
a ' free one,' as none are in the district; and the ' pro- 
perty ' is a valuable one to those who, owning the shore 
line, exact a penny from all whom pleasure or neceaslty 
may cause to land there. At Strone, there is a couple 
,of inns where 'creature comforts' can be had— hoteb 
being where something more may be found. The houses 
above the beach are in sii^le line, no two in archi- 
tecture alike, and few with even an apol<^ for an 
enclosure about them. On the hill-side above is a 
' belt of planting,' a small wood of firs, with a pedes- 
trian path along the lower shoulder of the hill to the 
Loch-Long shore, and the view thence is beautifiil, as 
it ranges from Ailea Craig southwards to the hill of 
Tinto, embracing*the frith, Dumbarton Castle, the river, 
and the ' dale ' of the noble Clyde. 

Leaving Strone proper, the villas built betwerai the 
beach and the carrit^e road have fair space of ground 
about them, with a view seaward, until a sharp angle 
and descent of the h^hway leads down to the beach, 
when the houses rise on the right hand, and the shore 
line is closely kept. One of the handsomest of the 
erections is that of Finnartmore, buHt by a late cotton- 
broker in Gla^ow, occupied by a relative of the last 
elected ' Member ' for that city, and with grounds more 
extensive and ornate than any other on the Holy-Loch. 
Finnart is understood to have som.e reference to Fingal, 
and the hlUs of such nomenclature abound in the West 
Highlands, changes rung on the name being without 
number, as, to keep within the record,- the hills are 
called those of Finnart, Finnart-' more,' Finnart-' b^,' 
more, 'great,' — b^, 'less,' Finnart-bank, and so on. 

Kear the gate ^ Finnartmore, from a point of land 
, . .Google 

368 SCOTLAlfD [Kihrnn. 

naiTowit^ the loch somewhat, but scarcely enough to 
be called a protuontoiy, is a 'lov-boat' feny for the 
gravelly spit of land on the west, known of old as the 
'Lazaiette,' and where, within the last generation, 
vessels coming firom infectod ports had to ride quaran- 
tine, lie at anchor for a season, and send their 'cotton 
bales' ashore to be aired and rolled about. 

As Kilmun proper is approached, there is another 
wooden erection at which coppers are levied; with an 
inn on the bank above it, of long standing, and a anug 
'booth' it is for the angler to find quarters in. To 
David Napier, the precuraor as a marine engineer of 
his cousin, Mr. Bobert Napier of Shandon, ia due the 
credit of opening out the Kilmun shores to tbe sea-eide- 
lesorting public, he havii^, about forty years t^, feued 
off the lEmds on Uie east aide of the loch, and placed 
st«amera on the station, and a four-horse coach on the 
route to Inveraray by Stracbur. A abort way &om KO- 
mon pier is a row of six houses, erected at the cost of 
D. Napier, since sold by him, built to pattern all alike, 
scant of accommodation, beii^ narrow, but anng and 
cheap abodes for the economical coast visitor, as tbey are 
fiimished, and so let, by a epecnlator in that iine of trade. 

North of the row of houses referred to is one of a 
different class, erected by a late Member for Greenock, 
now owned and occupied by a Magistrate of Gla^ow; 
and were the short range of one-storeyed hut-lite dwel- 
lii^ between tfaat house and tbe Free Church cleared 
off, the site and Burroundiugs would be enviable — as is 
that of the snug manse and neat garden of the Free 
Church minister, so commandingly placed on the hill- 
side near by. 

Approaching the ancient kirk-yard is a line of beech - 
trees, aged, umbrageous, and more beautiful than is 
usually found in western Scotland. Below them gene- 
rations have been carried te lie where their focefatliers 

KUmm.] DESCfilBED. 269 

■leep; and in testiinony that centuriea ago such vaa 
the home of the pcieets, rieea the min of the sqnan 
tover of a building, abbey or prioiy, and near it is the 
modem chorch, of fair appearance without, and com- 
fortable accommodation within. 

The lands near KilniT iii were, some yean aince, 
acquired by a metchant who had become rich on the 
banks of the Hudson river. New- York; and lavishly 
but wisely has he expended his wealth oa the improve- 
ment of the district^ building a palatial-like abode at 
the base of Benmore, and being kind to all who do 
not thwart him. The carriage-way by the east bank 
of the river Ecbsig ie beautifiU, bat lalls to be noticed 
under t^iother article (Stracbnr) in this book. 

The house of Ballochyle, N. W., but near to the head 
of Loch-Eck, is the patrimonial abode of a cadet of the 
clan Campbell, who seeks honour and wealth in India. 
The ettath or glen on the right leads west by what are 
known as the 'Powder-mills,' erections, large and costly, 
having been established there for that bianch of ma- 
nu&otures. Westward there is a fair road mnning 
behind the green hills which shelter Dnnoon, and on- 
wards to Balleymore, on the head waters of Loch- 
Btriven, above the bay of Kothesay, and after a steep 
ascent north of South-haU, descending into Glendaru^ 
at the head of Loch-Eidden, on the Kyles of Bute, and 
near the domain of the Campbells of Oimidale. 

On the N.W. shore of the Holy-Loch is the village 
of Sandbank. Not many years ago it was but a oolleo- 
tion of crofters' houses; it is now thickly hoilt over wi^ 
houses for coast residents, smaller in size and less pre- 
tentious in appeantuce than aie those across the loch 
and near to £ilmnn. Where no church is, the place 
may be called a hamlet; but where chapels, Establisbed 
and Free are bnilt, the locality may aspire to the d^nity 
uf a village, although topographic pedauta muht leitrict 

270 SCOTLAND [Kin^useie. 

that title to where the church of the parish rises. There 
is a loi^ 'wooden pier at Sandhank named Amadam, 
the hurial-place of a Danish chief of that name being 
near by. The carrit^e-way to Dunoon leaves the shore 
of the loch at SandbMik, crosses the shoulder of the hill 
under Dimloskin — ' hill of the frogs,' has the policies 
of Hafton House on the S. £., and descends to the frith 
of Clyde at the town of Dunoon. 

K1NGDB8IE, Abdvekieib, Glen-Eot, Fobt-Wiluam. 

— Kingussie is the chief town on upper Strathspey, It 
was a stage on the great road from Perth to Inverness, 
and is a firBt-class station on the Highland railway. It 
is of local importance, and brought into daily arid direct 
communication with Loch-Aher, Loch-Eil, and the west 
coast of Scotland hy a mail-coach, weD appointed, and 
by which passengers are booked throi^h from London, 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, or Perth to Fort -William, the new 
route for the tourist having been opened up in 1864 by 
the enterprise of the coach proprietor, whose name has 
been so long well known on the Glencoe route, backed 
by a postal subsidy, and aided hberally hy the county 
gentlemen of the north-west of Scotland. 

The coach leaves Kingossie about one p.m., on ar- 
rival of the trains from the south, and crosses the Spey 
by a bridge there. When the subjugation of the elans 
was attempted, by making roads and bridges thnJugh 
the moors and straths, a barrack was formed at Kuthven, 
whichwas hold foratime, in 1746, by a sergeants' guard, 
against the Highland host; and there, after the &tal field 
of CuUoden, 8,000 of the adherents of Charles Edward 
met, in the faith that he would place himself at their 
head. He was a fugitive, and continued to be so till 
his romantic wanderings ended in his escape to France 
and Italy, and the extinction of the Stuart line. 

It was in -the hope that, wool being abundant in 

Kingussie.] DESCEIBHD. 271 

Badenoch. and Strathspey, nmnufactnres might be es- 
tablished there, that one of the Dukea of Gordon 
founded the village of KinguMie. The effort vas a vain 
one; and the people are and have been poor, their 
numbers in the dietiict being thinned by emigration 
and enlistment in the wara of last century. Near, there 
are many battle-grounds noted in the history of the 
clans, 6a where the Camerons, Macphersons, and Mauk- 
iiitoshes met ; now nearly all is abandoned by men — the 
solitudes being occupied as sheep farms or deer forests. 

The coarse of the upper Spey has much to attract 
the tourist, who passes on his route Cluny Castle, the 
ancient seat of the clan Macpherson ; Newton-more, a 
place noted in the district for the fairs held there; and 
soon approaches Loch-L^gan, on whose banks is the 
Lodge of Ardverikie, where the Queen spent part of 
the summer of 1847, the year preceding that in which 
the Court found a Highland home in Braemar. 

Loch-Laggan is about 1 miles in length and 1 to 2 in 
breadth, and tradition alleges that in this district, a 
thousand years ago, were the huntii^ grounds of the 
Kings of Scotland, and the Celt proves such by the 
names of places in the district. At the vill^e there is 
an inn, where the wayfarer or angler can have accom- 
modation, the sport for the latter being abundant. 

The psnah of Laggan is about 20 miles square, in 
the shire of Inverness; and its drainage, that of Loch- 
I.Jiggan flows west into Glenspean, which runs into the 
Lochy in Lochaber, and near to Banavie. The strath 
of the Spean is narrow, with Loch-Treig on the S.W.; 
but on lie route are the parallel roads of Glen-Eoy, a 
district singular in feature, much visited by the tourist, 
and most interesting to the geoli^st; and at the bridge 
of Roy fair accommodation will be found. 

The parallel roads of Glen-Roy, a well-known authority 
describes as ' the shoi^ of an tmoient louh, occupying 
L,-., Google 

279 SCOTLAilD [Bottom. 

snccessively difiereut levels, Bnbsiding first by a verti- 
cal depth of 82 feet, forming the first terrace, and again 
by A subsidence of 212 feet producing the second line, 
and the third drainage left, the valley ae we now aee it' 
The Celt has hie own explanation of the phenomena, 
all^ii^; that these terraces were formed for the hunting 
conveniences of the Fingalian sovereigns! They are 
the most Btriking and magniiicent phenomena of the 
unireise, singular, tmexampled, and no less interesting 
to philosophy than splendid in their effects, and capti- 
vatmg by their grandeur and beauty. Agassiz reports: 
' Near the foot of Ben-Nevis, and in the principal 
valleys, I discovered the vast district morains tmd 
polished rocky surfaces, just as in the valley of the 
Swiss Alps, in the region of existing glaciers. The 
parallel rrods of Glen-Boy are intimately connected with 
this former occurrence of glaciers, and have been caused 
by a glacier from Ben-Nevis.' These terraces, the 
lowest of which is 11 feet above the valley, ate 968 
feet above the sea level on Loch-Eil; they are about 60 
feet broad, composed of sand and gravel, and the line 
on one side of the valley is parallel with that which 
appears on the opposite side, the few eminences at 
bottom of the valley being terraced alike. 

At the high level bridge of Spean, the road runs 
eastward to Fort -Augustus; that to the left leads on 
by the base of Ben-Nevis, by the ancient castle of 
Inverlochy, and the mctdem fort, to the village of 
Fort- WiUiam, and the Caledonian Hotel there — the dis- 
tance from Kingussie being gone in shout seven bonis, 
and by a route of varied attraction, gaining favour with 
the public, and valuable at those seasons of the yeai 
when steamers are few on the station. 

Kinross, Looh-Levhn, thb KcuBLiKa Bridqb, aitd 
TBB Divos.^KiniosB is between the ForUi and Uie 

rfmvw.] DESCRIBED. 273 

Tay, west of the kingdom of Fife, on the old mail road 
from Ediaburgh by Queensfeny foi Perth, and now 
approached hy linea of railway, the manuiacturing town 
of Dunfermline, the coal-fields of Fife and Clackman- 
nan, making the district a valuable one. 

Kinross, by the old road, was 26 miles from Edin- 
burgh, and 18 frxim Perth by railway, the distance is 
greater as the track nma east by Granton, Kirkcaldy, 
then westward by Thornton Junction. 

Kinross, as cluef town of the email shire, although 
not a burgh, is of local importance, neat in appear- 
ance, the district being fertile, populous, and the hotel 
of old standing and in good repute. The locality is an 
attractive one for the angler, from being on the shore 
of Locb-Leven, the trout fishing in which is excellent, 
and 'mine host' will find the means of enjoying such 
to hie cuetomers, adding the cost thereof to the bilL 

Loch-Leven is about 1 1 miles in circumference, and 
famous in Scottish story, as in its caatle on the iriand, 
which is two acres in extent, was confined Mary, the 
beautiful but hapless Queen of Scots; the incidents 
of ber escape from which have been graphically told in 
the 'Abbo^' one of the Waverley novels. The tower 
of the old castle remains, and the site is of storied in- 
terest in the annals of Scotland, from the Pictiah era 
downwards. In 1335 it was besieged by the forces of 
Edward III., who attempted to submerge the island by 
damming up the river Leven; but the garrison found 
means to pierce the dyke, and thus des^y the works 
of the beeiegere, tiiey retreatii^ to Ei^land. 

On June 16, 1567, Queen Mary, having fallen into 
the hands of the lords banded together against her rule, 
was placed in durance, under charge of William, eldest 
son of Sir Robert Douglas of Loch-Leven, whose lady 
was mother of the Regent Murray; and a small recess 
in the uppermost floor of the tower is pointed out aa 

274 SCOTLAJirD [Kinroit. 

having been the bod-room of the imprisoned Queen. 
George Oonglaa, a yonoger son of the Lord of Loch- 
Leveu, was won over to her cause by Queen Uary, and 
oa tbe evening of Sunday, May % 1568, she escaped 
from the castle, fled westward for aid from tlie Hamil' 
tons, was followed by Murray — and the sad sequel is 
known, of the fight at Langside, the flight to Kirkcud- 
bright, the refuge sought in England, and the release 
found on the block at Fotheringham! 

About 7 miles by railway, west ftom Kinross, by 
the Crook of Devon, is Bumbling Bridge, a locality 
much visited by the touiiat, and where tJi proper pro- 
vision will be found made for bis wants. The river, 
'the winding Devon' of Bums, flows past the northern 
slopes of the Ocbil hills, and, by a 'crook in its course,' 
at an angle of near 60 d^rees, turns sharply to water 
their soutJiem base. The Rumbling Bridge has been 
so named from the noise of the cascade which poura 
down below it; the chasm is narrow, the depth great, 
and the view from the aroh which Bpans it is fine, the 
noise which the confined waters make being known to 
tiie natives as that of 'the Devil's Mill,' as week-day and 
Sunday it labours alike, and on the Sunday the Scotch 
peasant says the devil only would work! A bridge, 
22 feet in span, 13 feet in width, and S€ feet above 
the torrent, was built in 1713, and, although without 
parapets, was the only means of croasii^ the Devon 
until 1816, when the present bridge, 40 feet higher, 
was built — the old one remaining. 

The scenery at the Crook of Devon is magnificent, and 
means are taken to show it to advont*^ that tourists may 
be tempted to visit the district The point from which 
the charms of the Devon and ite cascades are best seen 
is from the southern bank of the river, and an eminence 
opposite the bridge, where the dark chasm below can 
be viewed to fiiU advant^e. From the Rumbling 


Bridge to the linns or cascades below, the course of the 
Devon is qniet; but at the Cauldron linn the channel 
contracta, and the river boils dowuvaid from ' cauldron 
to cauldron' — hollows, water-wom, in the rocks — ^the 
eddying streem being topped with froth, and the noise 
made 'described as atnkiDg and impressive.' The 
cascade at the Cauldron is 44 feet in he^ht, and far 
below the first fall of the series ; the sheet cornea down, 
at the larger Ml, in lull torrent, its force being shown 
by the ru^ed rocks which are riven in it« course. 

The stiath of the Devon, onwards by Dollar and 
Alloa to Stilling, is beautiful thiou^ont, and much 
visited; the Ochil hills on the right beir^ green, and 
their lower slopes richly wooded, while from the summit 
of Damyat, the highest of the range, and to the west, 
the view commanded is wide in range, and beautiful. 

KiBKWALL — Lerwick. — The Orkneys and Shetland, 
on the extreme N.R of Scotland, the 'Ultima Thule' 
erf travel, and beyond the house of ' John-o'-Groat, ' 
may be rarely explored by the tourist, but are exten- 
sive, Emd of too historic note to be whoUy ignored. 

liie line of steameie which from Granton pier, Edin- 
burgh, maintain the seaward traffic to Aberdeen and 
Caithness, extend their route beyond the Pentland 
frith from Thnrso to Kirkwall, the capital of the Ork- 
ney, and to Lerwick, chief town of the ShoUand isles. 

The sea kings of Scandinavia held high state in 
Kirkwall when Uie soveieigns of Scotland made attempt 
to rule near the Fictish ronnd towers of Abemethy, in 
Stratheam, or the Dalriad prinoee in their stroi^holdB 
in the south end of Cantjre; the Caledonian hordes 
essaying to hold their own ^inst the Boman invaders; 
or l^^M, when southern Scotland onward to Cumberland 
was held by the Scots, and eastern Scotland northward 
from Nortbiunbeiland was under sway of the Saxon. 
L,-., Google 

876 SCOTLANT f-ffirfamH. 

Kirkwall, far nort^ as it is, and wild as the seas 
between the mainland and the Orkney isles are reported 
to be, is safely reached by the sbvngly-bailt and veil- 
manned steomBTB which, under one Company, have main- 
t^ed the goods and passenger traffic of the nurth-west 
and extreme north of Scotlimd and its isles. 

As a burgh, Kirkwall holds its charter from James 
III. 1486; population in 1861, 3,619; constituency, 
167; revenue, 1863-4, ^£166; and is grouped with 
Wick, Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch, and Tain, in 
returning a Member, its quota of voters being about 
one-fifth of those on the rolL As a town, the place 
is of unknown antiquity; but its name is said to ariee 
Iram ite being the eite of the Cathedral of St. M^nuB, 
the tutelar saint of these islands- — Kirkwall, * Kii^- 
great.' The town and the point it gives name to is 
on a peninsular-like section of the Orkney isles, rather 
quaintly named the mainland. 

The town of Kirkwall chiefly consists of one Timin 
street, fix)m the harbour upwards to the ancient Cathe- 
dral, narrow, paved with nags, unequal iu surface, and 
with houses cold-like without, and most of them bnilt 
gable-end to the highway, it has an aspect unusual in 
Scotland — ^north or south. 

As the county town of the Orkney isles, the local 
trade is considerable, and the courts being held there, 
makes society all the better. The hotel is an old one, 
the rooms &ir enough, but fires are in request thiongh- 
out the season. To antiquarians the Cathedral of St. 
Magnus is interesting, in good repair, the church of the 
parish, fitted up with arm wooden stall-like enclosures, 
seldom seen in Presbyterian Scotland; and the pav&- 
ment of the large nave being filled with gravestones, 
brasses here, and effigies there, with legends and in- 
scriptions, is a study for the tourist. 

Tba Cathedral is unueuallf large for the town and 
L,-., Google 

Kirkmdl.] DESCEIBED. 277 

islanda, and is said to have been founded in 1138 by 
ft Count of Orkney, to which Biahop Stewart, in time of 
James IV. added three arches on the east, and a win- 
dow, superior in architecture to the rest of the pile. 
Bishop Eeid, who held the see of the Orkneys in the 
Reformation time, bniit three arches on the weat^ but 
they are unequal in beauty to those on the east. The 
CaUiedral admeaaurea 216 feet in length, 56 in breadth, 
71 to main roof, and 133 to top of the steeple or tower. 
The pillars which support the roof are 15 feet in cir- 
comference, those on which the tower stands 24 feet, 
and they give the plax^e within a sombre look; bnt the 
houses in the old town are heavy also, windows small, 
and stones slaty-like. The east window of the Cathe- 
dral is 36 feet high by 13 broad, with a circular rose 
window above 12 feet in diameter. The choir is said 
to be the only remnant of choral architecture which 
has survived the Kefonnation in Scotland; it is very 
carefully looked to, and occtipied on Sundays. 

In the street or square in which the Cathedral is 
built, stood of old the King's Castle, now in ruins, bnt 
in feudal agea the abode of the Bishops of Orkney; the 
walla are thick, and the cement still so strot^, Uiat it 
is more hard to bring down that maaoniy than to dig 
atone from the quarry. Stewart, Earl oS Orkney, a 
natural son of James V., and of ' the Wolf of Baden- 
och' breed, held for some time the Caatle a^ainat the 
royal troops, but it was captured and deatroyed. To 
thjs bold chieftain is attributed the erection, in 1607, 
of one of the lai^est houses in the town, known as 
the Earl's Palace, and having a main hall 68 feet in 
length,20inbreadth,andl4inheight. The building was 
of two storeys, bnt is now roofless. Near by is a ruin 
known as the Biahop'a Palace, where Haeo, King 
of Norway, returning iiora the rout of Largs, in 1263, 
sickened under his ruined fortunes, turned his &ce to 

278 SCOTLAND [Kirkmail 

the waU, and died. He lies buried in the Cathedral, near 
the etepfl which lead to the ahrine of St. Magnus. The 
Town Hall ahovB well, has a piazza in front, ihe prisons 
on the ground floor, the assembly-rooms above, and the 
courts of justice in an adjoining room, 

Lerwick, chief town of the Shetland ieles, like Kirk- 
wall, and said to be ' on tbe mainland,' is on Bressay 
sound, little more than one-third the size of Kirkwall, 
and is tbe tenmnal port of tbe mail steamers wbiob 
navigate these seas. Although little more than two 
centuries eince the town waa founded, it is more an- 
cient in appearance, the masoniy.of theae northern isles 
soon becomin;g so. Lerwick, as the rendezvous of tbe 
whala-fiahing fleet, crewa being mainly obtained there, 
is of much importance in these seas, and its society has 
influence as being the seat of the local courts of law. 
Some fair share of trade it will also have, there being 
a branch of the Union Bank in tbe town — in Kirk- 
wall there are three banks. Ne&r the north end of 
Lerwick ia Port-Charlotte, built by Cromwell to com- 
mand the entry into Bressay sound. 

The remains of Danish stroi^holds abound in tbe 
Orkney and Shetland isles; and tbe standing stones of 
Stennis, on tbe road from Kirkwall to Stromaeaa, are 
objects of interest to the antiquarian, as tb^ denote 
where tbe rites of Odin were celebrated, before the light 
of Christianity was shed on these isles of the north. In 
this district the scene of the ' Pirate,' by the author of 
Waverley, is laid; and the locality may be tbe more in- 
tereetii^ to tbe tourist on that account. 

Stromness, 12 miles &om Kirkwall, and to which a 
post-gig carrying passengers runs, is little more than 
a century old, but a burgh of barony, prospering as tbe 
head-quarters of tbe herring fleet of these isles, which 
have a couple of banks to look to their earnings. 
The population is double that of Lerwick, and althongb 
L,.., Google 

Lamia^.] DESCRIBED. 279 

the harbour ia iadifTeTent, the ehelt^ of the hay is ex- 
cellent, aitd.the lendezroiia of the Hudson Ba.y veeaela. 

LiULABQ, a village — the chief one — in the isle of 
Arraa, lies west of Brodick, and east of Whiting-Bay, 
wheie the anchorage is ao safe and the shelter bo good, 
that vesBeb caught by foul weather in the upper frith 
of Clyde, resort to the harbour, and a safe berth, not a 
place to load or disload atj as for the latter purpoee the 
island of Anan has little to boast of, the shore pier at 
I^inlash being only acceeaible at high water; and when 
excuraion steamers discharge their crowds, the labour of 
lanHing ig a hard one — out of a small boa^ up a slimy 
stair, and through a staring crowd. 

The Holy Isle forms the shelter of the bay of Lam- 
lash, as it lies southward, the waterway in length and 
breadth ia considerable, and the entrance safe, that from 
the east being the better. The mail steamer from 
ArdroBsan to Airan coiuea to at Lamlash, as do the 
passenger steamers which, in summer, ply to Anan 
from Wemyss-Bay, Greenock, Heknsbui^h, or Glas- 
gow, by the Cowal shore and Bothesay, or that of 
Ayrshire by Largs and the Cumbrae isles, 

There has long been a good inn at Lamlash, with a 
fair number of what in Scotland are termed ' public- 
houses,' where the gill-etoup is in more demand than 
the pot of ale. At tiioes the influx of visitors is ap- 
palling — a thousand, it may be — for an hour or two, 
when shelter from a shower cannot be had by a fourth 
of that number. Take for example a forenoon in Jidy 
1665, when the steam<a% lay ofF the pier, the rain came 
down, and all fled fbt cover; the main room of the 
head inn was a large one, but had a double tier of folks 
in it, doing 'something for the good of the bouse,' 
whether in beer or betto, and puttit^ the waiter girls 
much about by th^ constant pulling of the bells. 


280 SCOTLAND [Ltmark. 

The locality ia so inviting, and house accommodation 
80 scarce, that the rates esacted are pToportioiiat«l7 high; 
but the beech trees are maay, their shelteT ia good, and 
it does fall oat on aummer nigbte that jovial parties, 
as many in double tier as con place their backs all 
round the trunks, 'with pipe in mouth and pot in hand, 
see the moon set and the aim rise, waiting till their 
stemner be ready to take them off the island. 

The Holy Isle is of small extent, the height nearly 
1,000 feet, and so named as the cell of St. Molios vas 
there; and the grotto he occupied, with the water well- 
it^ from it, was a 'station' in Popish times — where the 
afflicted looked for miraculous cures. 

Lahark — county town of the shira of Lanark, and 
chief place in the Upper Ward, or division, of that shire 
— has been, &om the Boman era downwards, known in 
the annals of Scotland; and to the peasant it is famous 
as where their hero, 'the Wallace wight,' began the 
stn^le for the liberation of his country, which resulted 
in biii^Lng bim to the scaffold in London, but ended 
in Scotland being ' set free' at Bannockbum. Tor the 
alaughter of aome of hia myrmidons, Hesilrig, the Ei^- 
lish governor of the castle of Lanark, seized Marion 
Broadfoot, the bride of Wallace, and murdered her — a 
fold act which was wiped out in hia blood. In front of 
the parish church is placed a statue of Wallace; and 
there is not an urchin in the burgh of Lanark but can 
take the tourist to those places in the town associated 
with the name of this hero of their country. 

Of the ancient castle no remains exis^ but of the 
'old chnrch and the aisle and pillars under which Wal- 
lace firat met hia bride, the ruing are extensive. The 
kirk-yard, a lai^e one, has many stones, with legenda 
inscribed for ' men of their time,' who lie buried there. 
The most imposing building in the town of Lanark is 
L , _ , , Google 

Lanark.] DESCRIBED. 281 

a Catbollo church, recently erected, and chiefly at the 
cost of a proprietot in the parish eastward, who, heing 
a pervert from Protestaiitism, is a Catholic of no ordi- 
nary zeal, and is bo lavish in euppott of his present 
&ith, that there may yet he a ' Samt Eobert' canonised 
from the Scottish gentry! The pnispeot &oni the 
grounds near this Catholic church is fine, aa the whole 
dale of the Clyde from Lanark to Hamilton lies uodet 
view. To be a town so old there are few remains of 
antiqnity to be found in lanaik; but as the fairs and 
markets are many, and well fi«qnented, the 'open 
houses' are numerous, and &irly patronised, ae is the 
'hotel,' where the tourist will find due accommodation 
iftempted to visit the 'Fallsof Clyde;' and the grounds 
near the latter are a favoorite reeort for excursionist 
parties— {wnBumeiB of milk and ginger beer. 

The If ew Lanark mills, where Robert Owen conducted 
his educational experiments, are large, esoellently ma- 
naged, and well worth- visiting. Although a small 
building exists in Rothesay, where cotton was first 
spun in Scotland, the Tnilli erected at New I^nark, in 
1783, by the late David Dale, an eminent philanthro- 
pist of his day, were those which led the way to the 
development of a branch of indnetry now of leading 
importance in Britain and elsewhere, 

Lanark received its charter of bui^hal privil^efl fivim 
David L It is coeval in that respect with Rutiterglen, 
and both were places of note when Glasgow was not 
Population in 1861 vras 6,384; constituency 223; 
revenue .£1,041. The parish church, more commodious 
than elegant, is nearly in centre of the town, with a 
square space on the south, whence the broad main street 
l«tds to the railway station ; on the west, a narrow out- 
let leads off to the i'alls of Clyde; on the north, by a 
steep descent, is the way to the bridges over the Clyde 
for Hamilton, or the Mouse for Carluke: and eastward. 

282 SCOTLAND [Lanark. 

on the roadway for Cleghom etstion, ia a street, with 
houses chiefiy of recent erection, and coDtaining the 
ooiinty-buildiiigs, jail, banks, &c. To be a plaoe so 
ancient^ the town of Lanark has few old historic houses 
within its limits; as chief town in the county, it is of 
no great size, the street architecture unequal, and the 
people living in lanes and closes, many of them earning 
their bread by the loom. The bairaok recently built 
for the militia of the county is in the ceighbourhDod, 
and near it the race-course, where the yeomanry are 
drilled. Society is good, the county courts meeting there, 
and bank agent^, lawyers, merchants, and dealers abound- 
ing; while in the neighbourhood, the sit«s for villas are 
so good— land, wat«r, hill and dale, all so finely disposed 
— that homes for the prosperous enrich the district; the 
more eo that by the branch railway &om L>ouglas, it is 
within five mUes of the Caledonian line at Caretaira 
from Glasgow for Carlisle and the south. 

The ' House of Lee,' the home of the Lockharts of 
that ilk, is in the ne^hbourhood; the grounds near i( 
extensive, rich, and well laid out. The old abode of the 
Baillies of Jerviswood, another iamily of historic name, 
is at Cl^hom ; and there was of old the Eomau camp, 
of great extent, and well described by General Roy, the 
antiquarian. Recently a work of great size has been 
erected on the Lanark moor, for the manuiaotuie of 
mineral oil, a growing branch of wealth in the ooai 
districts. Coal abo'mds in Douglas, Lesmahagow, and 
Carluke parishes, to south, west, and north; but lime 
and stone excepted, the parish of Lanark possesses no 
minerals. The Falls of Clyde form the attraction of 
tourists to the district, and these, from Bonnington above 
to Stonebyres below the town, have had due notice in 
these topographic pages. The Mouse water, the ravines, 
rocks and fine cascades, are alike interesting to the 
tourist and instructive to the geologist. 

Lc^gi.] DESCRIBED. 283 

Labob, MutPOBT, and Wbhtbs-Bat, as eea-botJung 
placea of reaoit oa the southern ehoie of the lower 
frith of Clyde, deserve notice; and as being the place 
of moat ancient repute Iai^ may firat come under 
review. In the aimala of Scotland, I«igs figures as 
the battl&^und on which the Danes aid Scots en- 
countered each other, when, on October 2, 1263, the 
nortjiem invaders were routed, driven back to their 
galleys, scattered by a etorm, and Haco, their King, re- 
tired to Kirkwall, to die and be buried there, 

'Out of the world and into Lai^s' wbs half-«-century 
ago said of the district; and although well opened up 
1^ steamers which mn direct fiom Glasgow, or now 
ply from the railway at Wemysa-Bay, still it is less on 
the stream of traffic than is Dunoon, further up the 
Clyde, and being aside &om the h^hway from Ayr- 
shue to Lanarkshire it was of old hard to get at. Lines 
of railway southward to Dairy, and eastward to Wemyss- 
Bay, are both in ' course of promotion,' and when made, 
the town of Largs loay prosper. 

The site of La^ is a fine one, well watered, on a 
gravelly beach, with a wide bay, well sheltered, and 
the town is less cramped for space than are the mo- 
dem watering-places across the frith. The place is 
neat in appearance, but grows slowly, having been 
last centu^ of more local importance liian it now is, 
the 'f^ of Lai^s' being in those days crowded to 
from Airan, But^ and Cuttyre. 

Brisbane House and Kelbume Castle, the latter a seat 
of the Earl of Glasgow, give an aristocratic air to the dis- 
trict; while traces of the struggle with the Danes marked 
the plain not long since; and near the parish church is 
an aisle, built in 1636 by Sir Bobert Montgomery of 
Skelmorlie, richly carved, with an arch of double com- 
partments, resting on 18 Corinthian pillars, crowned 
with a globe, and inscribed with texts from Holy WriL 
L,-., Google 

284 SCOTLAND [Larg9. 

The stone pier is free to passengers, bat has little traffic 
bejoad that of the passing steamer; and the popula- 
tion depend on the loom for subaistence, neither herring 
nor whitings being much fished for. 

Westward of Lai^ ia the eea-bathing hamlet of 
Fairlie, which, being away from the village, is more 
pretentious in appearance, the houses good, not many; 
theoccupanta have to walk to Larga, or board the steamer 
by a small boat, the shore being shallow. 
. Across the bay of Large is the island of Cumbrae the 
lai^er; the lesser, on the outer frith, being known only 
because of the lighthouse placed thra« to show the 'f&ve 
way of ttie Clyde.' The village of Millport, on the 
'mnokle Cumbrae isle,' is the western place of sea- 
bathing resort on the southern shore of the Clyde; 
Ardrossan, Troon, and Ayr being more accessible by 
land than by water. TheCombraesformaportionofthe 
county of Bute. The main island is less than i miles 
in extent, from K. £. to S. W., and about 2 miles in 
breadth; and the lesser is a mile in length, by half-a- 
mile in breadth, the channel between ^em being so 
narrow that^ looked at from a distance, they seem to 
form one island, bnt between them is a safe track 
for the steamers which ply from Greenock by Lai^ to 
Arran; for ships, there is no inducement to divei^e, 
as although the etymol<^ of Cumbrae is said to mean 
'refine,' yet the water ia not deep, and. — -the shelter 
was indifferent for the galleys of Haco! 

To the geologist, the Cumbrae isles are interesting, 
aa being traversed by trap dykes, locally named 'rippel 
walls,' two of which on the east run nearly parallel, but 
600 to SOO yards apart; that on N. E. is about 100 feet 
in length, 40 in height 10 to 12 in thickness; and the 
dyke on 8. is upwards of 200 feet in length, 70 to 80 
high, 12 to 16 thick, and from one point of view it 
looks like, and is called ' the Lion.' These trap dykes 

LeadJiUlg.] DESCRIBED. 286 

have withstood the action of the weather, while the led 
sandstone on either hand has yielded to the ocean wave. 
Small as is the larger Cumbrae, it rises in the centre 
to nearly 450 feet high, and has a couple of lochs. 

Millport, as a sea-bathing place, has much to recom- 
mend it, the site being fair, the houses neat, the beach 
good, and although the small harbour has rocks enough 
about, with a soathem exposure the place is sheltered 
and waim. It ie within 3 miles of the Ayrshire coast, 
S S.W. of La^B, about 12 S.E. of Rothesay, and, by 
water, twice that distance south of Greenock. Hotel 
accommodation is fairj and the noble family of Glasgow, 
irho own most of the larger island, have a marine resi- 
dence called 'the Gairison;' and near it is an Episcopal 
eetabliBhment termed the 'College.' 

Wemysa-Bay, on the southern shore of the frith of 
Clyde, nearly opposite t« Innellan, and near, wh»« 
the shires of Renfrew and Ayr meet, to the entrance 
to the bay of Rothesay, with Cumbrae, Anan, Bute, 
Argyle, the channel of the Clyde, its trafEc, and Dnm- 
bartonshiie in the distance, itiake it one of the most 
attractive of sea-bathing localities, and, being near the 
terminus of a railway diiect from Glasgow, it prospers. 
The houses, although few, are good, the hotel is excellent, 
and steamers now ply across the Clydb for Largs, Anan, 
and Rothesay, so that the tourist will find few placea 
better worth visiting, or more pleasant to tairy at. 

Lbadhhj*— in the parish of Crawford, the Upper 
Ward of Lanarkshire, the southern highlands of Scot- 
land, on the watershed of Clydesdale and Kithsdale, 
the highest inhabited land in !North Britain, where 
gold was sought for, and lead has been found — is a lo- 
cality off the track of tourists, but worth expbring, with 
railway access on east, west, and north, and 'A Noble ' 
to wait apos them when there. 

L,-._, Google 

288 SCOTLAND [LeadhiiU. 

In aspect the h^hlauda of the south and the norUi 
of SootUud differ; in the south, the hills range about 
2,000 feet in hei^t, rise gradually, many have broken 
suT&ceA — 'scanre' the natives call them— and are 
usually green all over, and not hard to climb; in tiie 
north, the 'comes,' or hollaws, in the mountainB are 
many, the height 3,000 to 4,000 feet, predpitoos, 
bold, with Tavinea, glens, bleak and dark. 

The ascent to Leadhills, from the banks of the river 
Clyde at Abington station, leads through Glengonnar, 
The distance is 6 miles, the bum by the road grows 
slowly, and its watere ore so impregnated with vasMngs 
from the ores near its sonice, that few trout are found 
in it, but such as ewi be caught are diligently sought 
for, it being the amosement of the miners to spend 
their leisure on its banks, and thraeh well the small 
stream for fiah — a pnrBuit heolthfol at least, especially 
to men who extract their equivalents for food from the 
dark levels they work under. 

Traces exist of the mines at Leadhills having been 
wrought in the time of the Romans; but it is more 
than three centuries since, in the search for gold, lead 
was found in such abundance as to cause a village to 
be founded, and with various intorvals of prosperity 
and the reverse, the work has be^i continued, the ptnm- 
lation of the district proper ranging liom 1,200 to 800 
souls; their houses, which are free to them as labouring 
there, are built on a comparatively level spot, north of the 
Low^er hills, on the border of the shires of Dumiiies 
and Lanark, about one mile square being parcelled out 
among the miners, cultivat«d in part by spade labour, 
or gn^ed over by the cows they are entitled to keep, and 
which under one herd pasture tf^ther. 

The earnings of the miners at Leadhills are, on the 
average, less than those obtained in the coal and iron 
districts; but they are a peculiar people, with few Irish 
L,-., Google 

Leadkah] DESCEIBED. 287 

among them, living quietly and soberly together, having 
church, Bchool, and libraiy of their own, and although 
they are paid as they may prove fortunate, working on 
what is termed ' venture,' they live comfortably in their 
small, high-TOofed, thatched cottages, 'delve Uteir kail- 
yards,' are a contented set; and -when carried to their 
village burying-ground, the attendance ia bn^ and 
creditable ; that at church is good also. In this burying- 
ground is a stone inscribed as covering one who died 
at the age of 137 years! Life at Leadhills may be of the 
averse let^;th, but the tomb-atones attest that ntaiiy 
of those lying there have met with sudden deaths, as 
might be looked for from their occupation. 

The land around belongs to the noble femily of Hope- 
toun, who have a lordship on the lead ' won ' from the 
mines; and these, within the last few years, have been 
leased wholly by one mining company. There were two 
before, who went to law, and for half a lifetime waet«d 
money to a fabulous amount in settlii^ whether one or 
both were entitled to useofthesmall stream which turned 
their machinery! It came to a 'buy me or I buy you' 
settlement; and the one who acquired the sole right to 
labour there has expended heavily on improvement of 
the works above and below ground — the latter espe- 
cially, making it more healthy, more safe for the miner, 
and much more productive for the employer. 

Allan fiamsay, the pastoral poet of Scotliuid, was a na- 
tive o^ and spent the first fifteen years of his life at, Lead- 
hills. Becoming first a barber, then a man of letters in 
Edinburgh, he prospered, and bequeathed to Leadhills a 
Ubraiy, extensive for the place, which has been kept up 
and improved, the books well selected, and looked to by 
a committee of the miners, who are reading men. 

An inn, of fair proportion for the village, has been 
tiieiQtimeoatofmind;butanother, almost lai^ enough 
to be called a hotel, has been recently erected by ^« 
L,-., Google 

288 SCOTLAND [Leith. 

'lord of tbe manor,* and at a cost greater than would 
rebuild all the houses in the vill^e — the old manae 
included. Water is brought iato the village, and a 
fountain placed near it, by one who went out a poor 
youth to the mines of South America, but came home, 
in middle age, a rich man. From the station at Elvan- 
foot the distance is five miles by the Shortcleogh ' 
water, and there are no tolls on the road. 

Wanlockhead, where lead is wrought as at Lead- 
hills, is about one mile to the S.W,, in the parish of 
Sanqnhar, in Dumfriesshire, at the source or head of 
the Wanlock water, and on the estate of the nobis 
&mily of Buccleuch, in whofle interest the mines there 
are worked. There is neither inn nor public-house in 
the village; but there are both Eatabliahed and Free 
churches,, with schools attached; and the site is more 
picturesque than is that of Leadhilla, the road west- 
ward by Minnock for Sanquhar being one of the most 
beautiftU in Scotland, north or south; and the outline 
of the country— Wanlock and Leadhills — being pro- 
nounced by Ilichardson, the traveller, aa singularly 
like that of Palestine, and he could judge, his brother 
having been long minister of the parish of Kiikconnel, 
which is just west of that of Sanquhar. 

Leith, of old the seaport of Edinburgh, is now so 
connected by streets, that, like Gateshead and New- 
castle, Salford and Manchester, they seem as one; but 
the ancient town has a history, and merits notice. 

The water of Leith rises on the northern slopes of 
the Fentland hills, and is passed by the Caledonian 
railway at Slateford, and by that, from Glasgow direct, 
near Coratorphine, It has paper mills on its upper, 
and grain mi I la on its lower course; and although, 
when leaving the city of Edinburgh, it appears at 
Urnea to have soaroo water enough in It t« float a duck, 

L , - . ;c.oo^ic 

leitk.] DESCRIBED. 289 

yet, at its junction with the Forth, are formed docks 
deep enough foi a frigate to be berthed in. 

In matters ecclesiastical, Leith is divided into two 
parishes north and eouthj the former, previoua to the 
Reformation, belonged to Holyrood and St. Cuthhert's; 
the latter was originally known aa Eestalr^, the parson 
' of that parish having Bvom fealty in 1296 to Edward I. 
In the stormy period preceding the Reformation in Scot- 
land, ]>ith was fortifiei by the French auxiliaries of Mary 
of Lorraine; the ramparts were demohshed in 1560, 
and replaced in 1571 ; but scarce a trace now remains 
of their existence. Under Cromwell, a citadel of con- 
siderable extent was erected, which was destroyed on the 
restoration of Charles II.; an archway remains, and the 
place is known as 'the CitedeL' The Fort of Leith, which 
is a short way west of the harbour, was erected oa a 9^n 
battery about a hundred years ago, but is now the chief 
artillery barrack station for Korth Britain. 

In the old town of Leith the streets are narrow and 
crooked; the houses antique, quaint, unequal in struc- 
ture; and the place has much to induce the antiqua- 
rian to inspect it — not a few of the buildings being of 
historic interest, as kings, queens, and generals have 
lodged in them. Leith-walk — the 'Broadway' between 
Leith and Edinbuj^h — is of considerable length, but 
is slowly built over, neither the burgh nor the city 
seeming to care to approach each other. The links (or 
green) of Leith are of considerable size; and the sands 
to the westward, when the tide is low, are exten- 
eive. Leith became a Parliamentary burgh in 1833; 
population 33,628; constitnency 1,992; revenue X6S5. 
As a seaport, Leith is of national importance, from its 
Baltic Mid Continental trade; its extensive import of 
grain and wines; and the number of screw steamers 
connected with the port. At the harbour of Gran- 
ton, a short wt^ up the Forth, the passenger steamer 
T ,Goo>;Ic 

290 SCOTLAND [Lesmahagoim. 

traffic between London and the north of Scotland is 
chiefly carried on now, the piers there being accessible 
at any state of the tide. Leith is prosperous, and its 
environs show it to be so, as the new streets are good, 
and the abodes of the merchants handsome. 

Lkskahaoow, a pariah in the Upper Ward of Lanark- 
shire, lying between the dale of the Clyde and the 
moors of Ayrshire, is of conaideiable extent, and emi- 
nently prosperous, from the devolopment of its mineral 
wealth — gas cool at present — iron in prospect. 

The parish is nearly bisected by the N ethan water, a 
stream of no great size but picturesque in a high degree, 
from the village of Abbey Green, by the ruined walls 
of Craignethan Castle to the wooded dells above the 
hamlet of Croaaford, where it flows into the Clyde, 

Centuries ago, the Abbey of Lesmahagow was one of 
the most richly endowed of the ecclesiastical establish- 
ments in Scotland, giving protection to the district, and 
sufferii^ in the wars with England. Of the old Abbey, 
few toaces exist; but its 'Annals' can be read in a work 
recently produced by a learned proprietor in the die- 
■ trict, or, in less detwl, in the ' Upper Ward of Lanark- 
shire Described,' a book lately published. 

In the persecution times of Charles II. and James II. , 
Lesmahagow suffered severely, her hills and moors being 
watered with the blood of the martyrs; tales and mon- 
uments of whom are rife there ; and of the 45 churchea 
of the Cameronian body, 2 are in this district. 

Craignethan Castle, built by Hamilton of Draphane, 
architect of the palace of Linhtbgow, understood to be 
the Tillietudlem Castle of the tale of 'Old Mortality,' 
offers considerable attraction to the tourist, as few ruins 
eidst in better preservation, or from site and stoiy 
better deserve inspection. The Castle can be approached 
from Crossfoid in Clydesdale, a few Siiles below Lamik; 
L,-., Google 

LewU.] DESCRIBED. 291 

but there the highway teTiimut«8, the path westward 
being by the wooded bulks of deNethan, Euid the walk, 
about a couple of miles, is one (f rare beauiy. From 
the weet, access can be had p ^e Castle by the upper 
strath of the Nethan, and fom that point the Castle 
shows well. The ruins sfe estenaive, the enclosoie 
Isi^e, and the Toom showiwhere Maiy, Queen of Scots, 
lodged in her flight from^och-Leven Castle. 

The old house of Ijlaawood on the north, and the 
renovated mansion of /tonebyres on the south, the 
modem mansions of J^chinheath, Auchlochan, Anch- 
tyfardle, Birkwood, Ktrse, and others attest the wealth 
of the district; and if does seem strange that a locality 
so thriving should Kmain without railway passenger 
accommodation — thf natives being content to travel 
to and from Hamilton by a 'biia! The railway viaduct 
over the Nethan wsteris 160 feet in height. The Falls 
of Clyde — BonniDgton, Cora, and Stonebyrea — are in 
Lesmahagow parish, on the southern bank of the Clyde 
— Clydesdale proper being its eastern mtmjh. 

Lewis, Stobnowat, and Wester Bobs are in direct 
eommuiucatioD with Glasgow, chiefly by the eteamerB 
Clansman and Clydesdale; and the district is so at- 
tractive, to the angler in partioular, that some outline 
of the Tonte to it should be showa. 

The deep-aea steamer, rounding the Mull of Cantyre, 
proceeds to Oban, thence by the Sound of Mull and 
Isle of Skye, to Gairloch, across the stormy Minch 
channel, and makes the Lewis at Stomoway. Gair- 
loch is a short way off the sea, but well-wooded on its 
upper shore, with a snag inn, and in a locality where 
fish abound. Loch-Matee lies not far off, and there the 
an^er has sport enough. Loch-Carton and the village 
of Jeantown are alao in the district^ and the mail-road 
&Dm Dingwall on the east comee in there. 

. ,. ,, Google 

292 SCOTLAND [Letmt. 

Lewis, locally called ' the Lews,' is the chief island 
of the outer Hebridean chain, and known as ' the long 
island;' Bam, Benbetula, Harris, and Uist K. and S,, 
beii^ of the group. Lewis, ahout 40 miles long, in 
Bome places 24 br(»d, is in Wester Ross, was or^iMlly 
the laiid of the U'Leod, and latterly possessed by the 
H'Kenzies. It is now the proper^ of Mathieeon of 
Aehany, whose ancestors were from Kintail, who won 
wealth in the far east, and has for years past spent 
much of it right worthily in improving the loi^ n&- 
glected isles of these western seas. Huris belongs to 
the Murrays; the Macdonalds hove North TJist; the 
Gordons own Barra and South Uist 

Traces, stems of trees found, show that wood once 
abounded in these isles, now so bare of timber. Stor- 
noway, on the east coast of Lewis, is the only town of 
importance in the outer Hebrides; it was founded by 
James IV., is a bvirgh of barony, has a fair harbour, 
with lighthouse to lead to it, the population is consi- 
derable, the town is neat, and proapering alike by the 
enei^ of its merchants and the fostering care of the 
lord of the manor, whose abode at Stomoway Castle 
shows well, the ground there being cultivated, enclosed, 
and planted at no small cost and with much care. In 
the town there are two banks, and twice that number 
of churches. In the season, herring fishing is eagerly 
prosecuted, lobsters are largely caught, and the shore of 
the river is usefiil in dryii^ the cod and ling which 
abound in the seas there. 

The tourist season, if clear and fair weather mean 
such, is a short one in these islands — July to August 
making the summer, and autumn closing with October. 
Although Lewis has no great heights, the mountains 
in Barra and Harris ar« rugged and lofty, and the island 
streams are many, lai^e, and ftill of fish. A line of screw 
steameie runs from the Clyde to these islands. 

Linlithgow.] DESCRIBED. 293 

LimitTaoow, Falkibe, and GnuiaBicoDTH are on or 
near tiie line of railway, until of late known as the 
Edinboi^h & Gla^ow, and may be grouped together 
in this article. Linlithgow, chief town of the ahire of 
that name, aometimea called West Lothian, is by rail- 
way 18 miles south-west of Edinburgh, 30 miles eaet 
of Glasgow, and was the second stage on the old mail-. 
coach road &om Edinburgh to Glasgow. Linlithgow 
owes its bu^hal privileges to David I., who built and 
endowed the church there; — ^population, 5,384; consti- 
tuency, 130; revenue, j£444. As a burgh it is grouped 
with Falkirk, Airdrie^ Hamilton, and Lanark, lowing 
about one-twelfth of the votes at the polling. 

Tradition allegea that the town was founded by 
King Achaius, and antiquarians identify it with the 
Lindiim of the Bomans. The industry of the town 
has been long that of tanning, and in the days of 
David I. the trade in leather may have begun, as that 
prince granted to the Abbot of Holyrood the ' akina of 
the Iambs, sheep, and rams of his lands at Linlithgow.' 
The bailies of the town swore fealty to Edward I. in 
1296; in 1341 Edward Saliol assigned to Edward IIL 
hia interest in the town and castle; and in 1348, when 
Berwick and Boxbtu^h were held by the English, the 
bur^s of Lanark and Linlithgow were in the parliament 
by David II. recognised as auch in their place. In 
1386, Bobert 11. mortgaged the customs of linlithgow, 
Edinburgh, Dumbarton, and Aberdeen, to meet some 
pensions due — ^the inference being that Linlithgow then 
had trade, and was of national weight. 

James II. in 1449, James III. in 1438, and James 
IV. in 1503 settled Linlithgow and its castJes, customs, 
&c., on their queens. A Palace was built at Linlith- 
gow, and added to by many of the kings, but its chief 
architectiiral beauties are due to the taste of Sir James 
Hamilton, known as ' the bastard of Arran,' and one of 

294 SCOTLAND [Linlitkgow. 

tlie most truculent men of a savage age. The FaUce 
ma bomed by Hawley's dragoona in 1746; but enough 
y»i remaine to interest the tourist, and the more so, as 
-within these ruined balls. Maty Queen of Scots fitetsaw 
the light. Her dying father, when told of a daughter 
bom to him, stud ' The crown came to the Stuarts with 
a lass, and it will go with a lass ' — a propbecyl 

"When Linlithgow was 'a royal dwelling,' many of 
the nobility of Scotland had town houses there; and 
from tlie balcony of one belonging to Hamilton, Aivh- 
Inshop of St. Andrews, the Regent Murray (the ' good 
Earl,' as the people called him) was shot on January 23, 
1569, by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugb, the assassin es- 
caping;- and that foul deed is rendered into verse by Sir 
"Walter Scott, in the ballad of 'Cadmw Caetle.' The 
house still exists, and the carbine Bothwellhaugh used 
is preserved ia Hamilton Palace. Parliaments were 
frequently held in Linlithgow, and the ancient town 
appears often in the annals of Scotland; but it has not 
risen to commercial importance, the small harbour of 
Blackness, on the Forth, being that of the town; but 
when Djsart and St Andrew's, in Fife, had commerce, 
a share may then have come to Linlithgow. 

The ruins of the Palace are extensive, and guide- 
books descripti-TB of all in relation to it can be had on 
the spot. The small locb near the ancient Palace adds 
beauty to the scene, and aU is wbU seen from the rail- 
way on the route westward. The district is fertile, and, 
as the county courts are held there, the to-wn is still of 
local importance, and the- -villas about are good. 

Falkirk, by railway 8 miles west of Linlithgow, is 
well seen from the trMU, as its crowded streets, steeple, 
and kirk-yard lie at no great distance fiwm and between 
the railways; the river Forth, with the Oehil and the Sa- 
line hills in the distance. The town became a burgh 
ofParliamentinl833; — population, 9,030; constitaency, 

loeh-Aiee.] DESCEIBED. 29B 

132; levenoe, £1,165; and is the returning one of the 
gnnip it gives name to. Goal abounds in. this section 
of Stirlingahiie; inm is also largely made; the Cairon 
works are not fiir off; the railway rune above and be- 
low the town; the Union canal b^ins there, and the 
Fortli & Clyde canal passes by it, so that the town 
does prosper, and is likely to continue to do so. 

Being on the direct route from Edinburgh, to Stirling, 
Falkirk has been the scene of strife; Wallace having 
fought his last battle there on July 22, 1398, when, 
overborne by numbers, the Scots were slaughtered. 
Sir John Graham, the ' right hand' of the patriot hero, 
fell there, and his grave is shown in the kirk-yard of tbe 
parish. On January 17, 1746, the royal troops, under 
General Hawley, were met and driven from the field by 
the clans under Prince Charles Edward 

Grai^emouth, on the Forth, is within 3 miles of 
Falkiik, where the canal, the 'Forth and Clyde,' 
b^ins; it is connected by railway with the disteicta 
around, and is growing in prosperity; the dock accommo' 
dation is ample, and steamers to the Tyne, the Thames, 
and the Continent run fr«m the port. 

LocH-AwB, Pabb oj Mel»irt, and Obas. — The 
shire of Aigyle is extensive, but there are few places 
in it which are more than ten miles from s^ or loch; 
and numerous as the lochs are, few are freEih like Loch- 
Lomond and Loch-Awe. As an inland piece of water, 
Loch-Lomond is both greater in size, and it may be 
more pictnresque throughout than is Loch-Awe, the 
cluster of its islands between Lues and Balmaha being 
beantifuL Islands, too, are on the broad bosom of 
Loch-Awe, with 'castles grey' upon them; they are 
fewer and less finely disposed, but the ' Cruachan-Ben,' 
so well seen from 'lusfoot to Ids crown,' is of unmatched 
beauty, and compenaatee for lack of islEuids. 

396 SCOTLAND [Loch-Awe. 

Had the pen of tlie Novelist andPoet of the north been 
as freelj employed in Ar^le as it was in Perthshire, the 
loeahty now under review might have been ere now the 
Tesoit of the tourist; and that they are now made ac- 
quainted with its attractions, able to traverse the district 
quickly and comfortably, is due to the enterprise of the 
builder, owner, and ' captain ' of the Lady of the Ls^e 
(3. B.) jjaced there in 1861, and with such success that, 
for season 1867, a saloon steamer, with all ' lona' com- 
forts, is expected to take its place. 

From the hamlet of Ford, at no great distance &om 
the Crinan canal, to the western spnrs of Cruachan, 
and near Loch-Etive, the length of Loch- Awe may be 28 
miles ; it is narrow at the southern end, but broad where 
the floods of Glenorehy pour into its bosom, sweep 
round the isle on which stand the niins of Coalchum 
Castle, and iind an outlet, by the pass of Brandir and 
the rapids of the river, into the ivestem loch on whose 
lower shore rises Dunstaihiage. As &irly advertised, 
the passenger traffic on this route is maintained by a 
coach leaving Oban in the morning, mnoing by the 
southern bank of Loch-£tive to Taynuilt and Brandir, 
embarking in the steamer there, moving on by the 
broad Waters under Cruachan, comii^ to under Innis- 
trynich, continuing the course to Ford, thence by coach, 
in waiting, for Ardrishaig on Locb-Fyne, 

Iteversing the route, as does the steamer on her re- 
turn, that from Loch-Fyne will be described. In wait- 
ing upon the saloon steamers from Glasgow, Greenock, 
and Helenabui^h, a coach will be found at Ardrishaig, 
by which those 'booked through* (and tourists are ad- 
vised so to do) start soon after noon, take the route by 
Loch-Gilp, the neat village of that name beii^ on the 
right, the Crinan canal on the left, and soon reaching the 
loi^ level under Caim-Ban, east of the Add, and below 
the green braes of Kilmichael Glassary, as Uie parish 

LocJt-AKe.] DESCRIBED. 297 

travetBed is named, tihe road — and it i& btoad and good — 
leads to Kilmartin, crosses the Add, where fish abovind, 
and tope the gentle ascent crowned with the ruins of 
Carnaasarie Castle, and enriched ■with the extensive 
domains of Foltalloch, Calton-more, the seat of the 
Ualcolma, who are among the richest of the com- < 
moners of North Britain, their acres stretching nearly 
BO miles in length. The district is a warm one — weU 
enclosed, wooded, and settled; and the parochial village 
of Kilmartin, about. 8 milee from Aidrishaig, is neat^ 
not large, but finely placed. 

A few miles onward, and the road by Melfort holds 
westward — that for Ford, on Loch-Awe, leading off to 
the right, throt^b Glen-Urie, the hills above which 
are unique in outline, not monntaius, but bold, craggy, 
high, green; and the basin, glen, or strath, between 
them looks as if a loch had occupied it, the boulders, 
water-wom like masses of granite, being scattered all 
round. Crops may be unsafe, late of ripening, but the 
meadovs seem rich, the herbage verdant, and such 
stretches of sheltered low land must be valuable to the 
sheep farmer in these Alpine districts. As the southern 
end of Loch-Awe is approached, the road is leee vide 
after divergii^ &om the Calton-more policies, the lower 
end of Loch'Awe is reached, and seems almost pond- 
like in appearance, with the house of Ederline finely 
placed on the right, wood abundant, old, and good; 
and beyond the channel which appears, oanal-like, to 
connect the lesser with the larger loch, the hamlet of 
Ford is found, near it a chapel of small size, and at. 
the wayside inn fair comfort will be found. 

Descending tothewooden pier, the deck of the steamer 
isgained. 'Move on'passed to the engineer; and smoothly 
the craft glides into the loch which, from first to last, 
has features of varied beauty. From Ford until near 
Port'Sonachan, the breadth is, on the average, little 

S98 SCOTLAND [Loeh-AiM. 

more than one mile; the bays few, the hills to light and 
left of moderate height; the eastward being Atgyle pro- 
per, beyond it liea Loch-Fyne and Inreraray; that on the 
weat is Nether-Lora, and furtlier west liea the steamer 
track from Crinan to Oban. In the hollows of the 
hills, and little below their summits, are tarns, lochlets, 
in which trout of large size and superior Savour are 
found; those in the Inveraray district are called the 
'black loche' — the hills are black enough — and liberty 
to fish is obtained by the hotel-keqper from the fector; 
such is the rule in Lsch-Fyne, where ai^lers resort On 
the mountains above Loch'Awe, the stranger ^tas more 
liberty and will have not less sport. 

On the west is a place which the natives are pleased to 
oallNew-York. But whereis the Hudson riveri and where 
the points of resemblance!. The lai^uogeof the Gael must 
be getting exhausted, whenrecourae is had to such pnerils 
namii^ of placea Neat by is Dalavich — Dal, ' place ^ 
Loch-Avich to the west is of considerable size, and by 
its banks a coontry road leads down by Glen-i>oine to 
the head of Loch-Craignish for Scarha, Gorryrreckan, 
and Jura. 8. K is the inlet of Kaims, and further on 
a group of islets — one of them crowned with an ivied 
ruin, Ard-Connel, a seat of the Macnaughtons of old; 
the wood below the castle walls is nmbrageonB, the 
turf soft and green, and the locality for pic-nic parties 
tempting as 'Ellen's Isle ' — so famed in the south; and 
when the railway gets into operation from Colander to 
Cruaohan, crowds may find their way to that lovely 
spot — at present abandoned to the artist. 

Two-thirds of Loch-Awe, from Ford to Beandir, are 
over when Port-Sonachan is reached, the breadth con- 
tracting toHttlemore than half a mile, the depth great, 
the ferry safe, and a good inn on either side of the loch, 
with no small temptation for those of angling propen- 
eitiee to abide th«^. Of the two houses, diat on tha 

LoeJirAwe.] DESCBIBEI). 299 

sontb. may be the moie conunodionB. In the old inn 
on the north, Christopher Korth spent many a vacation, 
he was a keen angler, loved the district, and has de- 
scribed the locality welL By crossing Loub-Ave at 
Fort-Sonachan, the road between Oban and Inveraray 
is made ahorter by one third; and the drive by Glen- 
Nant to Taynidit is of sorpassing beauty, the bosky dells 
being little inferior in atbwition to the Trossachs or the 
most bepiaiaed locaHties sonth or north. 

The lands to the east and west, above Port-Sonachan, 
have been recently acquired by a gentleman well re- 
membered in Leadbilla, who has prospered at Leitb, 
and whose settlement here promises well for the 
development of the attractions and resources of Loch- 
Awe aide. At Innistrynich (where 'in,' 'innis,' or 
■ 'eilan,' appear in Ceitio topography, an island may be 
looked for) the 'Lady of the Lake' blows off her 
steam, and' those passengers booked for Inveraray by 
Loch-Awe are landed, a coach being in waiting to 
convey them; and the first few miles of the road by 
Gladich are beantifol indeed. At Cladich is a snng 
inn; near it is one of the smallest and moat ancient- 
like of churches; and, on crowning the biH , a short 
way south, wiU be found — what Pennant declares, 
and he was an authority — one of the finest views in 
Europe : the expanse of Loch-Awe lies below, above 
rises the Cruachan-Ben, Coalcbum Caatle, Inveiawe, 
G-lenstrae, and Gtlenorcby, all in view. 

Under the shadow of Cruachan the isles are many, 
some of them most poetically named, as InnishsU, 
'the isle of beauty' — where was a convent of old, the 
chapel in use until 1736; and to the burying-ground 
there, the bodies of the departed were carried — few 
sights being more grand, or sounds more impressive, 
than the funeral of the chief, when carried across the 
waters to sleep beside his forefathers — the wail of the 

300 SCOTLAND [Loeh-Awe. 

b^pipe awaking the echoes of mountain and shore. 
The waters of Loch-Awe are deep, suddenly so, and 
sad accidents have arisen in consequence. Some yeais 
since the fanner of Hayfield, who had been loi^ well 
known as an innkeeper in Kelao, lost his life stepping 
&oni the gteen sward into the deep waters; and a few 
years ago, a lady — a bride, &om the south, a gdod 
swimmer, took to the water, became cramped, and was 
drowned in sight of her parent, sister, and friend, who 
could see their loved one in the deep clew water, but 
were helpless to aid until too late ; the cause of the catas- 
trophe arose &om the excessive coldness of the waters, 
the springs in Loch-Awe being numerous. 

Coabhura Castle is one of the attractions of Loch- 
Awe; it shows well &om road or steamer, and the isle on 
which it is placed is ordinarily accessible Irom the main- 
land. The ruins are extensive, roofless, and the halls 
grown over with nettles. Goalchum, 'the castle of 
the rock,' is more descriptive than Kilchum, there being 
no chapel there. It is of oblong form, with donjon 
tower and torrete; was five storeys in height; the floor- 
but a little above the level of the loch; and must have 
owed its strength more to the gallantay of the Camp- 
■ bells within than to its defences without. The castle 
was mainly built in 1440, by Sir Colin Campbell; but 
long before a feudal home had been there for the 
Clan-Grigor chiefs of Glenatrae were driven forth by 
the Campbells — the latter became Lords of Breadal- 
bane, the former robber chiefs on Loch-Katrine. 

Ben, 'mountain' in Gaelic — "son of the earth' in He- 
brew, The femily is a large one in North Britain; but 
the Celt explains that Cruach, Cruachan, means ' stack,* 
'stacks,' 'hummocks,' and as on the monntain above 
Loch-Awe are two such protuberances, hence Cmaohan- 
Ben, and it is the only instance in Gaelic topc^^phy 
where the Ben is penultimate — comes last as a word. 

Loeh-Atee.] DESCRIBED. 501 

In the 'Lord of the Isles' it is so written, and Sir Walter 
Scott was an authority. In height, Cmachan-Ben is 
3,670 feet, and may be ascended from Dahnally on 
the eaat, or irom Tayuuilt on the weat; the hotels there 
are good, landlords will find guides, and will fill the 
bottlea also— the latter indispensable. 

Of Cruachan-Ben M'Culloch wrote — 'Compared to 
Ben-Lomond it is a giant, and its graap is gigantic' 
The view irom its summit is wide as the horizon can 
be awept — rich and varied as the mind can conceive. 
The base of Cruachan is twenty miles in extent, and 
it shows well from all points — Loch-Awe lying on the 
south, Loch-Etive on the north, Glenorchy to the east, 
and Bun-AwB on the west. The river Awe is hroad, 
rapid, ite channel rough with rocks; and the locahty 
has a place in the romance of Scottish aiory, as it was 
there that the 'brooch of Lorn was lost and won' — the 
gallant Bruce heii^ met and nearly overpowered thei« 
by the MacdoD^ chie^ a relative of the murdered 
Comyn, and the feud which began in blood on the altar 
steps of the monastery at Dumiries, ended in the min 
of the chiefs of Dunstafihage; but the latter, although 
they lost their nohle homes, as Lords of Dunolly, were 
ever men of mark in Kether-Lom. The late head of 
the family, and the most pleasant of men, died last year 
as Admiral, full of years and honour. 

On Praoch-Eilan, in Loch-Awe, was a eastle of the 
clan Macnaughton, bestowed in 1276, the servitude 
that when the king passed that way he should he en- 
tertained; and when Charles Edward appeared in Glen- 
finnan, in 1746, the board at Eraoch-!^an was loaded, 
in hope of his taking tliat route south when seeking 
to recover the rights of the Stuart fiunily. 

■ Glenorchy, now part of the Ereadalbane domains, 
was in the ^ice era the property of Sir Nigel Camp- 
bell, one of the most gallant of Bruce's compatriots, and 
L,-., Google 

302 SCOTIAOT) [Loeh-Eam. 

a brotli6T-m-la'w. In 1467 the deacendant of Sir N^el 
became £acl of Argyle, Matquis ia 1641, and D-ake in 
1701. The Marquis of 1641 is drawn to the life in 
the ' Legend of Montrose ' — Dalgetty eschai^ing fetteis 
with hint in the dnngeon of InTeraray. 

The tale of the ' Highland Widow,' by Sir W. Scott, 
is localised above the pass of Brandir; and the ecenerj 
there is deecribed hy the gifted 24'oTelist as ' where 
the road winds round the tremendous mountain of 
Cruohaa-Ben; which tushes down in all its majesty of 
rock and wilderness on the lake, leaving only a pass 
(of Brandir), in which the warlike clan of Macdougal of 
Iy3m were almost destroyed by the sagacious Robert 
Bmce.' The rocks and precipices which stoop down 
perpendicularly on the path exhibit remains of the 
wood which had once clothed them. The southern 
elopes of Cruachan are clothed with natural wood; and 
streams — cascades — pour down its face, through gorges 
furrowed there iu the coarse of ages. 

At Brandir a coach waits to convey the tourist by 
Taynuilt for Oban — a route to be yet noticed, 

Looh-Earn, Loob-Eabnbbad, Glbnoglb, in Perth- 
shire, on the tourist track feom the banks of the Forth 
to upper Strath-Tay, has so much of attractive interest 
that due notice should be given it. The road from 
Callander by Kill's House inn to the braes of Bal- 
quhidder has eome under review. A short way onward 
from the grave of Rob Hoy lies the wood of Letter, 
and the district of Loch-EaJnhead is entered, the fine . 
home of the Maogregor chief being on the hill-eide to 
the west; near where the Free church stands, a road 
leads eastward by the southern banks of Loch-Earn, less 
travelled than the route on the north, but attractive, 
as the falls of Edinample are there, a place of such 
local interest that a boatman of the last generation 

Loeli-Eam.] DESCRIBED. 303 

produoed a work upon it, which is lare, and was one 
of the ' curiod ties' of literatiire — Celtic notions ex- 
pressad in crude Saxon voids; and the chief of the 
district got all gloiy in the labonied pages of the 
simple serf^ — M'X^aren declaiii^ that ms chief had 
killed man; officers, emperors, govemora, &c. I 

The late owner of the Castle of Taymoul^ was an 
indulgent master, as one of his 'chief butlers,' who was . 
mine host of Kenmore, is now, when the Souses of 
Farliament are in eeesion, an attendant there; another 
keeps all rightat Dalmall; ; and here, at Loch-£amhe&d, 
is the third — mine host— and a good one. 

Loch-Earahead hotel is 20 miles W. of Ciie^ H 
from CaUander, and 23 S.W. of Kenmore— coaches 
running to these places. At a short distance from the 
modem hotel are the ruins of the inn of 1745, and 
where the 42d £egiment were quartered, many of the 
men coming from the district, which was populous in 
those days, but the ' Breadalbane clearings' has ' altered 
all that' Loch-Eam — 'Erjn-eam-eagle' — is 7 miles in 
length, ahout 1 ^ in average breadth, and with the moun- 
tein of fien-Yoirlich on the south, and the Alpine 
heights which divide its loch from the waters of Loch- 
Tay make the track a pleasant one. MOuUoch declared 
that ' limited as are the dimensions of Loch-Eam, it is 
exceeded in beauty by few of our lakes'—' the hills that 
bonnd it are lofty, and bold, uid ru^ed, their surface 
being enriched with deep hollows and ravines, green 
and cultivated banks, divided by gravelly beaches, 
washed by the bright curling waves of the lake, give it 
a character of rural sweetness and repose.' 

The landscape shows well from Ben- Voirlich, the great 
mountain of the lake,' 'when the sun his beacon red has 
kindled on Ben-Yoirlich's head,' reads in the 'Lady of 
the Lake,' and being the highest of the southem Gram- 
.plan range, &e view is good, and itom its summit is a 
L,-., Google 

sot SCOTLiND [Lock-Sam. 

prospect of the widest extent — ' Glen-Artney'a hazel 
shade,' ^le strath of the Bam, St. Fillana, Comrie, 
Crieff, and eastward to the Tay below the city of Perth. 
The old manBion of Aidvoirlich, the DailinTarloch of 
the ' L^nd of MontroBe,' is near the base of Ben -Voir- 
lich — Aid meaning 'place,' as Ben does 'mountain.' 
The drive irom. Loch-Eamhead to St Fillana, at Uie foot 
of the loch, is a fine one, and the road eastward for 
Comrie is richly settled, the beauty of the sites and the 
scenery making it so. The hotel at Loch-Eamhead has 
been added to, rebuilt almost, funushed, and offers qnar- 
teia to the angler, the lovers of the pictareeqne, and will 
&TOUPabIy compare with any of the many firat-dass 
houses on the strath of the Forth or the Tay. 

In the tourist season — July, August, September — 
a well appointed coach runs &om Callander to Aber- 
feldy. Loch-Eamhead hotel is within a short stage 
of Killin ; and the stege should be a short one, as it 
has to go over the steep ascent of Glraiogle, a plaoe 
singularly wild and beautiful, but soon to be opened out 
to the tourist, as the railway between Callander -and 
Oban traverses the glen; and as the line runs high on 
the hill-side to the west, the gradients will be severe^ 
bnt may be got over. The road, as it now appears, is 
greatly better than was the old one, the traek of which 
it crosses and recrosses frequently — road-makers of old 
knowing nothing of gradients, and caring little for 
levels. The hills on the west are precipitous, and 
masses of rock seem to come down from their sides, 
furrowed over with watei-courBes; but such avalanches 
rarely occur in the tourist season, and in the other nine 
months of the year traffic will be small A stream runs 
south, in the deep ravine to the west; another is ob- 
served Tunning north, the waterehed between the Earn 
and the Tay is reached, and the view south is of great 
beauty; as is that to east and weet^ where the stream of 
L,-., Google 

Loch-Eck.] DESCRIBED. 305 

the Dochart, the strath of St, FiUan, the Ben-More 
mountam^ and the hilk above Glenfalloch, Tyndrum, 
and Gleoorchy come into view. At the lix toll-bar, 
the coach round from Loch'Lomond to Tf'Hi" is reached, 
and the exceUent hot«l U not hi off. 

LocH-£cK, DoNOON, by STRAcmrB for Invkrarat, 
is one of the moat pictureeque raatee recently opened 
ap to the puhlio by the enterprise of a 'Bailie in Inver- 
aray;' and ae auch men are Barely benefactors to guide- 
book producers, the hitter should do what in them lie 
to show forth their fWe. The ' Bover ' coach awaits 
at Dunoon the arrival of the ' lona, ' 7 a.m. troia Glas- 
gow; and the ' Dinmont' from Helenaburgh, train 6. 1 5 
a.m. fit>m Edinburgh, 7.35 a.m. from Dundas-street, 
Glaegow; and to be ahle to book through from the 
Forth to the lower Clyde should be no Btnall advantage 
to touiiats from that quarter. Soon as lugg^e is 
stowed, and fares seated, the coach moves on through 
the rising town of Dunoon, by the wooded hill of Dun- 
loski£, leaves the Hafion policies l^ehind, comes into 
view of the Holy-Loch, sweeps down npon Sandbank, 
rounds the head of the Loch, passes Ballochyle, and 
crosses the wooden bridge over the Echaig. 

To the right the way leads down to Kilmun, but 
turning sharp to the left the road runs on by the banks 
of the Echaig — low enough at times, but from its fre- 
quently altered channel, heavy of flood, although short 
of coarse — the distance from the Holy-Loch to Loch-Eck 
being little more than three miles. On the west is 
Ben-More, the hiU of the district; and near its hase the 
domain, gardens, and mansion of the gentleman who 
has recently acquired the land, mountain, and glens 
around, and who, as a wealthy, liberal, and resident 
proprietor, is doing much to improve a district which 
is of itself so picturesque, and does bo well show off the 
n ,Goo>;Ic 

306 SCOTLAND [Loch-EeA. 

Bums lavished upon it. The road is not orei broad; 
the hills on the r^ht are h%h, immense masses of 
granite cropping out of the green mountain side, and 
here and there impending over the path. Eumour was 
that iron could he had there for the mining, but to have 
had blast furnaces on the Echalg would have sadly 
marred the diatriot, and, it may be, more offended the 
house-feuats in Kilmuu than the incureiona of the Sun- 
day steamer, or the boat-loads on Saturday afternoons 
of artisans &om I\>rt-Glasgow and GieBno<^. 

The road is well wooded, the glai of moderate" 
breadth, the windings of the Echaig beautiful, and 
pleasant is the site of the fermet's cottage, whose 'lines 
have fallen' where the river issues from its parent loch. 
Loch-£ck is little more than five miles in length, nearly 
equal in breadth throi^hout, deep, as might he looked 
for, whMe the hills are so high — tioae on the west com- 
ing HO sheer down on the dark waters that the fiuuilies 
living there, shepherds and farmers, must find their 
way to birk or market by boating across the locl^ and 
that such ia their means of travelling is shown hy the 
boat-houses on the loch side, large enough to shelter 
the boot in the water, and the cart on the land — ^the 
latter uaefiil at times as may be the other. The rain- 
fall in theee Aljone districts is great, and the water line 
of the loch shows that it rises figh at tiniee; while the 
road is so sandy that it tries hard the horses when the 
load is a heavy one, as it happily often is. Tlie reaidente 
at Dunoon and Kilmun, when the day ia iine, and friends 
ar« with them, patronise the coach pretty liberally; so 
much so that in the height of the season a seeond con- 
veyance frcm Stntchur is put on the road. 

A short way up Loch-Eck, and near where fresh 
horses are harnessed, a road leads over the hill to the 
right, and soon reaches Glen-Finnart, above Arden- 
tinny, on Loch-Long; and the drive &om Strone, 

Loeh-Eek.] DESCRIBED. 307 

KUmun, or Dunoon, by the banks of the Echaig, 
through Glen-Finnart, and by tha shores of Loch- 
Long and the Holy-Loch, is a favourite one for pic-nic 
parties, the number of caniagea kept for hire at Dunoon, 
Kilmun, and Strone, b^g considerable, and the route 
described is the one they travel most over. 

At the head of Loch-£ck, and where tiie river Our — 
'Strath-Chur' — flows into it, is a considerable breadth 
of meadow land; the houses near by are snug and com- 
fortable, but the farms must be small, as dieii stead- 
ings are not large. From Loch-Eck to the parochial 
village of Strachur the ascent is considerable, the road- 
side well sheltered by tieea, aa it is throughout, and 
hedges are here, there are few in the glen below, 
the stiatb here giving breadth for their growth. The 
hills to the left are green but bare, and beyond them 
are the shores of Loch-9tiiven, the northern end of 
Kothesay bay, the opening into the E.yles of Bute; on 
the right are the heights eastward, of which lies the 
'Hell's glen' path for head of Loch-GoiL 

The village of Strachur is small, hut the inn there 
will be a snug one, as the landlord, driver of the Loch- 
goil coach, ao well knows both how to amuse his 
paasengers and care well for his guest& At tha small 
wooden pier is fonnd the 'Fairy' steamer, a beauty of 
her class, and those touriste who desire to travel intelli- 
gently are referred to Captain Munro, than whom there 
are few better infonned men of his class in m out of 
Argyleshire. The run by steamer from SteMbui to In- 
veraray is within six miles, and the shores of XiOch-Fyoe, 
north or south, are beautiful indeed — have often been, 
and well deserve to be described. 

Locs-GoiL, LooH-GoiLHSAi), and the coach route for 
Inveraray, is a line of travel familiar to most of thoee 
tonrista who penetrate by tliat route into the centre of 

308 SCOTLAND [Loeh-Eek. 

the shire of Ai^le. Not the centre as to mileage, but 
the county Courts t^e held in luveiaray; the Otetle 
of the chi^ of the Campbell clan ia built there; the best 
herring in Scotland are caught there; and there, hotel 
acoommodation for all classes is ample. 

Steamers specially on that station have, for very 
many years left the Broomielaw, Glasgow, at 8.30 A.K., 
for season 1866 at 9 a.m., train to Greenock 9.45 a.u., 
and another of the same company runs at 3.40 P.M., 
train 4.50 p.m.; and a rival boat is placed {July 1866), 
leaving Glasgow at S.40 a.u., train 9 a.m. Where con- 
veyances are so frequent and competition pretty severe, 
fares are low, but crowds go, and the station has been 
held aa a TemimeTative one. Coaches in connection 
with the steamers are placed on the road from Loch- 
Goilhcad to St. Catherine's, the ferry on Loch-Fyne, and 
three miles from the bnrgh of Inveraray. 

Leaving Glasgow in the morning, the steamer holds 
her way down the Clyde, calling at Renfrew, Bow- 
ling, off Dumbarton, and coining to at Greenock to 
await passengers preferring the railway to the steamer. 
Casting off from the Customhouse quay at Green- 
ock, the steamer is steered across the upper Frith of 
Clyde for the southern sectibn of the peninsular-like 
parish of Eoseneath, the first place of calling being at 
iQlcreggan — 'kil' church, 'creggan' rocks — in Popish 
times a chapel may have been there. At present the Free 
church of the district is on the hill-side across to the Gare- 
Loch, and little more than one mile from Loch-Long. 
Cove, the next place of call, lies hut a short way Ctt- 
ther up Loch-Long, and both places have come into 
fezistettcB within the last few years, the shore there 
being excellent for sea-bathing purposes, and it musk 
better pay hie Grace of Argyle having the acres of these 
green hill-eides feued over for villas than to have sheep 
or black cattle feeding upon them. 

Loc}t-Eek.] DESCRIBED. 309 

The piera on Loch-Long are all of wood, none of 
them tree, and those who farm them pay well for the 
ptivil^e of fleecing the people. There are no toUs oa 
the roads in the shire of Argjle, property being aa- 
sesaed for their maintenance; and the question has been 
naked, now that the lords of the soil draw so mnch 
Arom those who cover their acres with villaa and g»- 
dens, and the occupying families are such consumers of 
fkrm and dairy produce, that, as at Gourock, Innellan, 
lai^, Rothesay, and Lamlash, there should be free piere, 
and that the people might be permitted to get ashore 
untaxed, the more so as the steamers pay for leave to 
put ropes ashore, being waited upon, &c. 

Kilcreggan, Core, and Blainnore, on Loch-Long, are 
growing apace; the houses generally large — not over- 
crowded; and ou the Eilmun shore the 'creatoie com- 
forts' can be had, but 'no licence to sell such' could 
be obtained in Cove or Kilcre^jan — the cellars of 
their salt-water homes beii^ the only places where a 
drop can be drawn irom— and the ' water being salt' 
folks may be excused getting thirsty at timeal 

Ardentinny, at the foot of Olenfinnart, is a beauti- 
ful little hamlet or vilh^e, with a chapel; but, it is 
only of late years that feus could be obtained there. 
The locality is one of the sweetest on Loch-Long, the 
domain near Glenfinnart House being finely wooded, 
and the drive westward to "Whiatlefield on Loch-Eck 
is an attractive one. Coalport, across Loch-Long and 
nearly opposite to Ardentinny, appears to be the far- 
thest up of feuable acres on the Roseneath shore; the 
houses are few, but handsome; and the hill-side above 
them bare-^thftt of the Phatl-hill above Ardentinny, 
one of the landmarks of the district, will be always 
barren of occupants, as the space between the loch 
and mountain upwards to the entrance to Loch-Goil 
leaves scarce room for a shepherd's shelling. 

L,-., Google 

310 SCOTLAiro [Loeh-Eek. 

Loch-Goil is little mote than five miles in length, 
narrow wliere it entrap Loch-Lcmg, widening a little 
therea^r, and beyond the mina of Carrick Costly there 
is something like space for a score or two of villasj the 
acres are in the feuing market; and to tempt aettleis 
an excellent wooden pier has beeB recently Iniilt there, 
and one good villa at least has hem erected sear i^ 
that of a dealer in flour in Glac^ow, and one who ap- 
pears to have 'baked his bread well.'' 

The ruined castle of Carrick is said to have heen a 
hunting-Beat of Bohert the Bruce. Fingal, Wfdlace, 
and Bmce, in the Highlands and Lowlands of Scotland, 
have places without nnmher associated with their names. 
The castle of Carrick was of considerable extent, the 
walls thick, the defences strong, and the waters deep ; 
it was a place of strength in these ages when the bow 
and the aling wero the weapons of attack; now the hills 
are so near that the gaiiieon conld bo shelled out in no 
time. In the annals of Scotland, the castle of Carrick 
was besieged, defended, taken, and retaken; having 
been sacked by the ' H^hland host,' who, in those dark 
days when it went hard with tbe Scotch Freshyt^mns, 
' were let loose upon the peasantry of the west, and took 
theoppoTtnnityof clearing off some fendal scoreewith the 
Clan Campbdl, the Marquis of Aigyle being a leader of 
the party who held religion dear as life. 

I^ Grace of Ai^le has the title of Keeper of Cai^ 
rick Castle, as he h^ also that of Dnnoon. Of the latter 
scarce a stone exists to show what it was; of the former 
the masonry of the fToraemen still stands high above 
the deep loch. The dimensions of Carrick Castle ar^r- 
walls, 7 feet thick, 64 high, length 66, breadth 38, 
with a high and strong curtain or wall coverii^ the 
rock — 'Carr^j" ' Carrick-rock' — whichrises from the loch. 
The dark waters, the rugged mountains, and the old 
grey walls, form a picture which gives frequent occu- 
L,-., Google 

Loch-Eck.] DESCRIBED. 3U 

pation to the pencil of the artist; and not as a sketch 
alone, but as a painting, it often appears, and that by 
^me of the moat gifted men of theit day. 

The shore on tiio south, irom Aideutinny to Loch- 
Goil, is owned by the Douglas fomily of Glenfinnart; 
that across the loch, from Loch-Long to Loch-Fyne, is 
on the ArdkinglasB estate, the heir of which, heing a 
minor, is one of the main reasons why the pretty shore 
near Loch-Goilhead north, has not been long since 
built over. The lands at the head of the loch are 
those of Drumsynie, not long since sold by a Campbell 
to a gentleman who found his wsy to Ghisgow from 
the lower frith of the Clyde, rolled Lis 'bowls' well, 
moved to the Mersey, dealt largely in ' deLf,' and now 
lires as a Highland laird, foi whom, if a pedigree were 
wanted, the genealogist might trace it from ' Konald, 
Lord of the Isles;' and should a reader of these pages 
desire arms to be found for them, they are referroi to 
the 'Author of the Scottish Nation '-—and as is the 
price, so may be the lei^h of the pedigree. 

The houses on the right show well, as the steamra 
mores up the loch, which widens considerably between 
the piers on the Douglas and the Aidkinglass lands. 
The road eastward is a short way from the water, the 
space between, and it is small, being occupied by villas 
sjxA gardens. The mountains, which tower high above 
where Loch-Goil and Loch-Long meet, are luiown as 
the 'Aigyle Bowling-green,' being more rugged than can 
ba easily found elsewhere, strewed over with boulder- 
like stones; and if the chie& of Argyle could of old roll 
such about, they must have been of the Anak breed — 
of which the present Maccalum-More is not. A path, 
one which needs wuy walkii^, leads from the village 
to the N. E point of the loch to the ferry of Portan- 
atuck, across Loch-Long, for the shore opposite and 
within a couple of miles of Gare-Lochhead, and where 
L,-., Google 

312 SCOTLAND [Loch-Eck. 

Is localised Campbell's fine tale of the ' Chieftain to the 
Highlands bound, cries Boatman do not tarry.' The 
silver penny failed to insnie safety — the dark waters 
closed over the lovers— and ' my dai^hter, oh! my 
dai^hterl' was the sad cry of the father. 

Loch-Goiihead has a tidy inn, aad well looked to by 
sisters, who are related to the worthy landlady, long of 
Brodick, now of Come inn, Arran, and it would be 
hard to find a better school to come from. The parish 
kirk is at the head of the loch; aear it a wooden erec- 
tion by the Free church — the population being siaall 
when coast visitors turn homewards. The lands of 
Drumsynie are well wooded, and the road for a mile 
weetwfmi to the bridge across the Goil water, baa he^es 
by the wayside, trees, and- is warm like. 

Ten years ago it was written that 'Awaitii^ the 
arrival of the steamer from Glasgow [Helensbnij^ was 
unknown then as a tourist steamer station], will he 
found the coach known as ' the Hell's Glen mail,' and 
the driver was thirty years on the station, and hale 
enough to keep it for thirty years to come.' 'John is 
Highland in name, feature, and form; active, erect, tall, 
stands well on his pins, strong bands, long arms, pliant 
elbows, broad shoulders, full chest, bronzed features, 
red whiskers, a clear eye, open forehead, modest liat, 
and plain coat.' Such was John in 1856, but since then 
the Crimean war fell out, and it became the fashion to 
become bearded ' like the pard,' and such John Campbell 
now became. In 1866 he seems strong as of old, less 
lithe in mounting to his box, as- wide-awake, keen,' 
hale, and tongue as active as ever. To quote again: — 
'There is no yam the tourist may adventure to spin 
which Campbell will not on the nonce produce a match 
for; there is not a locality around him which hs has 
not a ready name for, usually a Gaelic one, which, if 
asked to spell, he will forthwith eject such a mouthful 

Loch-Eck] DESCRIBED. 3 1 3 

of gattuial entmciatioii that fev subject their ears or 
his OTgans to the labour of repeating them.' 

Between Loch-Groil and Loch-Fyne is little short of 
eight miles; oae-fifth the way, on east and west, is easy 
enough, but the remainder is a long and steep ascent 
from both sides. About a couple of miles from Loch- 
Goil a road, little travelled, leads off by a deep glen for 
Loch-£estal, and 'rest and be thankful'— -the summit 
level of Glencroe. Turning sharp to the left, the 
coach horses go painfully up a road — the difficulties 
of which have tt^ked the engineer of the way to sur- 
mount — the curves being as sharp as those in Glenshee, 
not unfairly termed ' the Devil's elbow;' and the glen 
near by haus a name somewhat alike — though why so 
called ie not over apparent, it being tame as compai«d 
with Glencroe across the hills to the right. The ascent 
b continuous, the road not broad, but firm, and the 
hills on the right are high, not rugged; those on the 
left, beyond the bum, atford a fair pasture to the 
sheep, whose etells, folds, or enclosures are seen in 
the meadows between the road and the bum. The 
bum runs quietly where the strath is broad, but as it 
nanowB, the stream cornea down in cascades, and adds 
to the attractions of a glen, which has little either of 
the awfiil or the solitary in its composition. 

On topping the hill, the view of Loch-Fyne — the 
policies near the castle of Argyle, the hill of Duniquoich 
with its ' lonely watch tower,' the ruins of the castle of 
Dunedera, the expanse of the loch upwards for Caim- 
dow by ArdkinglasB, or downwards by the broad bay 
past the town, the Strachnr shore, the Furnace heights, 
to Minard, Otter, and Knapdale — present a paaoramio 
view of extraordinary beauty; and all the beet features 
of which John Campbell can so well describe, his gift 
of language bt^ng excellent his jnemory retentive, and 
within his long experience, many men of literary celeb- 
L,_,, Google 

814 SCOTLAND [LochrKatriw. 

rit;^! "-^^ of Eoropean world-wide reputation, have 
shared the box-seat with him; and John, who long kept 
the inn at St. Catherine's, has, with the best of them, 
shared many a glaaa before parting with those he had 
amnaed — it may be improved by the way. 

John is now 'mine host' of the Buugitinof Strachiir, 
six milea down the loch, where the coach road strikes 
inland from Dunoon and the Clyde, by the strath of 
the Chur and the shores of Loch-Eck. Before mov- 
ing from 8t. Catherine's, John Campbell sueeessfully 
bestirred himself to get a new, a large, and a good 
school built for the district; and it was his practice to 
entice those passengeia he might guess to be liberal to 
inspect the premises — and contribute to the fimds. It 
is characteristic of the class to which this useful mem- 
ber of society belongs, that of the lai^ &mily he has 
reared, and all of whom are fairly educated, one of them 
is meant for the pulpit; and in season 1865, when a 
coach was put on the EiJmun road by ' hie company,' 
the student of divinity, to help his father, drove the 
coach — and drove it well. The ferry from St Catherine's 
to Inveraray is of no great breadth, the passage made by 
Campbell's fiiend in the steamer 'Ar^le,' which has 
little to be said for it either as to speed, comfort, or 
appearance, and is distanced in all respects by its 'Faiiy" 
ri'rol, a steamer placed there by the opposition coach- 
owners — and placed there by a ' limited liability com- 
pany ''—but how that may be expressed in Gaehc, the 
writer of these topographic pages knoweth not The 
passage Irom Glasgow is ordinuily made within seven 
hours; and for those leaviitg at 9 a.m., dinner will be 
found waiting at the Argyle Arms, Inveraray. 

Looh-Ejitrinb — ^Trossachb — Call&ndbr, may be 
the dietdct of Scotland moat classic in the estima- 
tion of the tourist; and few there are that cross the 

Loeh-KaM«e.] DESCRIBED. 315 

Tweed who do not find time to explore the lochs, 
ravines, and mountainB, where the tale of the 'Lady 
of the Lake' can he localiBed. Loch-Katrine ma; be 
approached from the vest, by a coach lunning from 
Inveranaid on Loch-Lomond to Stronaclachar — the dis- 
tance 5 miles, and the conveyance good. From the 
east, coaches in the season ran from Callander to the 
TroBsacha Hotel, 9 miles; and thence through the 
' bristled territory,' little more than a mile, to the screw 
steamer, which Uea ready to carry Tisitors, by ' Ellen's 
Isle,' to Stronaclachar hotel, near the not^-westem 
extremity of Loch-Katrine. 

Selecting the latter route, lef^^nce may be made to 
the article on 'Callander' to the track from Stirling to 
the Highland Tillage — by Cockneys affectedly termed 
'the capital of the Trossachs;' bnt notirithout ehow 
of reason eo tenned, as the railway terminatee near 
them, the Highlands coma in view, the hotels are 
excellent, and the crowd of caniagBS, coaches, and 
travellere is great in the season. At the railway 
station the coaches proper for the west will be found 
in waiting, also the 'buses for the rival hotels; and it 
does often happen that paesengers, double the nnmber 
the coaches can accommodate, appear ' bound for the 
weat' — the sure way to get on is to 'book through' when 
leaTiDg Ptalrh, Edinburgh, or Glasgow — the penalty to 
form a party and hiie on — the coat for four or six 
but a trifle more than by the coach. 

Tbo outlying buildings weat of Callander are becom- 
ing numerous, and few places in Korth Britain afford 
iiner sites for villas being erected upon, on the strath 
of the Teith, the course of the upper Forth, and on the 
south Yennacher, Loch-Achray in the west^ on the 
north the Ciaigs of Callander, the entrance into the 
glen of the Lubnaig, and above it Ben-Ledi — far west 
Ben-Lomond, fiir 8. K, the Castle of Stia^ing. Start- 
L,-., Google 

316 SCOTLAND [LoekrEairinB. 

ing from Callaoder, the main toad leads on by Lubnaig 
to Balquhiddei, Loctk-Earn, Killin, Loch-Tay, Keuinore, 
and the railway at Aberfeldy, a tomiHt coach nmiiiiig 
that way. At Kilmahog— a faamlet strangely named, 
'kil' or 'eill' msaning church, but the remainder of the 
name appearing to have some swinish signiG-cation — 
the road to the left, by the trees, is that for the banks 
of Loch'Yennatiher, and the route direct for Loch- 
Katrine; and, to be one so much frequented, it might 
be broader and less steep, but it is got merrily ovei^ the 
cattle able for their work, opposition usually on the 
road, the tourists ordinarily travelling in parties, and 
well inclined to iind Botbing 'rough by the way,' or, if 
BO, 'to get over such as best they can.' 

It ia contrary to guide-book-producing rule to ati«mpt 
to describe the district without borrowing largely irom 
the poem of the Lady of the Lake, a work which ia so 
likely to be in the head or the hand of the tourist, that 
quotation wiU be made sparingly in these pages — and 
often the ' flowing verse ' may appear ' as rugged prose." 
The 'purple heath' of Bochastle, classic ground as it now 
18, seems but aflat moorland, but the mounds and trenches 
which can be traced upon it, antiquarians all^e, mark 
where the Romans of old lay encamped. A short way 
onwards ia Coilantc^le ford — ' Clan- Alpine's outmost 
guard,' ' where the Teith,' daughter of three mighty lakes, 
'from Yennachar, in silver breaks,' sweeps through the 
plain, and onwards to Bochastle, 'the mouldering lines, 
where Rome, the empress of the worid, of yore her eagle 
wings unfurled-' To add to the supply of water, which 
is drawn by the citizens of Gla^ow from Loch-Katxine, 
the level of Loch-Veonacher has been raised, and thus 
the appearance of Lanrick Mead, the gathering-place of 
Clan-Alpine, has been altered, much of it being sub- 
merged, as within the water line, hedges appear, which 
uf old marked the field enclosures. Lodi-Vennachar is 

LocJi-Kafrine.] DESCRIBED. 317 

about one-third the size of Loch-K&triue; and vest- 
ward lies Loch-Achrtty, which extends from near the 
Brig-o'-Tork to the Trassache Hotel, and may be finely 
Been from the wooded heights above ' the copsewood 
grey, that moans and weepa on Looh-Achray,' This 
sheet of water is 'lovely,' for where shall we 'find in 
foreign land, Bo lone a lake, bo sweet a strandl' 

Achray— in Gaelic 'the level land' — ia the name 
of the iarm at the head of the loch, the breadth being 
greater than is usually found ia such Alpine lands. The 
loch flows under Ben-Vonue, is about two miles in length, 
less tiian one in breadth, within two milea of Vennadiai 
at its lower end, and its upper laves the entx&ace into 
the gorge of the TroasachB. Near the western end of 
Achray, its waters trend off to the left, and sweep round 
a green knoll on which stands the church of the diatrict, 
a Chapel of Ease to the parish of Callander. Above the 
eastern end of Achray, until of late yeitts, stood the Br^- 
o'-Turk Hotel, built there to accommodate the crowda 
that often overfill the Trossachs; it was burned down, 
and is not like to be replaced, as the present ' host ' of 
the hotel at TroBsachs haa experience, energy, and ca- 
pital enough to provide well for all who come on to 
bint, and multitudes pass on from railway to steamer, 
steamer to coach, and coach to steamra, epending little 
by the way, leaving the comforts of the aristocratic-like 
structure above Loch-Achray to those whose purses are 
better lined, and who visit the district with the resolve 
to explore all its beauties — ^if need be, canafTordto loiter, 
and such tourists are legion in numbers — as few locali- 
ties ue more tempting to abide in for the while. 

The river, which flows in by Glenfinlass, is of con- 
siderable size; and a short way above the r«ad is an 
ancient borying-grouud, where many of the Stuarta of 
the clan Moray are interred, and far inland as the ground 
is, and sparse as is the population, on not a few of the 
L,-., Google 

318 SCOTLAND iLoch-EatriiK. 

grave-a tones can betraced the BwordiWitL 'Miles — knight, ' 
inscribed near it. The strath for some miles upwards is 
one of much beauty, and to stroll that way is one of the 
pleasant paths for visitors to the district. 

Ben-Ledi is well seen from Stirling upwards, being 
S,381 feet high, within two miles of Callander, in the 
district between Loch-Lubnaig and Glenfinlase; and 
although less lofty than Ben-Lomond or Ben-More, it 
is so finely placed that in Druid times it was known as 
Ben, 'the hill,' Ledi,^ 'of God.' Tradition alleges 
that the rites of Baal were celebrated on its summit; 
and if Bible students object to Baal being known there, 
the driver of the coach will show them a vast boulder 
on the mountain side which has been, time ont of 
mind, known as 'the pwtting-stane of Samson.' Ben- 
Ledi can be climbed to its summit, it is level near its 
peaks, and just between them is a mountain tarn — , 
Loch-an-nam-Corp-— 'the loch of the dead,' so named 
from a funeral party from Gienfinlaas, for the bnrial- 
yard of St. Bride's, attempting to cross the ice there, 
when all perished. The cairn on the summit of Ben- 
Ledi makes it a landmark for sti^th Teith. Dnn- 
craggan, thefiist stage of 'the fierycrossof clan Alpine,' 
is near to Brig-o'-Turk, and huts there mark the spot. 
Across the hiU to the south is a road for Aberfoyle 
and the Loch-Ard country, and the views on various 
points of that route are m^niiicent. The Trossachs — 
the 'bristled territory' — thegorge-like approach to Loch- 
Katrine, is but a short way from the hotel ; and it is so 
vividly described in the * Lady of the Lake,' that the 
tomptation to transcribe such is irresistible: — 


LochrEatrine.] DESCRIBED. 

"VTben twined the path, in shadow hid 

Kotmd man; ■ rock; pyrBinid, 

Shooting abruptly from the dell 

Ila tbander-«plint«r'd pinnacle; 

Eoond maQj ou inaulated miUB, 

The native bulwarks of the ^aes, 

Huge oc the tower which bmlden Tain, 

FreBDmptnouB piled on Siunar'i plain. 

The rook]' summits, split and rent, 

Form'd tuiret, dome, or battlement, 

Or teem'd fsjitutioallj nt 

With cupola or minaret, 

Wild crests aapagod ever deck'd 

Or moique of Eaetem architect. 

Nor were these eaith-bom eostlei bare. 

Nor lack'd they many a banner fair; 

Foi, from their Bhiver'd brows display'd, 

Far o'er the unfathomable glade, 

All twinkling with the dew.diop sheen. 

The brier-rose fell in atreamen green. 

And creeping shrubs of thousand dies, 

Waved in the west wind's summer si|^s. 

Boon nature scatter'd, free and wild. 

Each plant or flower, the monntain's cbUd. 

Here eglantine embalm 'd the air, 

Hawthorn and hasel mingled there; 

The primrose sole, and violet Sower, 

Found in each cliS a narrow bower; 

Foiglove and nightshade, side b; side, 

Emblema of punishment and pride, 

Gioap'd their dark hues with ever; itain 

The weather-beaten crsgs retain; 

With boughs that qnoked with every breath. 

Grey birch and aspen wept beneath; 

Aloft, the BSh and warrior oak 

Cast anchor in the rifted rock; 

And higher yet the pine-tree hung 

trunk, and frequent flung. 

Where saem'd thi , , 

His boughs athwart the narrow'd sky; 
Highest of all, where white peaks guuieed, 
Where glistening streamers waved sad danced; 
The w^derer's eye lumld barely view 
The annmier heaven's delicious bine; 
80 wond'TODS wild, the whole might seem 
The Boenery of a fairy dream.' 
The Toad tlirougli the TroBsacbs is broad, good, and 
tjie length all too ehort; the dilTers will be £mmd irell 

320 SCOTLAND [LochrKatrim. 

' posted' Dp in the topographic incidents of the route, 
and will ahow ' the rugged dell ' where, under Pitz- 
Jamee, ' the gallant hone, exhausted, fell ^ when ' the 
good steed, his labours o'er, atretehed bis stiff limlis to 
rise no more ' — the knight exclaiming ' woe worth the 
chase, voe worth the day, that costs thy life, my gal- 
lant grey!' It was something of a builesque on tiiis 
classic incident that one of me coaches on the road 
&om Stirling to the TroBsachs was long known as the 
'gallant grey' — 'stiffness of limbs' in the steeds that 
drew it being its apparent claim to the title. The 
' mountain high, the lone lake's western boundary,' 
ifl that of Ben-An, but 1,800 feet in height; yet there, 
' on the north, tlirough middle aii, Ben-An heaves high 
his forehead Bare' — where now seen 'gleamii^ with the 
setting sun, one burnished sheet of Uving gold, Loch- 
Katrine lies beneath them rolled, in all hei length, lair 
windings long, with promontory, creek, and bay, and 
islands that, empurpled bright, floated amid the loveliei 
light, and mountains that like giants stand, to sentinel 
enchanl«d land. High on the south, huge Ben-Venue, 
down in the lake its masses threw, craggs, knolls, and 
mounds, confiisedly hurled, the fragments of an earlier 
world; a wildering forest, feathered o'er, his ruined 
aides and summit hoar.' 

Ben-Venue, 2,388 feet high, is near midway between 
Lochs Achray, Katrine, and Chon; westward rises Ben- 
Lomond, 3,192 feet; and between them are the well- 
springs of the river Forth. Sir Walter Scott describes 
the ^Bsachs ' as a wildering scene of mountains, rocks, 
and groups, thrown tt^ether in disorderly groups; and 
a well known topographer characterises them ' as a tu- 
multuous confusion of rocks, eminences, all of fantastic 
forms, studded with trees and shrubs, and whose gor» 
wearf an aspect of roughness and wildness, of tangled 
and inextricable baskiness totally unexampled, it is 

LocA-Katrine.] DESCEIBED. 321 

supposed, in the world.' To the right of the road 
which trarersea the Troaeacha ia a deep morass, named 
' the nitches' bog;' and in the gorge of the defile is the 
pass of ' Beal-an-Dnine,' the hattle-ground between the 
followers of 'Uoray's silver star,' and the clansmen 
of Bodetick Dhu — "chief of Alpine's clan, with tartans 
broad and shadowy plume, the hand of blood and biow 
of gloom ' — ^they ' man the Trosaacha' ahaggy glen, in 
Loch-Katrine's gorge to fight' 

The stUlneaa of the scenery before the fight began 
is finely drawn, when 'there was no breeze upon 
the tarn, nor ripple on the lake; when on her eyrie 
nods the erne, and deei had sought the brake; 
the small birds would not sing aloud, the springing 
trout lay still, bo darkly gloomed the purple clouds 
that swathed, as with a purple shroud, Ben-Ledi's dis- 
tant hill,' The atn^gle began when tJie 'lightrarmed 
archers, &r and near, surveyed the tangled ground' — 
'the lake is passed, and now they gain a narrow and a 
broken plain, before the Troaaachs' rugged jaws, and 
there the horse and spearmen pause, while to explore 
the dangerous glen, drive through the pass the archer 
men^ but, 'forth from the pass, out-driven, like chaff 
before the wind of heaven, the archery appear' — 
'onwards they drive, in dreadful race, pursuen and 
pursued' — 'Down, down!' cried Mar; 'your lances 
down! bear back both friend and foe.' 'Right on- 
ward did Clan-Alpine come,** hut 'the horsemen dash 
among the lout, as deer break through the broom' — 
'Clan- Alpine's best are backward borne, and refluent 
through the pasa of feat the battle's tide is poured,' 
where, in the 'deep and darksome pasa devoured the 
battle's mingled mass — none linger now upon the plain 
save those who ne'er shall fight again.' All the beau- 
ties of the bosky dell and the grandeur of the moun- 
tsiit scenery remain; bat the wild strife of the Undksa 

322 SCOTLAND [Lock-Katrine. 

'Gregalicli, driven frota Glenorchy's proud mourtain, 
Coalchniu and lier toweia, Glenstrae and Glenlyon,' is 
over; 'looms, beam, troddlee and shuttles' liave von 
the day; 'Boderick Vich Alpine dha, ho, ieroe,' is a 
tale of the past; and the Trossachs are now explored 
hy thousands of tourists, and with safety. 

The cove in which the steamer is moored is but a short 
way from 'Ellen's Isle,' the spot of all others most 
sought after by the lady tourists, and its beauty does 
well challenge their admiration. Fltz-James, 'a wan- 
derer toas'd, mourning hia friends, his couisei lost,' finds 
'a narroir inlet still and deep' — 'and farther in the 
hunter strayed still broader sweeps its channel made 
the shaggy mounds,' ' there seemed to float like 
castle in its girdled moat, and 'each retiring claims to 
be an islet in an island sea.' In the Gr^alJch era 
'no path would meet the wanderer's ken' unless 'he 
climb with footing nice the projecting precipice,' and 
there, 'as dizzy point le won, where, gleaming wltii the 
setting sun, one burnished sheet of living gold, Loch- 
Katrine lies beneath him rolled.' 

The screw steamer on the lake suits well the crowds 
of excursionists that find their way to the Trossachs, 
_ Ellen's lale, and Loch-Katrine; but, convenient. as it 
is comfortable, and Captain Munroe eo sensible and 
well informed, yet the craft is aU too swift for the 
station; and those tourists who can spare time and form 
a party are counselled- to take a boat and boatmen, and 
be rowed over the waters, landing here, exploring IJiere, 
and carrying home with them a thorough knowledge of 
the classic shores, with its legends and recollections; 
and at the Troesaoha on the south-east, or Strooadachar 
on ths north-west, boatmen are to be bad. 

On Ellen's Isle there is still the'mdrarow green, where 
weeping birch and willow round with their long fibres 
sweep me ground, and wild rose, eglantine and brown. 

Loeh-Katrine.] DESCEIBED. 333 

waste all around their rich perfume, where hireh trees 
weep in fragrant balm, the aspeu sleeps beneath the 
calm, the silver light, with growing glance, plays on 
the water's still expanse' — 'the water lily to the l^ht 
her chalice rears of silver bright; the grey mist leaves 
the mountain side, the torrent shows its glistening 
pride, invisible in flecked sky the lark sends down her 
revelry, the blackbird and the speckled thrush good 
morrow give from brake and bush — in anpwer coos 
the cushat dove her notes of peaee and rest and love.' 
An early walk from the Trossachs Hotel to Ellen's isle 
may enable the tourist to realise all this. 

The 'joyous wolf ' has long been driven fium the 'co- 
verts of Ben-An;' the doe, 'begrinuned with dew drops,' 
is seldom seen; and from the cliff of Ben-Yenue is 
now banished 'the exulting eagle which screamed afar, 
and knew the voice of Alpine's war,' when 'she spread 
her dark sails on the wind, and high in middle heaven 
reclined, with her hroad shadow on the lake, silenced 
the warblers on the brake.' 

Coir-nan TJriskin, the 'gobhn's cave,' where 'sus- 
pended cliffs, with hideous sway, seem nodding o'er 
the cavern grey,' can be seen- from the deck of the 
steamer, where 'Ben-Venue's grey summit wOd' is in 
full view. In the prose notes of the 'Lady of the , 
Lake' the goblin cave is described as being 'a veiy 
steep and romantic hollow in the mountain of Ben- 
Venue, overhanging the southern extremity of Loch- 
Katrine. It is surrounded with stupendous rocks, the 
spOQtaneous production of the mountain, even where 
its cliffs appear denuded of soil,' The cave is reached 
by a narrow and deep ravine, some hundred yards in 
length; the 'den' is a cavernous amphitheatre of con- 
siderable extent, narrowing as it descends. 

The 'wild pass of Be^-nam-bo' leads above these 
'divan grottos wild,' and across the shonlder.of Ben- 

324 SCOTLASD \Lock-Katrine. 

Venue, opening into the district northwanl, and seems 
to have been formed by a disruption of the mountain, 
llie ravine is magnificent and beauti&I. 

Loch-ICathne is about ten ndles in lei^th, the area 
3,000 acres, the breadth being about two miles; it is 
deep throughout, hut here and there a rock may be seen 
rising to the euriace. As the steamer moves on, 'Ben- 
An's grey scalp' rises on the right, and on the left ap- 
pears, on a bold brow, a lordly tower-like rock, which 
the guides have named the watch-tower of Roderick 
Dhu; but the tourist will scan the poem in vain to find 
any reference to such a place. H^h on the aouth, 
' huge Ben-Venue down on the loch its massive shadow 
throws,' and low on the right lies 'Ellen's isle.' The 
beauties of Loch-Katrine mainly lie near the southern 
end of the loch, although the road from the hotel at 
Stronaclachar is a fine one — from the mountain screen 
on the north, Glengyle on the east, the vooded copses 
on the hill-side, Ben-Venue on the south, the flanks of 
Ben-Lomond, and the mountains of Arrochar, all form 
a panoramic view of no ordinary attraction. On the 
west ' the rugged mountains' scanty cloak, is clover, fir, 
shrubs of birch and oat, with shingles bare, and clifla 
between, and patches bright of bracken green, and 
heather black, that waves so high, it holds the copse in 
rivalry;' and oft 'both path and bill are torn, where 
winti^ torrents bad heaped upon the cumbei:ed land, 
its wreck of gravel, rock, and sand,' 

Beyond the mountain heights on the east is (ilenfin- 
lass, and further east is the strath of Loch-Lnbnaig, 
noticed in these pages under the article ' Callander.' The 
western shore of Loch-Katrine is bleak and black, 
the road from Stronaclachar by Lioch-Chon for Aberfoyle 
leadii^ that way, and the route has so much to atnact 
the tourist, that the enterprising tenant of Inversnaid 
hotel put a coach on the road in 1865, and might faaTS 

Loeh-Katrim.] DZSCEIBEB. 325 

coDtiuued it, but the roads ore so bad, that with a 'fair 
load,' it was hard for the horses to move on. 

From Lo(^- Katrine is drawn the water supply for 
the city of Glasgow; — it is ample, excellent, and the 
works are, in the estimation of the engineer, one of 
the triumphs of the t^^e. From Loch-Katrine to Glas- 
.gow is about 31 miles; much of the distance is through 
a mountainous district, and where the loch is tapped is 
a tnimel, 6 feet in diameter, 3,325 yards in length — 
nearly a mile and a half; and the works by Loch-Chon, 
Loch-Ard, and the western baae of Ben-Lomond, were 
through rocks, hard to pierce, yet the tunnels are 70 in 
number, and 1 3 miles in a^regate length, the remaining 
2 1 miles being by canals, arched over, covered with soil, 
and by pipes of size sufficient to supply npwards of 
{(0,000,000 gallons each day. Loch-Katrine is 360 feet 
above the level of the sea, and the water pressure rises 
80 feet above the highest land in the city of Glasgow. 
On October 14, 1859, the loch was ' tapped ' by Qneen 
Victoria; and half the people of the west of Scotland 
turned out to see the ceremony; the ' volunteer fever' 
was then at its height; and the muster on the ground 
was so great that tiie road extemporised thiongh the 
moor from Stronaclachar, gave way under the martial 
tread of those citizen soldiers, while marching home 
through tlie bog, gave theee 'trained bands' some idea 
of what campaigning might prove to be. 

The hot«l at Stronaclacbar is a snug one, and it would 
grieve the heturt of the teetotaler to see the thousands 
of emptied bottles in the season stowed away in the 
rear. The trade done is a 'roaring one,' and right wor- 
thy is (he family who thrive by attending to it 
Coaches ore in waitii^ to convey the tourist from 
Loch-Ratrine to Loch-Lomond, the distance five miles, 
the road good, admirably engineered; and passing Loch- 
Arklet, t£e drive by the butke of the mountain bum 

336 SCOTLAND [Loch-Lomand. 

to laversnaid is a fine one. On the hill-side to the 
right are the ruins of a fort, in which Wolf, the hero 
of Quehec, did duty aa a auhaltem. The hotels on 
Loch-Lomoad are excellent; and notice will be taken 
of them when describing the run upwards from the Leven 
to the Aman->~Balloch to Glenfalloch. 

Loch -Lomond, the largest of the fresh water lochs 
of Uorth Britain — the 'Queen of the Scottish lochs' — 
is reached hj train leaving Edinbuigh at 6.15 a.m.; 
Glasgow (Dundas-street) at 7.35 a.m.; hy trains from 
Perth, Stirling, and Callander; by coach firom Oban and 
Inveraray for Tarbet; from Glencoe and Oban; from 
Aberfeldy, Kenmore, and Killin, for Inveninian; from 
Stronaclachar on X^ch-Katrine, in the season, at vaii< 
ous houiB, for the touriat proper ; while, for the people 
in masses, the route is by the st«amer from the Clyde, 
by Loch-Long for Arrochar and Tarbet. The steamer 
service on Loch-Lomond is admirably conducted, the 
saloons below, and the roomy deck promenade above, 
enabling the tourist, in all weathers, to survey the 
beauties of the loch to full advantage, as the trim 
vessel sweeps tlirough it, and the length, breadth 
of the mountain scenery, the wooded isles on the 
south, mighty Ben-Lomond on the east, the Luss 
heights on the west, and the Highlands of Arrochar 
on the north-west, make the route one of ever chang- 
ing) y^t ever sustained interest. As the steamera ply 
on the loch from an early to a late hour of the day, 
the steward's arrangements are of a Buperior class, 
as are his charges — the fi.rst>clasa traffic having unmis- 
takably a preference aboard these smart steamers, yet 
there is fair room and verge enough for all on board 
to survey the splendid panorama. 

All around on Loch-Iximond, its expanse of waters — 
waste is an inapt term there, the inland sea being 

Loch-LoTTumd.] DESCRIBED. 327 

mrelf rufBed by the 1316626, the course of the steamer 
well buoyed, the loch having been recently eurreyed 
by ihe Admiralty, and the Teasels veil built, manned, 
and fitted out, hare power sufficient to do their dis- 
tance, &om coach to train, within their time, a matter 
of no email importance to parties (joing long distancee; 
and good also for those making the circle of travel &om 
Glasgow or Edinbui^, by the Clyde, Loch-Long, Loch- 
Loraond, Loch-Katnne, the Trossacfaa, and Callander, 
to OP from, within the summer day, with all pleasure, 
without anxiety, and without crowdii^, room to move 
about being ample, and the Sequent change of mode of 
travel keeping up the interest in a route which has 
cisims on the notice of the native or the stranger, the 
valetndinarian, the visitor, or the excotsionist, and 
which few routes within the sees of Great Britcun, or 
beyond it, can equal, if any there are that can surpass 
them — for the cost, and within the time. 

Ascending the vale of the Leven by railway &om 
Dumbarton, tiie strath will be found thickly settled, 
the purity of the river-water making it eicelient for 
calico-printing purposes, and the Leven being navigable 
for baizes, makes coal supply good, railway competition 
apart. Smollet the historian and novelist was & cadet 
of the SmOllete of Bonhil], and a monument raised in 
remembrance of him is seen irom the railway. A road 
from Dumbarton to Balloch on Loch-Lomond, five milee, 
runs on both sides of the rivw Leven — that on the west 
being the highway from Glasgow by Lues for Inveraray. 
The river Leven is crossed by Buspenaion bridges; and 
the walk by it« banks is beautiful, wood abunduit, aeata 
of the wealthy numerous, the sites good, and the dis- 
trict has been prosperous, with access to and ftom it 
frequent; time brie^ and costs low. 

Near Balloch, the railway from Stirling on the east 
comes in; it is known as the Forth and Clyde Junction, 
L,-., Google 

338 SCOTLAND [Loeh-Lomond. 

and traverees the Btrath of the Forth and Endiick, but 
the population is eparse, manufacturea dormant, minerals 
not found, and the line has proved unremunerating. 
Even to the toorist, the attractiooa it offers aie tame to 
thoae commanded on Loch -Lomond, Locb-Eatrme, and 
other places in Scotland. Sear Killeam on Strath- 
Endiick, is a monument to George Buchanan, historian, 
and tutor to James YL of Scotland. 

At Balloch, there is a suspension bridge throvn 
aciosB the Leven, within little more than half a mile 
of the parent loch; and at the hotel, all comfort will he 
found, the place being a good one to live in over tha 
Saturday to the Monday, boats being at hand for tlie 
afternoon's diversion, churches within reach, and walks 
by river and loch accessible and beautiful. A short 
way from Balloch is the domain and mansion of Tillie- 
chewan, loi^ the abode of the most philanthrophic of 
the merchant princes of Glasgow, who, going there a 
youth from Aberfbyle, carved his way to fortnne, was 
open-handed, non-sectarian, and were it the fashion now 
to raise a cairn to departed ^vorth, a stone contributed by 
those to whom 'William Campbell ' had done a geneoous 
act, or said a kind word, wonld form a pile high enough 
to be a landmark on the upper Leven. 

So attractive ia the locality, and so famed are the 
beauties of Loch -Lomond, that the houses of the 
wealthy rise upon its banks. Boesdhu and Camstradden 
on the vest, and Buchanan House on the east, beii^ 
. the abodes of Sir James Colquhoun, whose lands (those 
of M'Murrioh, near Tarbet, excepted) stretch thence to' 
near Glenfalloch ; while on the east the acres are those 
of the Duke of Montrose. \ 

Railway tickets are collected, or inspected, at Balloch 
station, when the train moves on for nearly a mile &r- 
ther, where, at the long wooden pier on Loch-Lomond, 
the steamer is found in waiting, the bay on the west 

Loch-Lmrumd.] DESCRIBED. 329 

giving feir loom to turn in; anfl on tlie east is the 
outlet of the vaters of the loch by the river Leven, 
whose coarse is clear, rapid, free from obatniction, but 
bard to stem, &nd little need for trade; altboi^b the 
Bteamers built for the loch are brought up the Leven; 
and barges, with coal, &c,, for consumpt in the hotels 
on the loch, ako find their way up the river. 

Soon as li^gage is stowed and passengers got aboard, 
the steamer moves off; and the loch, which is little 
' short of 30 miles in length — said to be near 100 miles 
in circuit — and is broadest at ite southern end, is also 
most beautiful there, as the islands — 30 in number — are 
some of them 150 acres in extent^ all finely wooded, 
many with ruins of castles, and tales and legends 
attached to them;— for all details of which see the 
Guide, the sale of which is pushed aboard the steamers, 
and got up by one long employed there. 

On the low narrow isle of Ineh-Mumn — 'Inch' 
means isle — are the ruins of Lennox Castle, of old the 
feudal home of the Earls of Levenai (Lennox). Inch- 
Caillach — 'Isle of women'— gave name to the parish of 
Buchanan on the mainland eastward, and was the burial- 
place of the clan Macgregor, driven forth in 1602, for 
the massacre of Glenfruin, and hunted 'forth' by the 
Colquhouns to Balquhidder, as they had been by the 
Campbells &om Glen-Strae and Glen-Lyon — 'children 
of the misl^' 'the landless Gregalich.' Inch-Tavanach 
is the highest of the islands, well wooded, and seems 
to have been the abode of a monk— hence its name. 
On Inch-Fruin was an asylum for the insane of the 
district, and there were lodged those who 'loved the 
wine-eup too welL' Inch-Cniin was notable for yew 
trees, and valuable when the bow was the weapon of 
war. South of Luss the depth of the loch is twenty 
fathoms, bat below Ben-Lomond and above Tarbet it 
deepens to eighty and one hundred fathoms, the rule 
L,-., Google 

■3S0 SCOTLAND [Loeh-Lommid. 

for depth of water in Scotland being, as is the height 
of the land eo may be the depth of water. 

The piei of Balicaha, on the west, is the first place of 
call; and inland, on the south-east, the Endrtck flows 
into Loch-Lomond. In the flat beyond ia Bnchanan 
Hoiwe, the abode of the Duke of Montrose; iarther on 
the village of Drymen; and on the south are some hills 
singularly marked in outline. The loch rises high in 
flood at times, as may be judged irom the water line 
on the mai^ or shores of the wooded ieles the steamer 
passes by, the rock being bare on the water level, but 
green and covered with copse and wood above. From 
Balmaha the prow of the steamer is turned westward 
for the village of Luss, above five mites across the loch ; 
and on the track are found islets — rocks rising above 
the water level — some little more than a yard in ear- 
face, but crowned with bash or tree, the water deep, 
an4 the course well marked. Steering westward the 
northern slope of the islands is well seen; but between 
the pier of Luss and the western shore the channel 
is safe enough, and is the track taken for the Saturday 
afternoon cheap excursionist trips — Loch-Lomo&d and 
its islands being the advertised programme, 

Luss is a parochial village, with a couple of good 
inns, both under one management; and lodgings can 
be had elsewhere, the locality being of the sweetest, 
accessible, and with walks, inland or by loch-side, most 
attractive. From the Stronehill above the village may 
be had one of the finest of the views to be obtained 
in the district; the river which drains Glen-Fruin ia in 
good repute with the angler; and through that strath is 
IJie route for Helensburgh and the Clyde — one much 
frequented by pic-nic parties &om the poptilous and 
prosperous sea-bathing localities. 

HLk. Sigouraey, the American poetess, visited Lnch- 
Lomond in 1840, and called attention to 'yon emerald 

Loch-Lonwnd.] DESCRIBED. 331 

ialea, how c^m they sleep, on the pure boeom of the 
deep! how bright they throw, •with -waking eye, their 
Ions charme on the passer by! the willow, with ite droop- 
ing stem, the thistle's hyacinthine gem, the feathery 
fem, the graceful deer, quick, starting as the strand we 
near — with admirii^ thought and Iree, Loch-Lomondl 
lone to gaze on thee; reluctant irom thy beauties part, 
and bless thee with a stranger's heart!' 

Casting loose from the pier of Loss, and none of the 
piers on Loch-Lomond are 'free,' the steamer turns 
eastward for Rowardennan, where a hotel has long been 
placed, and whence have come the landlords, once 
of Ard-Lui, Inveranaid, Aberfoyle, and Trossachs, whose 
father (when will he be a grandfatberl) settled here; 
and there the lofty Ben-Lomond can be mounted with 
moat ease, the ascent, nearly six milee continuous, not 
severe, and ponies can be had by those unequal to 
climb three hours on end, the task beii^ rarely accom- 
plished within less time. From Inversnaid the hill 
can be ascended, but, if short«T, the track is steeper, 
and from Taibel, boating across the Loch, the track 
from Inversnaid path is fallen into. 

Ben-Lomond is in Stirlingshire, 3,192 feet above the 
level of the sea, and shows well from the loch, which 
fr«m Inversnaid to Rowardennan laves it« western base. 
As seen from Rowardennan it fills up the view to the 
north, where the vast bulk can be scaled by three 
breaks in the ascent^ and from the summit is gained a 
prospect wide as the eye or telescope can scan; no height 
east, south, or west to impede the view, from Ben-Venue, 
Ben-Ledi, the rich scenes ' beneath the windings of the 
Forth and Teith, and all the vales between that lie, till 
Stirling's turrets meet in sky;' Edinburgh Castle in the 
far eas^ the strath of the flndrick; the shire of Lanark, 
southward to Tinto; the hills of Eenfrewshiie, the low 
shores of Ayrshire, the dale of the Clyde, its frith 

SS2 SCOTLAND [Uch-Lmwnd. 

westward to Ailsa; 'Bute, Airan, and Argyle,' Cantyre, 
and the Irish Channel, eouthwanis to the Isle of Ii&n — 
forming a panorama scarce to be paralleled. 

From the Bununit of Ben-Nevis the range may bo 
wider, hut it is of mountain and flood, loch and gleoj 
from Ben-Lomond the more populous of the commer- 
cial and manufacturing districta of Scotland lie under 
view; the loch below, long and broad as it seemed to 
be from the deck of the eteamer, looked down on from 
Ben-Lomond's peak seema but a pool, and the islands 
which give beauty to the expanse of watets between. 
LuBS and Balmaha, mere specks ou the water. 

Ben-Lomond, like to Cruachan-Ben, stands apart 
from and above the mountains of the district, as Ben- 
Voirlich across the loch and the highlands of Airochair 
do not distract the view. Southward the elope is 
gradual to the strath of the Endrick; on the north the 
descent is abrupt— at one point a circular precipice near 
2,000 feet in sheer descent; beyond is Benmore; and 
under it is the Loch-Katrine district, and that of Aber- 
foyle and Monteith — beautiful all, and classic ground in 
the estimation of the well-read tourist. 

From Rowardennan there is a ferry across Loch- 
Lomond to Inveruglass; and by the shoulder of Ben- 
Lomond lies a track for Aberfoyle. In the days when 
Waverley and his friend 'the Bailie' explored the dis- 
trict, theee were the sole meuis of transit; now the rail- 
way sweeps on from Bnchlyvie to Balloch, and the 
steamer uience carries the tourist from pier to pier, 
and hotel to hotel on the loch, which well merits the 
commendations of the lovers of the picturesque. 

Approaching the pier at Tarbet, the loch is wide, the 
■(rater deep, and Ben-Lomond in all its m^'esty of bulk 
b well seen. On the hill-side to the west is Stuck- 
gown, a mansion magnificently placed, the grounds ex- 
tensive, well-wooded, finely kept, and from time to time 

Loch-Lmtwnd.] DESCRIBED. 333 

held as emumer quartera hj men of mark in their day — 
Lord Jefirey having lived there, Lord Benholme, and 
others. Stuckgo'wiiandTarhetaTenottnitheColqahoun 
estate; but comparatively small as may be the acreage 
owned there by i&, M'Murrich, it will yield a hand- 
some rental — ^the hotel at Tarb«t being the finest on 
Loch-Lomond, unsurpaased in appearance without, or 
comfort and acoommodatioii within, by few in Nortii 
Britainj and well the fomily, who have long occupied it, 
know how to minister to the wants and anticipate the 
desires of those who patronise such hotels. 

The grounds, lawn, bowlii^- green, terraces, flower- 
part«rrea, wood and water, loch and mountain, are all 
mode the most of, and tempt the tourist to tarry there; 
the more so as routes of travel by Glencoe for In- 
veraray and Oban, by Loch-Long for Airochar, Dunoon, 
and Greenock; or by steamer across for Inveisnaid and 
Loch-Katrine ; oi further up for Inveraman, thence for 
Dalmally and Oban, Glencoe, Killin and Aberfeldy, 
diverge thence — and how such may be availed of can 
be learned from the attentive young landlord, hia care- 
ful mother, or his well-educated sisters. 

From the piei at Tarbet to the hotel at Inversnaid 
is little mote than five miles; the slopes of Ben-Lo- 
mond are green and bare; ikr otherwise is the shore 
above Taibet, wood being abundant, some pleasant 
cottages nestling there, and the road for the north fol- 
lowing close by the shore of the loch. The touriste, 
who find quarters at Inversnaid hotel, will have no 
cause to complain of attention not being paid Uiem, 
the crowds who pass that way being great, but all are 
excellently cared for, and there, as aboard the steamer 
and ashore at the piers, the ' first«lass tourists ' find 
them^ves handsomely waited iix>'^n. 

From Invrasnaid to Stronaclachar on Loch-£atrinB 
is five miles, and a coach nuu thence in connection with 
L,.,, Google 

334 SCOTLAND [Loch-Lomond. 

the steamers. The cascade, as seen from the rustic 
bridge above the inn, ia a point of attraction ; and the 
path by the riyei side, for a mile upwards, is beautiful 
— excellent for pic-nics — and auperescellent for pairs 
*wbo think themselves all in all for each other.' 

Wordsworth baa some fine lines on the Highland 
maid he met there; and to quote is part of the stock 
property of the topographer. Abridged, the lines run — 

' Sw««t HigUuid girl, ft very >l 
Of beftat; u thy tni'thly dower; 
And thsM gie; rocks, uiii houi 

le gie; rocks, thii houiehald tuaTen, 
These trees a veil jiut half witbdrftwn; 
This fftU of water ibat doth make 
A manaDT near the silent lake; 
Thii little bay, a quiet road 
That holds in shelier thy abode— 
The lake, the bay, the waterfall. 
And thee the spirit of them all.' 

The tourist crowds having necessitated increase of 
hotel accommodation, has marred this picture of sylvan 
beauty; and ' the cabin small ' will be diffictdt to find. 
Above the hotel are the shooting quarters of merchant 
princes of the west; and such Bit«s are being eecnred 
at various points south of Ben-Lomond. 

A short way above Inversnaid is a cavern in the 
mountain side known as that of Rob Boy; and lest the 
curious should fail in diecoverii^ it^ the author of the 
guide-book, before referred to, as having the preference 
of sale aboard the steamers, has placed at the month of 
the cave just such a figure as in town indicates where 
snuff is to be had! The tale of Bob Boy, by the author 
of Waverley, has done not a little to make that ' bold 
outlaw ' something of a hero in the district. In the es- 
timation of the ' city Arabs ' — the gamins of the city 
of Glasgow — Eoh Boy was ' a great man.' Before Rob 
Koy was heard o^ the cave on the mountain side gave 
safety and shelter to Robert the Bruce, when retreating 
after the struggle in Stisthfillau — ^the Mitcdougal clan 
L,-., Google 

lAxfi^LamoTul.] DESCRIBED. 335 

routmg him there, for which, at the pass of Brander, 
the patriot King exacted a bloody reckoning. 

Above InveiSQaid, Loch-Lomond contracts greatly, 
the breadth upward being within two miles; and on its 
boeoUL is a wooded isle^ with the ruins of a feudal 
stronghold of one of the Macfarlane chiefs. The 
finest mountain in the h^hlands of Arrochar is that of 
Bea-Vorlich. Like the height of same name above Loch- 
Eam, it is here the ' Mountain of the great lake,' and 
but a little lower than £en-Lomond. Seai the base of 
Ben-VorUch is a wooden door in the face of a rock, from 
a pulpit within which the minister of Arrochar addressee 
those of his parishioners who gather near him in the 
field below; and to attend such a Sabbath gathering on 
a summer day, under shade of the mountain, will be 
impressive. Highland parishes ate often of wide ex- 
tent, the population sparse, and ministrationa to all hard 
to give. Killin parish extends to Inveraman, and that 
of Loch-Goil to the head of Loch-Fyna 

At Ard-Lui pier the steamer stays her progress on 
Loch-Lomond, Ten years ago the house on the leil 
was built for and occupied as an inn, bat being near 
enough to the hotel at Inveraman for both being pros- 
perous, the house is now occupied as shooting quarters. 
The hill-side above Ard-Lui, and onwards to the Inver 
of the Aman, is green and beautiful, as cascades down 
the mountain fiice are numerous, and to roam about 
them adds not a little to the pleasure of the economi- 
cal tourist, who may bring his supply of 'creature 
comforts ' with him; who may have a horror of appear- 
ing at ' the bar of the inn,' and it may be, a somewhat 
wholesome dread of the cost of going there. 

Inveraman, at the opening of Glenfalloch and the 

head of Loch-Lomond, has long been noted for the 

hotel comforts to be enjoyed there — the tap being good, 

the liquors pure, the rooms commodious, bed-rooms all 


336 SCOTLAITD [Loch-Lmg. 

r^L The place Is in favour Tritih many to spend 
iroitt Satorday tiU Monday, away iiom. the dust of the 
city, and the worry of trade; and if the traveller be a 
Madellan, Macnab, or a Macgn^or, or even pretend 
to have Highland blood in his veins, why — ' there he 
cau have his foot upon his native heath.' 

Ab for the coaches for Dalmally and Oban, Olenorchy 
and tilencoe, T^ill'i and Abeifeldy, the horses are stabled 
at Invetaraan, although they load at Ard-Lui, yet, 
pulling up there, opportunity is fair to have the 
'pocket pietob' chaiged of such touiiata as lore to 
ei^oy themselTea by the way, and whose notions of 
comfort range beyond the use of the pipe and the cigar. 
The attractions by the routes west, north, and south 
have been already specially noticed in tbeir respective 
articles, and to them the reader of these bri^ topo- 
graphic sketches of Scotland is referred. 

LooH-LoHO is within two miles of Loch-Lomond 
at Tarbet pier; the road between them ia good, broad, 
finely sheltered with trees, and ia much travelled over, 
as the young tacksman of the toll-bar can certify — and 
he is well known at Tarbet hoteL What will not rail- 
way enterprise aecompliahl The moat recent schem* 
afoot of which ia to cut a canal through two miles of 
whinstone rock at Tarbert, on Loch-Fynel Long may 
it be ere such is thought of between Arrochar and 
Loch-Lomoud. The distance is less; there are no rocks 
by the vray; the loch on the east ia said to be 32 feet 
above the level of that on the west — the one salt, 
the other ireah; and tourists by the thousand pass 
the bar at Ballyhenan, for the hundred that would 
brave the perils of a nm down Loch-Tarbert. 

Since steamers became frequent on the Clyde, and 
were put in connection on Loch-Lomond, a favouiife 
route for the circle, of travel &om Glasgow, has been 

L,-;, Google 

Loch-Long.] DESCRIBED. 337 

from the Broomielaw, by Greenock, Gourock, Dunoon, 
Blairmore, and Aidentinny, for ArrochBi — thence acrosa 
to Tarbet, and get aboard the steamei there for Sowaz- 
dennan, Luss, and Balloch, where the train is found to 
eonvey paasengera, hy Dumbarton and Bowling, to Glas- 
gow, The route can be revelled; and railway amalgama- 
tion opens up the run to those leaving Edinbutgh at 6. 1 5 
a-m. for the Koi-th British Bailway connection. The 
Clyde steamer rates are low, the sail is of varied in- 
terest, and in favour with the middle-class touriat ' 

Pail and full notice has been already paid to the 
steamer routes on the Clyde for Greenock, Dunoon, 
and Loch-Goil; and the remainder of this article will 
be to trace the route* from Arrochar to the ferry on 
Loch-Long, where Loch-Goil flows into it The herrii^ 
shoals which visited Long-Long caused a villf^ to 
spring up at Arrochar, and where kirks of old were, 
there was a smithy — and a pnblic-houae. It is many 
years since the inn at Arrochar claimed to rank as a 
hotel — leas grand in extent tban its rival on the east; 
but the present tenant was so long known in the 
steamer Chancellor as the most civil of stewuda, when, 
becoming well to do in the world, he cast anchor awhile 
under the wood-enclosed inn at Inveiarnan, but has 
drifted t^ain neat his old cruising-ground — Arrochar 
liaving been the station of the good old boat known as 
.the Chancellor, and the skipper and steward of which 
steamer were ever well liked by the public. 

Arrochar House, a short way from the pier, with fine 
woods about, and mansion-like in appearance, was for 
some time held as a hotel by ' the laird of GJengyle,' 
who is a Macgregor, but from the Macfarlane country. 
The scheme of having a house at the coast, for the pa- 
trons of the 'Queen's Hotel,' Glasgow, was abandoned; 
another opened the house, but failed to get rich there; 
and now it is a manmon, large, finely pla^, and sure 
T ,Goo>;Ic 

3S8 SCOTLAND ^Melfori- 

to be well tenanted. On the hill-side above the Tillage 
aie Tilla-like erections, the situation being a warm one, 
the beach good, and the place of easy access. 

The rood from Arrocbar to Gaieloobhoiid, about ten 
miles, is leas travelled than its attiactionB deserve — as 
camBgehiTeisheavy,Bnd tolls many, while Imvelling by 
steamer is so lAeap and comfortable. A short way down 
ate loch are the policies of Aidgarten House, and aeat 
it is the entnacc to Olenove, the coach road by Oban 
for Inveraray. The Cobl^ mountain stands sentinel 
above the glen; and below it, and aartii from Arrochar, 
is Loch-£loy, wfarae anglers find good sport. 

On the eastern shore of Loch-Long are many fins sites 
for villas, and well occupied. Fatther down is the man- 
aion of Finnart, where the late Hr. John KHiregor need 
to spend his summers. As engineers and shipbuildera 
on the Clyde, the firm of Tod & M'GiE^or, of which 
he was a partner, have always stood high. 

The 'bowling-green' of the Duke of Argyle is what 
the natives coll the rugged mountain distnct, impending 
over Loch-Long and Loch-GroiL When the Danes in- 
vaded Scotland in 12€3, a squadron of the fleet, before 
being dispersed at Largs, found thedr way up Loch-Long, 
drew their galleys across the ne^ of Loch-Lomond, 
launched them on that inland eeo, lavaged the Levenax, 
and returned with spoil to join Haco at Large. 

Melfobt, the Pass o^ one erf the routes of travel re- 
cently opened up for the tourist, is picturesque enough 
tp merit a special article— the more so, as the enterpris- 
ing coach owner in Oban has claims on the topogiapbei, 
for as tiie means of ^vel are increased, so may the 
number of tourists, some of whom may buy ' Scotland 
Described,' or 'Murray's Time-Tables.' 

Tourists leaving Glasgow by the steamer lona, or 
EdiubuTgh and Glasgow }iy the train for steamer from 

M4fart.'\ DESCRIBED. 339 

Helensboigh and the west, are conv^ed by the frith 
of Clyde, tiie £ylee of Bute, and Loch-Fyne, to Ardri- 
ahaig, irhere those ' booked thioi^h' bj the land route 
for Oban will find ' the coach ' in waiting. 

The drive by the shore of Loch-Gilp, the woods of 
Auchiadattoch,Caimbann, Kirk-Mkhael-Glassaty, and 
the braes of Silmaitin, is a fine one, and incre^ngly 
so as the castle of Canutsserie comes in view, the Pol- 
talloch domain ia appioached, and the rood for Loch- 
Awe, by Gleuurie, is passed. The descent thence to 
Locb-Graignish on t^e west is rapid, the mere bnm by 
the roadside becoming river-like in size before it reaches 
the sea, the district being hilly, the cUmate moist^ and 
the drain^e large. Loch-Craigniah has many islands 
on its bosom; seaward ia Scarba, Corryvrecksn, Jura, 
the sound of Islay, and the steamer track from the 
Crinan Canal for Oban. The billH of If ether Lorn are 
rugged, not mountains, but green, picturesque in out- 
line, marked with trap-dykes near them, and on the 
hill-side above Craignish are battle stones, erected 
centuries ago, in the struggles the Sea Zings of the 
norUi may have had with the Gaels of the district. 
These monumental stones are many — ^without sculpture, 
inscription, or tale connected wi^ th^n. 

Coming near the sea level of Loch-Craignish^ the 
road leads on through a district fairly enclosed; and in 
one of the widest of the straths is the houee of Barbreck, 
the Campbell chief of that name having been of note 
among the mc^nates of Argyle. Culiail is the Celtic 
designation of the district. Few Celtic names but are 
topographic; and the explanation of such will be got 
from the guaid, for on these Highland routes such men 
are indispensable, the strong drag being in frequent 
requisition to regulate the descent of the heavy coach 
ddwn inclines, appallingly severe at times. . 

Approaching the pass of Melfort the scenery becomes 

340 SCOTLAND [l^d/ort. 

beantifu]. On the green hiU-eide is Melfort Honse; 
and near it are povdei-mills, which the abundance of 
copsewood and command of water have caused to be 
erected there — and they prosper. The river, which 
rushes down the deep ravine on the left is large, and, 
looking upwards, it appears to tumble onwarda in 
numerous cascades; the weight of the winter torrent 
shown by the blocks of granite detached iiom the 
mountain sides, and swept seaward by the stream. The 
ascent is long and steep, the road narrow, the rocks 
overhead perilously near, and the gorge is equal in 
gTandeut- to that of the Trossachs, but neither £en-An 
nor Ben- Venue are there. 

Topping the long ascent, the road leads on by a 
route rich in natural wood, in frequent streams, and 
hills green to their sujnioita; and in the season hazle 
nuts may be gathered by the bushel there. "When 'we' 
came that way in 1865, a pair of tourists from the 
south declared the scenery was like to the finest to be 
seen in 'their native Devonshira' The road is little 
travelled, at least was so until these coaohea were laid 
on; but in the season of the year when the tourist 
steamer is withdrawn from the Crinan station, by ihs 
pass of Melfort is the route of travel for parties postii^ 
on to catoh the steamer at Ardrishaig. 

Approaching the shores of Loch-Feochan the slate 
isles to the west are in view, the sound of Mull, and 
the sea route for Zona. Near the head of Loch-Feoeban 
the district is well wooded, and the domains there on 
the west show to good advantage. "When descending 
towards Ohmi, a road leads off for Kilmore, the parish 
church of Oban being there; and b^ it is a pedestrian 
back for Port-Sonochan on Loch- Awe, to descend which 
at sunset gave 'us' the finest of views. 

The burgh of Oban is soon reached, the 'tourist 
information office' of Buchanan & Dick gained, m 
L,-., Cookie 

MdToie.} DESCRIBED. 3il 

may be the Great Weatem, Craig- Aid, Caledonian, Kii^a 
Ama, Queen's, or some oUier of the good hotels in which 
Oban does bo abound. , 

MBLHoaB, the ' Land of Scott,' and the attraetions 
thereof^ hare been already glanced at in the opening 
article of these series of topographic sketches, meant 
to guide the tourist to auoh places in the ' land of the 
■mountain and flood,' as the light of genius may have 
given lustre to; been celebrated in the annala of Scot- 
land, of picturesque outline, or where the intelligent 
tiaveUer may Spd ample means of pleasantly and pro- 
fitably spending hia hours of travel 
, Melrose, a firat^lasa station on the ' Waverley TOUt«,' 
the main line of the North British system, is 38 
miles 8. from Edinburgh, 60 N.E. from Carlisle, nearly 
mid-way between Galashiels and St. Boswell's; and 
more direct access from the west has been recently 
afforded, by the railway from Biggar, by Peebles, being 
now opened for the passenger traffic 

Abbotsford, where Sir Walter Scott lived and ahone 
and died, is by road within a few miles of Melrose; 
but by railway, the route ia to Galaahiels, thence two 
miles to Abbotsford feny across the river Tweed. 

Pennant, a century ^o, has in the index to his 'third 
volume '—' Melros, fine old ruina there,' where 'lie 
the elegant remains of the Abbey of Melros, founded 
in 1136 by David I., who peopled it with Cister- 
tians brought from Hivale Abbey in Yorkshire, and 
dedicated it to the Vii^ Mary. At the Kefonna- 
tion, James Douglas was appointed commendator, who 
took down much of the building in order to use the 
materials in building a large house for himself, which 
is atiU standing, and dated. 1590. Nothing ia left of 
the Abbey excepting a part of the cloiaterwaUa, elegantly 
carved; but the ruins of the church ore of most ua- 
L,-,, Google 

343 SCOTLAND [Melrote. 

common beauty; put is at present used for divine ser- 
vice, tiie rest uncoreied. The memory of the builder 
is preserved in these lines: — 'John Murdo Bome tym 
caUJt near I, and bom in Faiyase certainly, and had in 
keepinff all maaon werk, of Sanct Androys, the hye 
Kirk of Gbf^, Metros, and Paislay, of Nyddyafeyl, 
and of Galway. Pray to God and Mary bai^ and 
sweet St. John keep this haly kirk from skaith.' The 
south side and the east windows are elegant past de- 
scription; the windows lofty, the tracery l%ht, yet 
strong. The church had been bnilt in form of a cross, 
and of considerable dimemions; the pillars cloetered, 
their capitals enriched with most beautiful foli^ of 
vine leaves and grapes. A window at the north end of 
the transept is a moat rich rose quatre foil The work 
of the oatfflde is done with most uncommon delicacy, 
and uuong the spires or pinnacles that grace the roof, 
the brackets, and niches, that till 1649, were adorned 
with statues, are matchless performances. But what 
the fury of the disciples of Knox had spared, the stupid 
zeal of covenantii^ bigots destroyed. In 1322, Ed- 
ward IL, beat at Banuockbum, vented hia rage on the 
Abbeys of Melros and Drybutgh. Richard II. was not 
more merci&l to it; and in the reign of Henry Till., 
in 1644, two of his captains, violating the remains of 
the Douglases, felt the resentment of Archibald, Earl 
of Angns, in the battle of Ancrom-Moor. 

'In the west end of the church were five chapels, be- 
longing to powerful families. Under the great altar 
lay bniied Alexander II.; the Douglases were interred 
at Melrose; the Earl slain at Otterbom lies there; and 
'the gallant Dolwolsey,' laird of liddesdale, assassinated 
by his feudal rival Witliam I., Earl of Douglas. Bam- 
say, Lord of Dalhousie, was known as the ' flower of 
chivalry,' terrible and fearful in armes; meek, mild, 
and gentle in peace; the scourge of Ei^land, and 

I sure 

Melroie.] DESCRIBED. 343 

backler and wall of Scotland, whom neittier hard suc- 
cess could make slack, noi proaperooB slothful' 

Of old Melrose, Thomas Pennant wrote, it is ' now 
reduced to a single house, on a lofty promontory, pen- 
insalated by the Tweed; a mxwt heautiful scene; the 
banks lofty and wooded, vsiied with perpindicnlor 
rocks jutting like bntresses from, top to bottom.' 'At 
old Melrose was an ahhey of the Culdees, mentioned 
by Bede as haring stood there since 664, when the 
east of Scotland was under Saxon rula' 

The nave of Melrose Abbey is from east to west 228 
feet in length, 79 in breadth; and the transepts are 130 
feet long, 44 broad. The heart of Bobert the Bmce 
was brought back fiom the Moorish battle-field in 
Spain, and buried near the high altar at Mebose. In 
the ' Lay of the Last Minstrel,' by Sir W. Scott, are 
these fine lines on the ruined Abbey of Mebose: — 

' If thon ironld'st tuw fair Melroae uigbt, 
Oo Tuit it bv the pale moonllgbt; 

u of li^litHoine day 

1^ the mim grey. 

1 mdm ue bUok in i „ 
And euh ilufted oriel glimmen white; 
misn the sold llghV* WMertaiD shower 
Btreaun* ontha rained aentnl towen 
"WliMi bnttren and bottieM, alternalel]', 
Seem framed of ebon and iTory; 
When rilrer edges the imagerj'. 
And the tatoDM that teach thea to live and die; 
When dialant Tweed it heard to rave. 
And the owlet to hoot o'er the dead man's grare, 
Hen go — but oo alone the while — 
Then view St. David's miiied pile; 
And, hoiae ratnndue, ■oothh iweoi, 
Wa* nerarsoene so sad andiairl 

. . entered now the ehonoel taU; 
The dukeced ro«E rose high aloof 
On |iillan lofty, and light, and unall; 
The key-stone that look'd each ribbed aiile. 

..... id groteiqne uld 

And the pillan, with olnitered shafts a 


344 SCOTLAND [Melrose. 

With baae and with ea^tal flonridid Broond, 
'Seemed bnndlea of luicaa which gulanda h&d boond.' 
The moon on the east oriel ahotie, 
Thniugh ■lender shafts of shmpely itone, 

By foliuQ tnwery combmed; 
Thou would'st hdve thought some tajry'a hand, 
Twixt popl&Tfl Atrait the osier wand, 

In man; a freahiKb knot, h^ twined; 
Then framed a ipell. when the work wu done, 
And changed the wiilow-wreathn to atone.' 

The amall town of MelroBe Las been a butgh of 
barony since 1609; and, two centuries ago, was noted 
for the manniactuTe of what was then termed ' hand 
linen.' The busy town of Galashiela near it, is the 
chief manufacturing seat of the woollen cloths called 
'tweeds,' by which the district has long prospered. In 
the town of Melrose are a couple of branch banks; and 
the genuia of Scott has rendered the spot so classic, and 
its scenes of attraction are otherwise so great, that the 
suburbe, if such word can be applicable, aie getting 
wannly settled — villas handsome, and many rising np 
in the district for the acconunodation of the residents; 
and for the tourist, oi passing visitor, there are choice ~ 
hotels, whe^ the accommodation is ample and excel- 
lent. The district around has good drives, and the view 
from the summit of the Eildon hills is a fine one, as it 
commands the course of the Tweed, the Gala water, 
and what was of old the Forest of Ettrick. 

Diybuigh Abbey is within a short drive of Melrose; 
and as Sir Walter Scott was jriterred there on Septem- 
ber 26, 1833, this may be a fitting place to notice the 
locality, now pilgrim ground for the oountleea admirers 
of the author of the 'Lay of the Last Minstrel,' the 
'Lady of the Lake,' the 'Lord of the Isles,' 'Marmion,' 
the Waveriey novel creations, and works which well 
earned for the gifted occupant of Abbotsford — the title 
'"Wizard of the Korth;' — and in aU hw vritii^ he was 
whoUy a Scotchman. 

MoJ^.] DESCRIBED. 345 

The Abbey of Drybui^li waa built in 1150, near 
where the riTei Leader runs into the Tweed, and 
where there is a tree ao ^ed that tradition alleges 
it waa planted by David I., the founder of the Abbey 
of Melroae and ottier religiouB piles. In St. Mary's aiale, 
was the burial-ground of the Barons of Merton, ttom 
whom the Scott family were descended, and was with 
the place, in 1791, gifted by the Earl of Buchan to the 
ancles of the novelist. The ruina of the Abbey are 
overgrown with iyy— everywhere is seen the usurpation 
of nature over art. In one rooflesH apartment a fine 
spruce and holly are to be seen flourishing in the rub- 
bish; in others the walla are completely covered with 
ivy; on the tops of some of the arches, trees have 
sprang up to a considerable growth, and which, cluster- 
ing with the aspiring pinnacles, add character to the 
Gothic pile; and these aged trees on the summit of the 
walla, are the auiest recorda of the antiquity of il» 
desbuction. St. Mary's aisle is a beautiful apecimen 
of early Gothic arcMtecture; and the grave of Sii 
Walter Scott is in a small spot formed by four pillars 
in one of the ruined aisles. So contracted was 
the place of sepulture that the body waa laid in the 
ground north to south — east to west being the ordi- 
nary mode; and there, in words penned by him for a 
brother bard, 'thatmightygenius, which widkedamong 
man as something superior to ordinary mortality, is laid 
ae soundly to rest aa the poor peasant whose ideas never 
weat beyond hia daily task,' 

MofTAT, the moat frequented of the apaa in Scet- 
land, is in Dnmfrieashiie — by the 'bua, in waiting on 
tlie trains, little more than one mUe from the Besttock 
station on the Caledonian Kailway — a few miles south 
of the summit level of that important line, Beattock 
being 61 miles from Edinburgh, 65 miles from Glsf^ow, 

346 SCOTLAND [Moffai 

40 miles from Carlisle, and Tia Lockra'bie 28 miles from 
Dumfries. As & parocMal Tillage in Bpper AmumdaJ^ 
Moffat, apart from ite mineral craters, ie of eoDadenble 
district importance. It has three branchbanka, somegood 
hotels churches of Tariona denominations, and condbtt- 
able lodgings for the Taletndinaiians — the driTce being 
many, the attractions great, and the means of healthful 
amusement or occnpation superabondant. 

A Guide, published in Paisley in 1832, by the 
Episcopal clergyman ofBciating there, has seventeen 
membOTS of the bookselling trade in G-kagow at that 
date, of whom T. Murray and Smith & Son only now 
appear in the Directory, and the first alone, it may be 
said, continuee in trade, the latter firm beii^ but the 
SQCcesaors of the one originally deBignat«d. Conbrast- 
ing the attractions of spaa in tlte sonth and in the 
HOTth, the writer, himself from the sonth, in his ^tfi&KS 
declares that 'In Scotland the wateiing^placee derive 
entertainment from hrane and circumjacent scenery,' — 
in objects of natnial curiosity, in fn^ments of antiqaity, 
in spots consecrated to &me by actual heroism, or ren- 
dered classic ground by the lyre of the muse, and 
important as well as interesting local circumstonoee^ 
they offer abundeat materials for intellectual enjc^ment 
and of an elevated int«Uectual character.' 

The guide-book tefened to disposes of the Bridge of 
Allan as a pretty village, consisting but of a few honse^ 
gives some attention to Dunblane, with an analysis of 
the waters drank there; Fitcaithley, near Bridge nt 
Earn, and the city of Pettii have a lengthened notice; 
StratJipeffer, near Dingwall, is unnoticed; — bat to 
MoS^t even then applied the notice quoted, the poet 
Bums having sung of the beauties of the district; and 
being so near the border, the battle-fields, notable ia 
feudal and national strife, abound, as da the castles of 
the wild ages now so happily pact. 

MoffiA] DESCRIBED. 3i7 

Defining the southern Highlands of Scotland as 
lying between Eartfell on the east, CoTilterfell and 
Tinto larther north, with the Lowthei and Queens- 
beny range on the west, the basin whence the Clyde, 
the Tweed, and the Annan, -with theii chief offliiNilB 
rise, is indicated, and it is green in aspect, excellent for 
Bheep paatnre, accessible at all points, and well worth 
the labour of exploration. The riveis Annan, Clyde, 
and Tweed are said to spring 'from ae bill-side,' where 
is the water-abed of the shiree of Dnrnfrie^ lAnark, 
and Peebles. The Evan water flows from the same 
tidge as the little Clyde, the infant liver, and, dividing' 
near the stuumit of the railway, the Clyde bnm flows 
into Elvanfoot, and there, joined by the united floods 
of the Daer and Fowtrail, both many times its volniue, 
it becomes the Clyde — the river of Clydesdale. The 
Evan water is of lapid cooiee, flows neiff the railway, 
gathere size fast, and below Beattock and Moffitt gets 
merged in the A tinanj the stream giving name to the 
norOi-eafitem division of Dumfries^die, where it flows 
into the Solway Mth, below the buigh of Annan, to 
which it is navigable for small vessels. 

As a town the situation of Moffat is excellent, and 
so healthy that^ when Dumfries was scourged by the 
cholera viaitation, none suffered in Moflat. The main 
street of the town ia broad, the trade done considerable, 
and the villas which year by year, in increasing num- 
bers, are Dsiug in the neighbourhood, strengthen the 
estimation in which the place stands with the vale- 
tudinarian; accommodatioii in house or hotel being 
ample and excellent, the number of visitors great, 
society good, there being an asaembly-reom, reading- 
toom, Ubraries, and many other modes of makii^ the 
stay there a pleasant one for the stranger. 

The weQ which is most frequented is about a mile 
and a half from the town; the walk is a pleasant one, 
L,-., Google 

348 SCOTLAND [Moffai. 

and at seaaona when visitors are nameroua, a "bna ia 
put on the road for thoBe too feeble to walk, but the 
Btroll there in the morning, vheu the use of the waters 
is recommended, is perhaps as conducive to health as 
may be the gulping down of the impregnated waters — 
health-giving it may be — but neither sweet nor plea- 
sant — at least for those unused to take them. 

Much of the advantage accmii^ from staying at 
Moffat may arise from the many fine walks and dnves 
frhich abound in the district, and to visit which means 
are at hand, the posting establishments of the hotels 
being, as they advertise, complete. At these hotels 
cards are to be had of the places most visit worthy, 
and guides can be found to show them — not a f^w of 
the routes being best gone over by the pedestrian — that 
to fce Hartfell and spa there for example. From the 
top of Hartfell the panoramic view ranges from the Sol- 
way to the Cheviota, upper Nithsdale, and the shores 
of lower Galloway. The spa proper of MoSat wss dis- 
covered in 1639; that of Hartfell m 1748. 

The places of interest in and around Mofiat may 
be enumerated as Auchencass Caetle, within three miles 
from Moffat, by Garple Linn. The castle ia a noble 
ruin, finely placed, and was the abode of Kandolph, 
Regent of Scotland, in the minority of David, son of 
Bobert the Bruce. The walls are 16 feet in tbicknesc^ 
the space within about 120 feet, with round towers at 
each of the four comers ; two of them remain, and in the 
thick wall a hawthorn and mountain ash have taken 
root; the moat outside haa been wide and deep, 

Seattock Hotel, near to the railway station, was a 
first-class inn, on the great mail road from Carlisle 
northward, formed in 1824 by Telford the engineer. 
< The house has ample and fair accommodation, and is a 
good one for the angles who resort there for sport in 
the waters of the Annan , Evan, and Moffat 

L,-., Google 

Moffiit.] DESCRIBED. 349 

Beld-Creig — ' bald craig,' one of the moat attractive 
Bpote in the district, and vithin three miles of Moffat by 
the voods of Dumcrieff, where, in the glen, the bum 
which leapB from the ciaig comes down in foni breaks 
or caacadea, the cliffs aioimd being richly wooded. The 
linn at the head of the glen is seen to advantage from 
a rustic bridge thrown serosa the wild ravine. 

Chapel is a short way west from Mofiat, and is so 
named from the remains of extensive buildings being 
there, the window of which is in fair preservation. Hie 
church was erected by the Knights of St. John. 

Corehead is west of Hartfell, near ' the Devil's Beef- 
tub,' and notable as the birth-place of the late Dr. 
Welsh, one of the lights of the Free Church; the Welsh 
femily suffered in Covenanting times, and have long 
been respected in upper Annandale. 

Craigiehum, wood and house, about three milee.east 
of Moffat, are beautiful and classic, as when Bohert 
Bums rented the farm of Ellisland, on the Nith, he 
was a frequent visitor there— Jean Lorimer, then liv- 
ing, having been the 'lassie wi' che lint-white locks,' 
and 'aae flasen were her ringlets,' &c. The 'peck o' 
mant which Willie brewed' was also discussed on 
Moflat water — where the Bard was well known. 

Dob's Lynn, under which the Covenanters found 
refuge, is 1 1 miles from Moffat, north-east of 'the Grey 
Mare's Tail,' and south-west of St. Mary's Loch, th« 
height above being known as ' the Watchman's Hill,' 
whence the approach of the dragoons was looked out 
for. Hab Dob and Davie Dun, two notable Came- 
ronians, there found refuge — their shelter a cave in a 
precipice 400 feet in sheer depth, down which a torrent 
rushes; and there, the peasant alleges, that the two 
saints eneountered the 'Evil One,' overcame him, and 
pitched him down the deep linn. If Satan had wings 
the fall might not hurt him much! 

860 SCOTLAND [Moffal. 

Duncrieff is adjacent to Ciaigiebum wood, within 
three miles of Mofiat, a ^vourite resort of the TisitoiB 
of the diethct, and temaikable for the size and beauty 
oi the trees, bo aged, so fine, and so large, that they are 
believed to be a Temnaat of the forest which covered 
' Caledonia stem and wild' when the Boman legions 
occapied Britain — Soman ways and camps abounding 
in Annandale and upper Clydesdale. 

Errickstane Brae, near five miles froJD. Motlat, on t^ 
old coach road troia Edinburgh, is of steep descent, and 
near it is ' the Devil's Beef-tub,' referred to in ' Red^rant- 
let,' as where the Jacobite laird of Summertroes, slip- 
ping from the crupper, under tbe belly of the dragoon's 
horsey rolled down the ateep descent and escaped his 
captors. 'It looks,' wrote the novelist, 'as if foni 
hills were laying their heads together to shut out day- 
light from tjie dark hollow space between them.' ' A 
deep, black, gruesome-looking abyss of a hole it is,' said 
the laird, ' and goes as straight down &om the road- 
side as peipraidicular as it can do, to be a heather brae.' 
In days of old when ' the rule of might made the role 
of right,' the deep den was used by the Johnstcmee of 
Annandale, who, in the ' Fair Maid of Perth,' were said 
to be notable thieves, for stowing the flocks th^ swept 
homewards in their forays in the soutL 

Gallowhill ia near to Mof&t, and was so named as 
there stood the ' hnTijinng -tree' of tlie district, in fre- 
quent use; 'Jeddart justice' — 'first hang, afterwards 
try,' being &e ordinary rule of the border. 

U&rple Linn, on the Garple bam, is within three 
miles of Mofiat, by a pretty path N^.W.; the bum de- 
scending the ravine at top of the small glen, crosses tite 
road for Glasgow, and Aawe into the Evan water. 

The Otey Mare's Tail and Loch- Skene form one of 
the sights of Hofiatdale, being eleven miles from the 
village — the outlet from Loch-8kene and the oaacade 

Jfij^] DESCRIBED. 351 

three hundied feet in height The lines from ' Mar- 
mion' describe the 


like tlut whieL trowiu round dark Looh-Skene; 

There eadei scream from isle to t^ore; 

Dom alf the looki Um tonrott* nwr; 

O'er tlM blaak wkToa JiirmHniit driTen, 

tt»rk miiti infect tiie nmuner heaven; 

niron^ the rode bairien of the lake, 

A.wtj lii hnnyins waten Ineak, 

Faeter and wmtar daih and miri. 

Tin down yon dadt abru the; hncL 

Sieei the ng-smfAa white ai mow, 

Thunden the TiewleM etream below, 

Diving, u if oondeioned to lave 

Some demon*BBi]btemn«ui oave. 

. . . deep, d«^ down, and fai within, 

ToiJi with t£e rooki the roaring linn; 

Then, iaming forth on« foam; wave. 

And wheeling rotuid the Qiant'i Qrmre, 

'White aa Qm answy ph^ver'i tail, 

Drivea down the paii of MoSatdale. ' 
Loch -Skene Bbounds with trout; the Hhoree &re 
bleak; the extent is within one mile in length, a quar- 
ter that in breadth; with a. rocky isle in the centre, 
'wh«Ke the ef^Ie of old had his eyiie, the solitude being 
rarely disturbed by the foot of man; and Bodsbeok is 
naaf by, where the hunted Covenanters found shelter 
^om the troopers of Clarerhouae — tales, traditions, 
and legends of the ' killing times ' are rife there. 

Hartfell, the mountain of the district, has been 
already noticed. Loch-house tower, on the right of 
Hie road from Beattock to MofTat, looks like one of the 
Feel-houses of the border, and was the feudal abode of 
the Jotmstones of Cotehead fire centuries ago. Near it 
are three stones, said to have been raised to commemoiate 
the defeat of Edward, Betliol, and Comyn, when sur- 
prised there, in 1333, by Sir Azchibald Douglaa 

Lochwood Castle, seven miles from HoSai, on the 

S.W., was the chief stronghold of the Johnstonee of 

Aniumdale; it was of gftai strength^ insulated, and so 

L,-., Google 

353 SCOTLAND [Mofat. 

situated that Jamea YI. declared that ' he who built it, 
though he might have the outward appeatauce of an 
honest man, muat have been a knave at heart.' It was 
homed by the Maxwells in 1585, the wanton act 
giving rise to one of the fiercest feuda of the border 
clans — the Armstrongs, Elliots, Grahams, Johnstones, 
Maiwella, and Scotta joining in the fray, which ter- 
minated in the bloody fight of Dryfesdala The caatle 
was rebuilt, and habitable until 1721. Eaehills, the 
seat of the Johnstones of Annandale, is in the neigh- 
bourhood; and there, as at Graigiebum and DumcriefT, 
the oak and the ash are of great size and beauty. 

Moffat water, within two miles of the village^ and 
on the road to 8elltirk, is a favourite path of the pe- 
destrian, as at the ' Three Water-foots,' the streams of 
the Annan, the Evan, and the Moffat unite, and theuce, 
like the Clyde at Elvanfoot, become a river — the Aiman, 
one of the largest which flows into the Solway. 

Poldean is four miles south of Moffat; and a stone 
erected in a hohn above the Annan marks where Charles 
II. stopped to breakfast in 1651, when on his route from 
Iha Torwood to the fatal battle of Worcester, 

St. Mary's Loch, although 15 miles distant S. £. 
from MoSat, is so much visited from Annandale, such 
a resort for the angler, and rendered so classic by the 
pen of Sir Walter Scott, that any topographic sketch 
of Moffatdale would be incomplete unless it had due 
notice. Much of the scenery of the talc of ' Old Mor- 
tality' was drawn by the novelist from the lochs, glens, 
and linna S. E. of MofEat, Loch-Skene, Dob's I.tpn, St. 
Mary's, and the loch of the Lowes, A short way from 
Birkhill, the Moffat and the Yarrow waters spring from 
one hill-aide, the latter forming the loch of ttie Lowes, 
and hy a short and narrow channel expanding into St 
Mary's Loch, three miles in length, a mile to half a 
mile in breadth, and a notable haunt of the angler. 
L,-., Google 

Meiiteiih.] DESCEIBED. 363 

The inn, known as that of ' Tibbie Sluel'a,' and cele- 
brated by Uogg, Scott, and Wilson, being near by. 
'Lone St. Mary's silent lake' is described in 'Mar- 
mion,' as wbere 

'. , . nor fen nor sedge 
Pollatfl the pore lake'i orctal edgs; 
Abrupt aod Bheer, the mountejiu link 
At onoe upon th; lerel brink; 
And JDBt & trace of silvsr Band 
Uarka where the yntei meet! the land. 
Far in the mirror, bright and blue, 
Eaoh hill'e huge outline you maj view; 
Shaggy with heath, but lonely, bore, 
Not tree, noc buah, nor brake i> there; 
Save where, of land yon slender line 
Bean thwart Uie lake the scattered pine. 
Tet even thji nakedness Iub power. 
And aids the feeling of the hour: 
Nor thicket, dell, nor copse vou spy, \ 
Where living thing oonc^ed might lie; 
Thera'a Dothing lat to faney'i guess. 
You aee that all U lonelineu: 
And nlenee aidi— though these iteep hillf 
Send to the lake a thousand lillsi 
In (ummer tide, so soft thsf weep, 
The sound but lulls the ear asleep; 
Tout horse's hoof-tread sounds too mde, 

Mbnteith, locally known as Port, is the kirk-town, 
a small one, of the parish of that name, little moie than 
two miles north of the station it gives name to, on the 
railway &om Stirling to Loch-Lomond; is in the south' 
western division of Perth— the Yorkshire of North 
Britain; and is attractive to the tourist from the fine 
sheet of water which expands there, the ruined castle 
of the Grahams, and the abbey of Inchmahome, roof- 
less but notable in the annals of Scotland, as where, 
in 1547, Mary Queen of Scotland, when but five jeaia 
old, found shelter after the battle of Pinkie, and before 
she was carried to France to avoid the kindly attentions 
of her relative Edward YL of England. 

a ,Goo>;Ic 

854 SCOTLAND [MenteUh. 

Ben-Venae, Ben-Ledi, the Crags of Callander, east- 
ward to the Ochil range, art in the district of Meu- 
teith; the river flowing throngh it, Loch-Vennachar, 
Drunkie, and other loche, ace in the parish proper of 
Monteith — though whence named ' Fort' eeema not over 
clear, as from the Lake of Menteith neither import nor 
export trade could flow, even in the days when Black- 
ness on the Forth and St. Andrews on the east had 
trade. Here the water is laud-locked; and fertile as 
ia the district, there was no room for commerce, other 
than, it may have heen, the shallops conveying &a 
tithes of the retainers to the Ahhot of Inchniahome. 

The Forth, a river of volume and hreadth, flows 
south of the parish of Port -Menteith, and the waters 
of the loch are dischai^ed into the Forth by the Goodie 
bum. The mountain screen on the north is lofty; be- 
yond the strath of the river Forth are the Fintry Mils, 
and those of the Campsie fells, so unhighland like com- 
pared with Ben-Lomond and Bpn-Venue. The loch of 
Menteith appears to have neither ' promontory, creek, 
nor bay,' being circular in appearance, seven miles in 
circun^eience, with two islands on its surface, tlie 
smaller with the castle of the Grahams on it, the larger 
with the remains of the abbey, the long point of the 
latter almost bisecting the &ir sheet of water. 

Inchmahome, in language of the native, means 'Is1« 
of reet,' a fitting designation for the home of the monk; 
and a safer one it would he than the Abbeys of Jed- 
bui^h or Melrose, lying out of the path of the southero 
armies and the cateran chiefs, and ' swept the fields of 
the south.' The tiregalich proudly asserting that. 

While, of ten ttunuand hardi, there itiar 

But one along yon brae. 

The OutI, of plun and riTer heir, 

Sh>ll with itnmg toad redsein ha ttai»T 

Menteith.] DESGEIBED. 355 

Short as is the channel between the isle and the land, 
it may have been enough to 'insure rest.' 

As an island, Inchmahome is little more than five 
acres in extent; but the ruins there ahow the abbey 
or priory, to have been a large one; — the arch of Gothic 
structure, the length of wall, vaults, and dormitories, 
all prove that; and the trees around are aged, large, and 
beautiful. lu the choir of the church are sculptured 
effigies of the Earl and Countess who last bore the title 
of Menteith, dormant since 1694; and pity it is but 
that some ' gallant Graham' were warranted to assume 
the historic name. The vaults within the enclosures 
were the burial-places of the ancient families. 

The prioiy was founded by Edgar, King of Scotland; 
had four chapels dependent on it; and, in 1562, had 
a revenue of X234, besides tithings in grain. In 1310, 
before the battle of Bannockbum, Inchmahome was 
visited by Robert Bruce, then asserting his claim to 
the crown, and to ' set his country free.' 

Inchmahome was originally connected with the ab- 
bey of CambuB-Kenneth on the Forth; by James IV, 
it was attached to the chapel royal of Stirling; and by 
James Y., Lord Erskine was made commendatot. 

Oardrosa, a home of the Erskines, is one of the finest 
of the domains in the district, and near t« the Port of 
Ment«ith. James VI. visited Inchmahome, where his 
mother had found safe shelter when a child; and in 
the palmy days of the priory, it was often the abode 
of men of distinction in Scotland. 

Talta, 'theEarrsisle,'i3almo8tjoined to that of Inch- 
mahome; and the fruit trees of the gardens of the castle 
and the priory still grow,_but are bwren from age. An 
islet near by is known as the 'Dog isle,' the kennel of the 
Earl having been there. Of the aged trees, a cbesnut, 
is 18 feet in giri;h, which appears to have been planted 
there three centniies ago. Small as the isls of Inch- 

356 SCOTLiND [iTtMrfnwa. 

malione is, a qnarto volume has been pioduced upon it, 

aad from the press whence these pages come, will soon 
issue an octavo volume on the beauties of the district 
of Port^Menteith; and to theee details the readers of this 
brief sketch are referred, believing that the task under- 
taken will be 'Dun' welL Auglere find aport in the 
looh, and the hotel there is a good one. 

Montrose, Bbbohin, Forpab, Abbboath. — Mon- 
trose is by railway 42 miles 8. of Aberdeen, 66 miles 
N.E. of Perth, and connected with the main line for 
Aberdeen, by a branch nearly 3 miles in length to the 
Dubton station. As a royal burgh it holds Irom Da- 
vid I.; — population 1,456; constituency 495; revenue 
£3,057 ; and is the returning burgh uf a group of which 
ArbroaiJi, Bervie, Brechin, and Forfar are members. 
As a town, Montrose ia weU built, the main street 
broad, long, with a handsome town-imll at its southern 
extremity, from which it is, for some distance to the 
north, an oblong square, the best shops being there, the 
markets held, and some of the older of the houses are 
built standing gable-end on to the street. 

The river South-Esk flows into the German ocean 
at Montrose, the harbour is &ir, but at times hard of 
access, the sanda extending seaward, and the land low. 
Westward of the town, the flood of the South-Eak 
form a sheet of water locally known as ' the back loch,' 
and filling up, when the tide is full, part of the Iwoad 
valley which extends between Montrose and Brechin. 
The road irom Arbroath used to lead to the village of 
Fenyden, thence a boat to the harbour for Montrose; 
but in 1828-9 a suspension bridge was thrown across 
at a cost of £20,000, with a revolving drawbridge to 
give entrance for vessels into the loch or basin behind. 
This handsome atmcture is close to the town, above 
the harbour, and on the mail road to Arbroath. Nov 
L,-., Google 

Montrose.] DESCRIBED. 357 

the traffic of the district flows into the town by the 
Kulwfty branch from the north. On the flat extent of 
land eeaward of Montrose, are flax-mills, large, finely 
built of stone, and where the population find work. 
The diatiict inland is fertile — access by railway and 
road so excellent, that the export and inlport from the 
town is considerable. Schools are good, society select, 
and lying far from Aberdeen, Dundee, and Perth, the 
town of Montrose has long been one of considerable im- 
portance in the north-east of central Scotland. 

Brechin isabuigb,madesachhyCharlesI. in1641; 
population 7,179; constituency 274; revenue Xl,.08O, 
and, like Montrose, is connected l^ a branch line from 
Bridgeof Dun junction, i m.; Aberdeen, 46; Perth, 62; 
Montrose, 7 miles. The Sonth-Esk flows below Bre- 
chin, and onwards by itself-fomied loch for Montrose. 
Flax-spinning is the industry of the district, and near 
it cattle trysts and markets are held, which are influ- 
ential in central Scotland. Although more modem as 
a bnrgb, Brechin is more ancient-like as a town; the 
cathedral, founded there in 1150 by David I., having 
made it of importance; and it was long the county 
town of Forfarshire. The cathedral, now destroyed, 
was 166 feet in length, 61 in breadth, the roof borne 
upby 12 pillars; the tower, square in form and 120 feet 
lugh, remains; and tradition alleles that centuries be- 
fore the cathedral rose, the Culdeea had a rehgious 
establishment on the spot — a fine one, as the l^ks 
stand high above t^e South-Esk river, and the view 
by Montrose, or by the Meame, is extensive. 

The attraction to Brechin, for the antiquarian, is the 
round tower, partly built into the old cathedral walls, 
bat an entire and handsome atnicture, of smooth ashlar 
work, 84 courses of stone, 80 feet in height, and sur- 
mount«d by a modem spire, 23 feet high — 103 in all; 
and at the top are i windows. At Abemethy, in lower 
L,.,, Google 

S58 SCOTLAND [Montnm. 

Stnth-Eam, and at Brechin, north of Strathmoie, an 
the only two round towers in Scotland: In Irehmd thej 
are numerous. As a town, Brechin appears to be pros- 
pering, old streets being made wider, new ones laid out, 
and hotel accommodation of a superior character is pro- 
vided for the comfort of the visitors, who are mere of 
the commercial than of the tourist chiaa. 

Forfar, chief town of the shire of that name, is on 
the main line of railway — 33 miles from Perth, 67 
fiom Aberdeen, and nearly equi-distant between Don- 
dee, Arbroath, and Montrose. As a buigh, For&r 
dates from David I.; — population 9,258; constituency 
171; revenao £1,131; and like the other towns in the 
shire, flax-spinning finds work for the people; but the 
number of hand-looms in Forfar is considerable, whence 
it may be that the place is poor in appearance, the 
houses low in size, the folks not over tidy in externals, 
and the town has little to attract the tourist to it; but 
the district is fertile, trade is considerable, and the 
county courts being held there adds to its local im- 
portance. There is one good inn in the place, knowik 
as the County Hotel, and another which finely divides 
the favour of the commercial travellers — who are ' the ' 
customers to the inns in the place. 

Glammis, about five milee by railway west of For&r, 
is a place well worth visiting, as the castle there is 
celebrated both in the annals of Scotland and in the 
traditions of Scotsmen. It is the seat of the Earl of 
Strathmore; has a park of great extent around it, finely 
wooded; and the castle ia ancient, lai^e, showing one 
tall, massive tower, built centuries ago, and two wings 
connected with it — the latter from designs ty Inigo 
Jones, the architect of the seventeenth century. There 
were two grand courts in front, with access by stair 
and 'gateways, but these have been removed in an un- 
wise effort to modernise a building vhich« of old, was 
L,-., Google 


Btrikiugly feudal In character, and so extensive that, 
when the lather of Charlee Edward Stuart visited it 
in 1716, be declared 'he had not seen a finer chateau 
anywhere in Europe." The great roimd tower, built in 
1686, contains a spiial staircase of 143 steps, which reat 
on a hollow pillar continued to the top. As a whole 
the castle is in i^ preaervation, and is one of the 
beet specimens of old baronial architecture. Glammis 
was a royal residence of Malcolm II., who died there in 
1034 — a room being shown as where he breathed hia 
last; and tradition indicates the spot on Hnntei's Hill 
where the assassin assailed him — an obelisk, strai^^ly 
sculptured, being erected on the grounds, and suppos^ to 
commemorate that foul deed. Robert II., in 1372, con- 
ferred the castle and lands on Sir John Lyon, his 
chamberlain and son-in-law, from whom the Earls of 
Strathmore are descended. Macbeth declares ' I know 
I am thane of Glammis;' and in the ancient armour 
treasured up in the castle is shown a sword said to have 
been hia, also the shirt of ringed mnil worn by him 
when slain by Malcolm. Halberts, helmets, shields, 
coats of mail, hows, arrows, quivers, spears, swords, 
rapiers, and guns are preserved, many of them of historic 
interest Many of the paintings and portraits are ex- 
cellent, chiefly those of the reign of Charles II. 

The view from the leads of the castle of Glammis is 
extensive, as it ranges over the extent of Strathmore 
(strath, 'broad glen;' more, large), from the river Isia 
on the west to near tiie South-Esk on the east, from the 
Grampian mountains on the north to the Sidlaw hills 
on the south. On the slope of the Grampians are the 
manufactoring villages of Kirriemuir, inland of Glam- 
mis, and that of Alyth on the west — the command of 
water power being great in the district. 

Arbroath, a burgh of James VI., 1599, is a prospe- 
ous seaport; — population 17,593; constituency 692; 

360 SCOTLAND [Nithtdale. 

revenue £1,649. The nilwa; for Dundee foUowa 
closely the shore line of the lower frith of Tay. Fl&x- 
spinning 'is carried on extensively; and in those flax- 
spinning districte the bleaching of the cloth is a laige 
business. To the antdqimrian, there will be found 
much to intereet him in inspecting the niina of the 
ancient Abbey of Aberbrothock, founded by WiUiara 
I,, circa 1178, and one of the moat richly-endowed in 
Scotland. The ruins are estensive. Off the coast ia 
the Bell-Rock Lightbooee, erected 60 years ago, at a 
vaat expense; and Soathey'e ballad of ' Sir Ralph tlie 
Kover' — his destroying 'the Inchcape bell,' to 'plague 
the priest of Aberbrothock' — 'his Tesael struck with 
a shiverii^ shock' — '0, heavens! it is the Inchcape 
rock!' and 'even in his dying fear,' 'the dreadfiil 
sound assails his ear, as if below, with the Inchcape 
bell, the Devil rang his Mineral knell!' Much of the 
scenery of the 'Antiquary' is localised near Redhead, 
on the bold coast north of Arbroath. 

NiTHSDALB, Saitqchab, Thoknhill. — CoTSonccme to 
Criflel — Dumfrieaehire, in the S.W. of Scotland, tra- 
versed from New-Cumnock southward by the railway 
from Kilmarnock to Dumfries, has little to atliact the 
notice 6f the tourist until the parish of Eirkconnell is 
reached, when the river which gives name to the dis- 
trict becomes of respectable size, the bills on the east 
higher, m^re green, and the country more populous. 
Corsoncone is one of the highest of the hills in the 
district, visible &om Hu^ell, and near the looice of 
the Nith, on the border of Ayrshire. 

In the village of Kirkconnell tbrae has long been a 
Catholic chapel, which is rare in the south of Scotland. 
The crowd of navvies and miners from Carluke to La- 
nark account for the recent erection of tiie magnificent Ca- 
tholic chapel at the latter; and coal being found between 
L,-., Google 

mthsdale.] DESCKIBED. 361 

Kiikconnell aud Sanquhar may have led to the settle- 
ment of the priest & the ' killing times' the district 
was notable for Cameroniana, and they hated the 
Catholics as devoutly as they did the Episcopalians — 
the ' Highland host' representiiig the one, the dragoons 
of Claverhouse the other — persecutois both. 

The Crawick ■water flows into the Nith, a short irey 
south of the village of Kirkconnell. Its course may 
be little more than six milee; hut the latter half from 
the Holm is of singular beauty, a hunting-seat of hir 
Grace of Bucolenoh (acquired within the last 50 years 
from the relatives of the vrit«r of these pages), to the 
Spoath farm. The hills on the north and south are 
high, green to their sunupita, the strath (glen it would be 
in the Highlands), is narrow, the river growing fast in 
size, and its cascades well worth the exploring — those 
near the Holm especially so. The Spango, which drains 
the eoathem slopes of Crawfordjohn, and the Wanlock, 
which has a short course from the lead mines at its 
head unite, and thence flow westward to the Crawick, 
the upper course of which is beautiful; and by its banks 
a line of railway has been surveyed, and may yet be 
constructed, as beii^ the only pass in the soathem 
Highlands, between the dales of the Clyde and the 
Nith. The water power of the Crawick was ntiliaed 
for some yeare, by a carpet manufactory at Crawick 
mill, wool in the district being plenty; but being far 
from market, the speculation was abandoned. 

Sanquhar, consisting mainly of one long street, wide 
as the coach road, was made a burgh in 1598 by James 
VI., and groups with Annan, Kirkcudbright Loch- 
maben, and Dumfries; — constitaency 683; revenue 
£36i—a small sum for a corporation whose treasurer, 
in the days of Eobert Bums, was so close-liBted, that 
the poet advises the devil — 'Giehimyourgeattokeep, 
he'll hand it well thegithei.' In the pre-rd'otm era, 
L,-., Google 

362 SCOTLAND [NUhiddU. 

report alleges that the electors of Sanquhar were in- 
cormptible — that the provost would not sell his vote, 
but — could sell his 'nowt,-* and these cattle brought so 
feir a price, that at the corporation 'spreads' it took 'one 
of rum to two of whisky' to form their punch. Coals 
are wrought to profit in the Sanquhar moor, to the north 
and east of the burgh ; and no coal is dug thence soath- 
warda until at Canonbie, near the S.W. border. 

Sanquhar hose had a name qf old. Some weavers 
there still are; but the place ie not increasing, as it 
should, seeing that when the Forbes M'Kenzie com- 
mittee were in session there, they declared there was 
but one public-house in the tGjtA burgh. Before the 
Waterloo or Leipsic era, Sanquhar had a blink of pros- 
perity ; being far inland, many of the ' French prisoners,' 
as they were called — ofGcers— were quartered there; and 
tradition is that these Gauls did more to improve the 
manners than the morals of the natives! 

In those palmy days, the town lay on the great 
eoach road from Glasgow, by Kilmarnock, for £um- 
friea; had the 'Camperdown' coach rattling twice a 
day over its causeway; and when the soldiers moved 
south, foot or horse, great was the occasion— the route 
from the west being more populous, and billets were 
more easUy found than in Crawford Moor. To tho 
antiquarian the ruins of the old castle of Sanquhar 
will be interesting; as euch it is in the recollections of 
the peasants, some of the most notable of the exploits 
of Wallace havii^ taken place there. A few years 
since au obelisk was raised in the buigh, in memory 
of Richard Cameron uid James Renwick. Cameron, 
who was slaughtered at Aird's Moss, near Muirkirk, 
gaTe name to the Covenanting professors; and under 
his leadership the Covenant had been proclaimed, and 
' he denounced the persecuting Stuarts at the cross of San- 
quhar. Benwick suffered on the scaffold at Edinburgh. 
L,-., Google 

Nith^ale.] DESCRIBED. 363 

So nnmeioua vere these soffeiers at Nithadele, that a 
dei^yman of Sanquhar has entitled his popular Toltune 
the ' Becords of Martyrland.' 

West of Sanquhar the river Nith flotra near the old 
coach road, helov the railway line. It is confined in 
course, bants wooded, and on the west is the house of 
EUiock, one of the handsomest mansions in upper Niths- 
dale, and notable as the birthplace of the 'Admiiahle 
Grichton,' of whose acquirements all the world has 
heard. The Crichtona were lords of Sanquhar, but do 
not figure in the annals of their country. 

The road, by the Minnock water to Wanlockhead, 
Leadhills, thence of old to Bi^ar and Edinburgh, leads 
eastward &om opposite Elliock, and it is one of singular 
beauty. So grand soHtudes as in Glencroe, nor gigantic 
precipices as in Glencoe, yet well worth the exploring, 
the hills and glens upwards bearing strikii^ resem- 
blance to those of the Judea. 

Tonrists traversing the railway southwards are ad- 
vised to prefer the cairiage seats on the right, as below 
will he seen the course of the Nith, full, tortuous, rapid, 
and beyond it the green hills of Galloway; while on 
the left is but the hill-side (pasLure of the sweetest), 
flocks abundant, patches of natural wood not much, as 
the sheep nip the sprouts, and to the spread of the 
woolly animal may be due the extinction of the forests 
— of old a notable feature of Caledonia. 

The pass of Dalveen and the path of Enterkin come 
down &om the east neat Carroubridge station; the dis- 
tance thence to Leadhills and to Elvanfoot^ on the 
upper Qlyde, is not great; and there are few finer bits 
of Bcenery in southern or northern Scotland than in the 
pass and path referred to, below the Lowther hills, near 
tiie Well path — the Eoman way from Clydesdale to 
Kithsdaie, and which can be well traced. 

The next station on the line is that of Thomhill, a 
L,-., Google 

364 SCOTLAND [NUhtdaie. 

vill^ in tJie paruilt of Uorton, and one of the neatest 
in North Britain, being little more than three miles 
south of Dramlanrig Caatle, the seat of the Doke of 
Buccleuoh ; and, like Inreraiay on Loohr-Fjne, it enjoys 
not a little of the patronage of its ducal neighbour j but 
it may be doubted if either thrivea the more thereby. 
In situation, Thomhill is fortunate — on the ridge of 
a low hill, tbe Nith flowing on the west, the railway 
sweeping onwards on the east, the highway — good 
coaching connection with Moniaive; shops fair, two 
banks, a choice of churches, and hotel superior. 

Between the stations of Canonbridge and Thomhill 
the tourist has an excellent view of the Castle domains, 
woods, and surroundings of Drumlanrig, which for all 
such beautiea of site, improved to the utmost, will com- 
pare favourably with many princely abodes in Scotland. 
The castle isahollowsquar6,fourBtoTeyainheight, and 
somewhat resembles Heriot's Hospital in £dinbu^h, 
the designs of both being by Inigo Jones. It was 
built at the close of the reign of Charles IL, by 
William, first Duke of Queensbeiry, a notable states- 
man, and one little loved by the Covenanters. The 
costs of structure were so heavy that 'the deil pike oot 
his een that looks herein,' was endorsed by his Grace 
on the tradesmen's bills ^ and after building for nearly 
ten years, the Duke scarcely occupied it In 1810, 
the Queensberry line became extinct Since then his 
Grace of Buccleuch holds the titles and the lands; and 
few that know Nithsdale but can testify that he is the 
mo^t generous and most respected of landowners. 

Cloeebnm stution comes next in order, where the 
beauties of Nithsdale do not suffer. Closebum, as 
having been the heritage of him whom the Scotch 
peasant beheves to have been the betrayer of Wallace, 
their patriot hero, has since then possessed an unen- 
viable name; but it was Kirkpatriok of Closebufn, a 
L,-., Google 

Obem.] DESCiaBED. 365 

knightly attendant of Kobert the Bruce, who sent home 
the dagger into the bosom of Comyn, on the altar 8t«p« 
of the Mona8t«ry of DumfrieB—' I mak Bicoar ' being 
Eince the motto of that family; and the deed, foul as it 
was, committed Bruce to the straggle which resulted in 
his gaining the crown Comyn and he conteixded about, 
and in 'setting his coontry &ee.' Eugenie, who shares 
the throne of N^apoleon III. , claims to he a Kirkpatrick, 
whose lands, however, have passed into the hands of 
one of the brothers Baird, the wealthiest of the iron 
merchant princes of K^orth Britain. 

Donisdeer, on the lef^ has much to attract the tou- 
rist — the whole dale, glen, or strath is full of castles, 
tradition, and historic incident^ is of easy access, not 
mach out of the direct line of travel from the Solway 
to the Clyde; and with so much to see, admire, and 
epecolate upon, it seems not a Uttle strange that so few 
of the genus ' tourist ' take that route of travel. 

Auldgirth bridge, Holywood, Ellisland, Dalswinton, 
DumMeB, are rapidly reached and passed. Ellisland, 
the farm of Robert Buma, and Dalswinton, where the 
problem of steam navigation was solved, surely will in- 
terest the reader of these topc^iaphic sketches, which 
the plan of the work makes hrief. Criffel, near where 
the Nith flows into the Solway, is of no great height, 
but is one of the landmarks of Nithsdale. 

Oban, the Charing-Cioss of the Western Highlands 
of Scotland, has many attractions for the touristy afloat 
or ashore; and is acceasihle within the day &om Glas- 
gow or Edinburgh, by steamer from Gireenock or 
Helensburgh, by the E.yles of Bute, and the Crinan 
Canal; by coach from Ardrishaig, by the pass of Mel- 
fort; by steamer through Loch-Awe for the base of 
Cruachan-Ben; by coach from Loch-Lomond by In- 
veraray; and by coach through GleoMloch from Loch- 

366 SCOTLAJa) [Oban. 

Lomond. From the east the steamers come frequently 
from Inverness thioi^h the Caledonian Canal; &om 
the north and west tiiose from the Lewis and Skye 
make their way; fr«m Port-Rush snd the Giant's 
Causeway; and on the west from the green shores of 
Islay, The fine bay is the resort of the yachtsmen; 
hotel comforts, society, &c, l^eing abundant in t^e 
season. The bay, sheltered by the hills of Lorn and the 
islands of Seil, Eerrera, and Lismore, has 12 to 24 &- 
thorns water, and. room for a fleet to ride in. 

Oban bay seemed so adapted for fishing operations 
that it was in 1713 selected for such by a trading firm 
in the ancient bui^h of Renfrew. The lords of the 
■oil were liberal in their feu airai^ements, honaes 
rose rapidly, and in 1763 it became an outport of the 
Greenock Customhouse. The brothers Stevenson, who 
settled here in 1778, were the first merchants of the 
place; and in 1601, when the Crinan Canal was opened 
for traffic, and the Caledonian Canal in 1817 gave an 
impulse to the place, it has year by year improved, and 
the more so as the publication of the ' Lord of the Isles ' 
directed the attention of the tourist to ' Mull's dark 
sound;' and more recently the energy and enterprise 
of Messrs, Hutcheson, in stArting their lines of High- 
land steamers, has made Oban what it is — a place of 
no ordinary attractions, and with advantages bard to be. 
met with elsewhere on the shores of Scotland. 

Oban became a bui^h of barony in 1811, and by the 
Heform bill obtained voting privilegea, being grouped 
with Ayr, Campbelton, and Irvine. The town has a 
couple of bailies, a dean of guild, and a treasurer; no 
trade corporation; and is reported to have neither 
public institution, property, revenue, nor debt— one of 
£1,800, recently incurred, for bringing water into the 
town excepted. The churehea in Oban are now many, 
the Episcopalian chapel recently erected being a bean- 


tifdl one; the Free chardL is on e. fine site; but the 
Parochial chapel ia plain enough without and within, 
and ecclesiastically a Farliamentoiy choif^e in the parish 
of Eilmore — the mother church, which is some six miles 
inland, eaatwaid; and anoh a state of things might nell 
be abated, in a place thriving so fast, where bo many 
of die shops have plate-glass fronts, the villas are so 
handsome, the hotels so many — one of them at least, as 
the Great- If orth -Western, challenging ' comparison 
■with any house out of Oban,' although Craig-Ani hotel 
looks down upon it — and the othere, the Caledonian, 
King's Anns, Queen's, Sea., all having theii own set of 
sapporters; and so abundant is patronage at times, that 
it is hard to find beds in hotel oi house. 

The railway from Callander, by Glen-Ogle, Strath- 
fillan, Tyndrum, Loch-Awe, and Loch-Etive, is in rapid 
progress of constjmotbu ; and when completed to Oban, 
the aspiring burghers there dream of Oban becoming a 
place of call for the Gunard steamers — the Skerryvore 
rock westward of the sound of MuU beii^ the land, if 
such it can be coiled, nearest to the American shore, 
and the tender stationed there, they allege, might bring 
swiitly the mail bags, and have them sent southward 
to Ltmdon — and all this despite the competition be- 
tween Cork or Galway! Approached by water, Oban 
shows well; bat as a town,tiie feuable acreage is scant, 
the margin between the billw and the beach being small. 
From the north, the coach is within the burgh, when, 
upon it, in passing the gates of Dunolly Castle, the 
tourist is within a few hundred yards of the hotel he 
may elect to stay in; and, like most places of tourist 
resort, there is no lock of 'touteis' eloquent in the 
praise of the houses for which they canvass. 

Oban, in Gaelic, 'the White Bay' has some pretty 

drlyee, north and eastward, by Dunolly, Donstafinage, 

Connell, Loch-Etive, Taynuilt^ and Loch -Awe; or 

L,-., Google 

368 SCOTLAND [Oban. 

southward, by route to Melfort ; and there will be found 
ample means of hiring with tjie advantage that there 
are no tolls in the district . Of Dunolly Castle nothing 
can be moie wildly beautiful than its situatioo, as the 
ruins crown a bold and precipitous rock liaing above the 
noTthern entrance to the bay of Oban. 

The castle, overgrown wit^ ivy, appears to have been 
large, as was Ardtomish oi Dunetailnage, and as the 
stronghold of the Macdoogals of Lorn it was a place 
of no second-rate importance, when the Lords of the 
Isles were almost able to hold their own against the 
Kings of Scotland. Tradition alleges that Dun, ' the 
caatle,' Oily, 'of Clave,' was known as such in 700, 
When the Bruce was defeated at Methven wood, on 
6th August, 1306, he sought shelter in the western 
Highlands, was met at the Strathfillan by Macdougal 
of Dunstaffnage, known as John of Lorn, a brother- 
in-law of the 'Bed Comyu' slain by Bruce at Dumfries. 
The prasonal gallantry of the Bruce aioue saved the 
small party he headed; but 'the brooch of burning gold 
that clasped hie mantle fold, wrought and chased with 
rate device, studded fair with gems of price,' the 'brooch 
of Lorn' was reft from him, when he 'hardly 'scaped 
with Bcaith and scorn, left die pledge with conquering 
Lorn.' The gem thus won became an heirloom of 
the Macdougal family, and was but of late years given 
to Queen Victoria by Admiral Macdougal, who dwd in 
the spring of 1865, full of years and of honour. 

Dunstaffnage Castle is within three miles of Oban; 
and, with beauties of sitnation little inferior to those of 
ENinolly, it has claims on the antiquarian, as havii^ 
been, in periods most remote, the palace home of the 
sovereigns of North Britain, the natives affirming that 
the Widls of Dunetaffnage were reared by Edwin, a 
Piotish prince and contemportuy of Julius Crasar! 
When 'the mighty Somerled,' the King of the lalea, who 
L,-., Google 

Gban.] DESCRIBED. 3G9 

tras slain in battle in 1164, lived and ruled, Dunstaff- 
n^e Cofltle was the etron^old of his fiimily — the 
Macdougale; and it waa taken from them by Bruce 
when he ' set bis country &«e ' at BannockbuFn. 

The 'stone' carried from Donstafbiage to Scoue, and 
thence by Edward I. to England, fonns the base of 
the coroimtion chair erf the sovereigns of Britain, there 
having been, from time immemorial, a legend in latin 
upon it, of — 'Consider, Scot, whether you find this 
stone, if fates fail not, ^ei« fi^ed must be your throne.' 
At the peace of Northampton, May 4, 1328, it was 
stipulated that the 'sacred stone of Scone* be returned 
to Scotland; hut the populace of London threatened 
to rise in rebellion if the 'black etone of Scone,' the 
trophy of their Scottish wars, were restored — and at 
Weetminstra the stone remains. Dunstafinage was 
taken by the Bruce in 1308, and charters exist given 
by bint there. When James, Earl of Douglas, was 
defeated in Annandale in 1455, he found refuge at 
Dunstafinage; and when the 'unfortunate' Duke of 
Argyle joined the Monmouth risii^ in 1685, he mus- . 
t«red hiB forces at Dunstaffnage, the Campbell £unily 
resting there till they removed to Inveraray. 

Ill tine rebellione of 1715 and 1745, Dunsbrf&i^e 
was garrisoned by English troops. Now all is in ruins ; 
but at one time it was a place of strength, the rude 
masmry which covers the promontory above Loch- 
Etdve having been strong, the walls high, the form 
nearly square; dimenaiona — 87 feet within the walls, 
height 66 feel^ thickness 9 feet, estemal measurement 
270 feet; and the rock founded on ia 300 feet in oii^ 
comferenca The main entrance appears to have been 
from the sea — from the galleys, it may have been, of 
the Koise Sea Kings. The view from the top of these 
crumbling walla ia extenaive and beautiful, as the 
Sound of MuU, Loch-Linnbe, Loch-Etive, Cruaohan- 
2 a. ,Goo>'Ic 

370 SCOTLAND [Oban. 

Bon, Beri-More, the hilla of Green Appin, Morrwi, 
Aidgour, are all well seen from it. Near the caatle 
are the ruins of an ancient chapel; walla 78 feet in 
length, 14 in height, and breadth within 26 feet. 

A few miles up the shore of Loch-Etive is Gonnell 
ferry, above which are, in poetic phrase, ' Connell with 
his rocks eng^ing'— in prose, a. reef of rocks across 
the loch, so interrupting navigation, as to make it 
practicable for vesBels to pass only at certain states of 
the tide; at others, the 'stream flows so fast,' the body 
of water comes down so heavily, that the surge in 
audible at a distance; but for these perils of the deep, 
the nppei reaches of the loch would form another 
steamer ronte for the tourist, and eastward by the base 
of Cruachan-Ben it penetrates to near Buachal Etive, 
near the Black Mount, one of the sentinel heights that 
appear to guard the entrance to Glencoe. 

Across Connell ferry, on the Appin shore, and nearly 
opposite Dunstafihage, is the site of Ber^^nium, which 
the Celtic antiquarians affirm to have been a city two 
thousand years ago, — pointii^ to mounds which are 
not over distinctly marked as where Dun-Bhsit-An-righ, 
' the king's own hill,' the market-street, Muil-street, 
&c., when the Dalriad princes ruled at Dnnataffii^ 
and this city of their race; which traditioa alleges ' to 
have been destroyed by fire from heaven.' 

On the northern shore of Loch-Etive, and ten miles 
from the ruins of Dunataffnage, is Ardchattan Priory, 
founded about 1230, by Macdongal of Lorn, coeval 
with Beauly and Pluscardine — the monks 'residir^ 
within the walls leading austere lives, devoting them- 
selves to the education of the young chiefs of the land, 
and to cheering the declining years of those who, 
tired of the battle of life, sought rest there.' The 
high-roofed mansion of the modem proprietor was part 
of the monastery, and the offices covet much of ths 

Pawfey.] DESCRIBED. 371 

ground it stood upon. The priory vas sacked iu the 
wars of Montrose; but the ruins show the chapel 
to have been 60 feet long by 27 broad; and of the 
tombs preserved, two have the date of 1502 upon 
them. In the Eagman roll of August 28, 1296, the 
prior of Aidchattan appears as one of the prelates of 
Scotland found willing to obey the rule in Scotland 
of Edward of England; and when the Bruce became 
victoT of Lorn, a council oi parliament of his adherents 
was held at Ardchattan, and it waa remarkable as having 
been the last in which the interests of the State were 
discussed in the native language of the Gael 

Celtic legends declare that Fergus I., B.C. 300, broi^ht 
the 'black stone' to DunstafTnage from 'Tara's mount!' — 
that it was the stone on which 'Jacob' pillowed his 
head at Bethel! was carried into Egypt; became pos- 
sessed by Scotia, a daught^ of Phuraoh; brought to 
Spain; Uience by Heber to 'Hibemia' (Ireland), and 
did duty there, &c.;— but these Caledonian Dalriad 
traditions appear to have been all oial, as no record 
of theii history exist — neither stone, castle, nor ruins 
Mrly telling their tala The drive northward, by Appin 
to Loch-Creran and Loch-Leven, at Ballachulish, is 
a pleasant one, the roads good, and the sole drawback 
are the ferries; but to such the tourist in the West 
Highlands of Argyleshire must soon get used, as there 
being no portion of that section of ' the land of the 
mountain and the flood' which is so fully penetrated 
by lochs, chiefly in connection with the sea. Tourists 
findin g their way to Uban are recommended to call 
npon Mr. George Buchanan (Buchanan & Dick), George- 
street, near the Post-office, who will supply all needful 
information as to routes for farther travel, &e. 

Paislht — The Abbey. — Paisley is by railway seven 
miles west of Glasgow, and 15 south of Greenock. It 

S73 SCOTLAND [Paislei^. 

id btiilt on tbe east and west banks of the riverCar^ called 
' White,' to diatingiiiflh it from another riverof Kke name, 
known as 'the Black Cart,' but these streams unite and 
flow into the Clyde at Inchiiman, west of Renfrew. 

Duiing the period of Roman occupatioD, the military 
station of lower Clydesdale was on the height, oi hills, 
covered by High-street^ Oakshaw-street, and tbe west- 
em division of Paisley; tbe road tbence, running from 
the great encampment at Clegbom, near Lanark, by 
tbe Roman wall from tbe Forth to tibe Clyde, and the 
Castle of Dunglass, near the rock of Dumbarton. 

Stratbgryffe was, in later ages, tbe name of upper 
Kenfrewabire, tbe river Gryffe being near the !^ack 
Cart and flowing into it. When Renfrew was a place 
of shipping, and Glasgow was unknown as such, the 
vessels from tbe Highlands ascended the Cart to tbe 
Sneddon, tbe river borboui of Paisley, bringLog fish 
and slates, and taking back coal and liiae. 

Conuneree has never been the forte of the Datives of 
Paisley, although they sunk tbe greater portion of tbe 
revenues of their town in an abortive effort to deepen 
their river, and to cut a navigable channel to the Clyde. 
'The loom, the shsttle, beajns, and treddlea,' became 
the industry of the place, and for more than a centoiy 
past tbe town of Paisley became notable for tbe taste of 
its weavers, and famous for tbe enterprise of its mann- 
fecturera — lawns, muslins, ehawie, each in their day com- 
manding tbe national markets ; and although Aberdeen 
and Dundee have shot ahead of Paisley in population, 
Greenock threatening soon to do ao also, and Qhu^w 
has so grown that a learned slxanger, who should have 
known better, mistook Paisley town for a saburb of that 
city; still Paisley is a lai^ one, pleasant to live in, society 
being of the most social character, and nowbero would 
the 'In-contes-Forbes-M'Eenzie-ebat-theMioor-Aat' be 
more annoying to the 'coiks' floating in the social glass 
L,-., Google 

Potties.] DESCEIBED. 373 

— their game of tbe night being knovn hy a lees 
euphonious name th&n tl^t of 'chaffing!' 

In Glasgow, Greenock, and Paieley, the natives arc 
known as 'people,' 'folk,' and 'bodies.' Good-natured 
bouIb those on the Cart are, stick well by each other, 
gregarious in their habite at the 'saut water,' a bay on 
Dunoon shore being known as ' Seestu ' (' Seea't thou how 
we love each other?*) — and to these qualities, it may be, 
eucb frequent interchangee of thought, that the sharp- 
ness of the fancy of ' the bodies ' may be due. Few men 
bom tiiere but can spout, they are notAble politicians, 
suspected of radicalism, famous for 'heckling,' and it is a 
rare thing for the aitiaan that he cannot make verses, 
or at least 'write to Uie papers!' Christopher North 
of Blackwood — the Professor Wilson of Edinburgh — 
Alezandei Wilson, the great naturalist of America 
— and Tannahill, the poet, were natives of Paisley. 

The section of Paisley nearer to Glasgow is known as 
the If ewtown, the streets there havii^ been formed last 
century; but the town proper covers the rising ground 
■west of the river Cart; the High-street is long, narrow 
near where the steeple, the old town-house stands and 
Uie Cross, but widens westward. The houses are not 
over regular in architecture; here the mansion of a 
manu£icturer is to be seen; there the cottage of his 
weaver, and to 'the latter the ground, garden or kail- 
yard, often extends to the rear of his homestead. 

Pmsley has gas, water, mills, and manufactories; 
shops many, but is so near the city of Glasgow that 
the laiger purchases may be made there. The ' braes 
o' Glenitfer,' so sweetly simg of by Tannahill, are to 
the west; on their slopes, at Ferguslie, Ealston, and 
various paints, around and near to Paisley, are villas, 
mansions, and surroundings, attesting the enterprise 
Mid success of the manufacturers of Paisley—that of 
cotton thread being carried on to a vast extent. 


374 SCOTLAND [Peebles. 

On tlie antiquarian, the Abbey of Paisley bas strong 
claims, the magnificent pile having been founded there 
in 1163, by Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, the 
progenitor of the royal Stuart family. Originally a 
priory, it became an Abbey within ttie next century, 
and was so munificently endowed as to be Bacond in 
importance to few in the south of Scotland. Some of 
the Stuart kings and tbeir consorts are buried in the 
Abbey — tradition pointing to a tomb as that of the 
daughter of Eobert the Bruce, who lost her life by a 
fall from her horse when hunting in the neighbotithood. 
The Abbey of Paisley suffered ireqnent and Beriotisly in 
the civil and fore^ wars of Scotland. 

The Abbey has been 265 feet in length over all; 
tba nave 93 feet by 60; the transept 92 by 35; the 
choir 124 by 32 feet. The west front was magnificent. 
Part of the ancient building is occnpied as the chureh 
of the landward portion of Paisley, and like that of 
St. Cuthbert's in Edinburgh, or the Barony in Glas- 
gow, the parish is extensive; and the charge is a col- 
legiate one. With a spirit characteristic of the town, 
the manufacturers of Paisley are taking steps to reno- 
vate the fine old pile they are proud of; the tall roof of 
which can be well seen from the steamera on the Clyde, 
o'er-topping all around it; and the modem steeple of 
the High Church of the town of Paisle^ is likewise an 
object conspicuous in the distance. 

Pbbbles — Nbidpath. — Peebles, having a popiilation 
of 2,045, is ' the ' town of the email shire of like nanie, 
on the npper course of the river Tweed; and, with rail- 
way connection, is, from Edinburgh 27, Biggar 16 miles. 

Peebles is finely situated east of the Tweed — a broad 
flood there, where the Eddlestone water flows into it, 
with hills around of no great height, but green to the 
summit; and the banks of the Tweed, Upward by Ifeid- 

Peehles.] DESCItlBEP. 375 

path tower, are finely wooded, and seen to greater ad- 
vant^e "by the pedestrian, on the old load to the west 
— ^the railway for the town of Biggar being by tunnel 
led under the hill acroas the river. 

For centuries past Peebles has had a place in Scot^ 
tishstoiy; and the humours of 'Pebillis at the play' 
was the Bubject of a ballad by James I. of Scotland. 
Defoe, the author of Eobinson Crusoe, visited Peebles 
in 1722, and describes it as 'a small town, pleasantly 
sitnated on the banks of the river Tweed, over which 
it hath a fair stone bridge. There is one good street, 
and some by-lanes, with tolerable stone buildings.' 
Peebles is still only ' a small town,' but the ' good ' main 
street ia wide, well paved, and has banks, buildings, 
churches, and shops, which would make a &ir appear- 
ance either in Edinbui^h <n Glasgow. 

Peebles became a royal burgh in 1337; but the Par- 
liamentary constituency ia— nil almost, thevotes going 
with those of the county; and in 1865 ' mine host' of 
the Tontine Inn, Peebles, was the only one whose rent, 
exceeding £50, entitled him to go to the poll! How far 
the bui^hal limits may extend tlie writer docs not know; 
but above the railway station from Edinburgh, across 
the Tweed, and beyond the line from the west, there 
are villas and surroundings which, near Edinburgh or 
Glasgow, would command lai^e rentals. 

In the annals of Scotland, under the Stuart princes, 
Peebles is often made mention of; and in 1 296 William 
de Chambre, (could he be the ancestor of William 
Chambers, Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1666?) Baihe 
of Peebles, signed the Eagnian roll, and swore fealty to 
Edward of England. A charter is extant signed by 
Edward III. from the castle of Peebles. 

Of old, Peebles was surrounded with walls; and 
places there are still known as Eastgate, Northgate, 
and Fortrbrae, which might be needful to guard against 
L,-., Google 

376 SCOTLAND [PeeUet. 

feudal fcoaya; bat as s place vhich stood a si^e the 
town or castle of Peebles is not beard of. James I. 
TFould know Peebles; JameB V. visited it in 1539; in 
1545 the town was burned by the English invaders; in. 
1566, Queen Mary and her husband Damley were in 
Peebles; and in 16ti7 Jainee VI, ' rode with ane host 
to Peebles,' to punish some disorderly subjectB, 'fuad 
returned on the tenth day.' James YI. was again in 
Peebles in 1594, when in pursuit of the Earl of Both- 
well; and when in England in 1621 lie renewed the 
charter to the town. Montrose passed through Feeblea 
in 1645 on his route to Philiphaugh; and in 1650 
Cromwell laid siege to Neidpath Castle. 

lu Bleau's Atlas of Scotland, published at Anwterdam 
in 1662, the town of Peebles is reported as of 'ports, 
streets, bridges, cbuTch, and steeples — three each;' 'three 
mills to serve their town in time of need, on Peebles 
water and the river Tweed. Their arms are proper,, 
and point forth their meaning — Three salmon fishes 
nimbly counter swimming' — i.e., three go up the Tweed 
for one that gets down — the angler's sport is good. 

In 1746, Peebles was laid under contribution by the 
rebeldetachment marchingaouthward under Lord G«oige 
Murray. Being inland, Peebles was selected as a depot 
for French prisoners, who were, towards the close of the 
late war, removed to Sanquhar in Dumfriesshire, as the 
arms of the Peeblesshire militia were supposed to be in 
danger when stored up at Neidpath Cast^ I 

The bridge across the Tweed at Peebles ia an an- 
cient structure, broad, long, but at one time settee wide 
enough to pass a single carriage; the piers still stand, 
but have been added to, and flie view from the bridge 
up the Tweed is fine. To right and left of the High- 
street, closes, naiTow lanes of houses, run down to the 
Eddlestone water and to the rivet Tweed, and the 
older portions are beyond the Eddlestone. 

,, Google 

Perth.] DESCRIBED. S77 

Aatiquitiea in the diatrict tre man^; and what is 
interesting about them has been recently told in 
the ' History of Feeblesahiie,' a volijme produced by 
W. Chambers, well written, magnificently illustrated, 
costly, but to be seen in the library of the institution 
founded there by the individual r^erted to, and who 
and his brother Bobert hare done so much for the pe- 
riodical literature of Scotland. Architects of their own 
fortunes the brothers have been, but hke the youth of 
Scotland, be the position of tiieir paieuts what it may, 
the parochial school always insures good education. The 
natives of Peebles are social— all ' three-tumbler mMi,' 
— those that will irink; and one of the oldest of their 
town clubs is quaintly named 'the gutter blood.' Time 
may bare been when Ute m^istratea of Tweeddale caied 
little for the weavers of Peebles! 

Neidpath Castle is the object of most interest in the 
Peebles district; it is of hietoric name, and is still bo 
far habitable that a gamekeepw resides in it. 

Perth. — 'The fair city,' or the city of 'the fair 
maid,' is finely placed at the head of the navigable 
waters of the river Tay, and where the railways from 
the south and north converge. At the Central station, 
the lines thiot^h Fife from £dinbuTgh — through Strath- 
allan &om Glasgow — through Stratli-Tay from Inver- 
ness — and through Strathmore from Aberdeen, come 
in; besides the railway by the Caree of Gowrie and the 
northern bank of the river from Dundee, and that 
recently opened by Methven for Crieff and Strath-Earn. 
Perth is 90 miles from Aberdeen; Dundee, 21; Edin- 
burgh, 46; Glasgow, 63; Inverness, 135, and the sail 
down the Tay by !Newbnrgh is attractive. 

Perth owes it« burghal privileges to David I. ; — po- 
pulation 25,2i;0; constituency 1,167; revenue £7,470; 
and sends one Member to Parliament. In the onnala 
L,-., Google 


of Scotland, Perth has had a place, ^m the era of Ko- 
maa occupation downwards; as, formii^ the centre of 
a spacione plain, ne» to a deep, wide, and rapid river, 
with the mountain screen of the Grampians on the 
west; the lower range of Sidlaw liilla across the Tay, 
the fertile Garse of Gowrie below them, the hill of Moa- 
crieff, tunnelled under hj the railway, and the rich 
strath of the lower Earn made the locahly an eligible 
and a rich one; — the seat of the Pictish capital having 
been at Abemethy, 8 miles east of Perth- 

The bridge across the Tay, erected in 1772, is as long 
as that over the Clyde at the Broomielaw, Gla^w, but 
narrow and st«ep, the advanced engineering science of 
the passing century being seen in the contract. Beyond 
the bridge is the populous suburb of Bridgend; and a 
shorii way north-west is the Palace of Scone, wheM the 
'black Btone,' the coronation seat of the kings of Scot- 
land was kept, and tbe ' Moothiil,' where chiefs, a thon- 
sand years ago, mustered to wait upon their prince. 

Dnnsinane hill is about 8 miles north, and that of Bir- 
nam 15 miles ftom Perth. These localities are rendered 
famous by the tragedy of Macbeth; and as Shakespeare, 
in 1696, was in Perth, playing before the Court of 
James VI., he might know the district well 

The church of St. John, carefully preserved, is in the 
centre of the old town, and has much in it to interest 
the antiquarian. In the east end of the edifice is the 
tomb of James I., assassinated in the Blackfriars' mon- 
astery, Perth, but of that building no trace remains ; and 
at the high altai of St. John's, the Earl of Cornwall was 
struck dead by his brother Edward III., the cause, the 
savf^ acts of the youth in sacking Lesmahagow in the 
west. Perth was fortilied by the Romans; it was the 
capital of Scotland till the reign of James II. and III., 
held a Parliament house, and made a place of strength 
by Edwards L and III. 

L,-., Google 

ferth.] DESCRIBED. S79 

Gowiie Souse stood ne^ where the town jail now 
is; and in the church of St. John, Knox the Eeforroer 
firat rouaed the people to the demolition of the Eomish 
adommente of the churches, which were numerous in 
Perth — ^fonr monasteries, two nunneries, other religions 
honses, and that of St. John, the latt«i one of the old- 
est stone-hiiilt churches in fforth Britain. 

The inches, greens, or parks of the city of Perth are 
extensive — ^that on the south is finely wooded, and that 
on the north was where, in the reign of Eobert III., 
the champicm fight between the Mackintoshes and the 
Clan Kay took place, the stroj^le forming the ground- 
work of the tale of ' The Fair Maid of Perth,' 
■ The prosperity of Dundee has dwarfed the commerce 
of the harbonr of Perth, where there ia water enough 
for veesels of considerable burden; but 20 miles of in- 
land navigation, farther from coal, and labour not more 
abnndant, are diaadvantagea. Some flax-mills there are 
in Perth, and many looms there used to be— the lattor 
weaving for houses in Glasgow — ^the living being cheap 
in Perth, and the house rent very low.' 

The Academy of the city of Pert.h is extensive and 
prosperous, and deservedly so ; and society is good La the 
town, as the courts of the extensive shire of Perth meet 
there. The Central Bank of Scotland is in Perth, and 
six other branch banks besides ; the buildings of these 
estabUshments being, as elsewhere, highly ornamental 
to a town which, ^ed as it is, has fair breadth of street 
— lanes, closes, and wynds being less numerous than 
in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, or Glasgow. 

The sites for villas in and aroond Perth are fine and 
well availed of, few places being better built over than 
are the margins of the Inches of Perth, and the hilt- 
eidee above the river Tay — the surroundings of the city, 
from the hill of Moncrieff to that of Kinnoul, being 
soch as to well e&m it the title of 'Sail.' 

L,-., Google 

S80 SCOTLAND [Pitloehrie. 

In B city eo ancient, of each histone note, and is a 
aedion of Scotland so fertile, the bneiness of entertain- 
ing the public haa been a prominent one, booses 'for 
man and beast' acGoauDodation abounding; and before 
the pretty bamlet at Bimam, near Dnnkdd, was formed, 
tlie city of Perth was one eapecially laToured by the 
tourist — the Bofid George, near tiie bridge, having 
been irell patronised by the Perthshire gentry; and Qie 
Salut^ion Hotel, in Bouth-stxeet, may have been such 
centuries ago, as it ia under the ahadoiT of the cbun^ 
of St. John's; it vas where Charles Edward, in 1746, 
found qnaitere, and the commercial room is stiU one of 
the best patronised in Scotland. Near the station there 
axe many hotels; and 'at the station' there will be 
siected a hot«l to meet the requirements of the crowds 
of tourists who annually riut Perth. 

FmxxiHUE is a village in the parish of Moulin, 
Perthshire, on the left bank of the river Tummel, on 
the great road 6om Dunkeld to InTomess, near to tha 
Pass of Killiecrankie, in the richest scenery of the 
county of Perth, a fiistrclasa station on the railway, 
14 milBs north of Dunkeld, seven miles south of Blair- 
Athole, and with a firat^clasa hotel for iho tourist, and 
superior accommodation in the lodging-houses abont. 

Placed above the strath of the Tummel, the situa- 
tion of Pitloehrie is healthy, and there are few districta 
in central Scotland where the visitor has greater choics 
of drives, or where he can find better means of seeing 
such, the posting establishment being complete at t^he 
' Soyal,' and the carriages to be met with on the road 
&om Pitloehrie to Blair-Athoie being many. 

Pitloehrie has little of the Highland village in 

appearance; few of the houses are old; all seem to 

have ground enough about them; and the hill-aide has 

villaa about it like the subnrba of a city — without its 

L,-., Google 

B)tkeaay.] DESCBIBED. 381 

smoke, and with 'monntaia and flood,' 'strath and 
glen,' air snd exercise, and all that is most tempting to 
the tourist, or to the valetudinsrian. 

8poufr-I>hu — 'cascade,' 'hlock' — lOOfeetinhe^ht, is 
near the village; Ben-Vracfcy, 3,500 feet high, three 
miUa to the north, is one of the finest in outline of 
Perth^iire moontains; the loch and falls of the Tnmmel 
are within easy distance; but the Pass of Kiilieemnkie ia 
the attraction of the district, where, on July 27, 1689, 
the Jacohite leader, whom the novelist t^rms the 
'gtUlant Dundee,' fell in the tama of rictory — but with 
him fell the cause of the exiled Stuarts. The battle- 
ground can he reached by the old road, not far from 
the highway, near Urrard; and a atone will he pointed 
out by the guide as the place where GlaverhouBe received 
his death-wound, while in the wooded field to the right 
of the road that 'warrior lies 9t rest.' 

A district so romantic is richly and warmly settled 
with the mansions and domains of the magnatea of 
Perthshire, and not a few of those who have earned 
weidth and poritiou at home and abroad. From Pit- 
lociirie the distance to the Spittal of Glenahoe is 26 
miles, by Gleu-Briarachan, Strathardle, and Kirk- 
michael; and from Gleushee to Braemar is 15 miles 
&rther, with a coach, in the season, on the road from 
Blairgowrie to Braemar; and the tourist who may get 
seated new the minister of the 'Glenshee' will find no 
lack of information, unobtrusively and most pleasantly 
given — and to meet such a companion by the way is no 
small privilege to the intelligent traveller. 

KoTHBMT, the chief town of the isle and ahiie of 
Bute, was made a burgh by Kobert III. in 1400. Like 
Peebles, it has no direct Parliamentary constitaancy; 
has a population of 7,122; and reveiine,1861,of £S,d27. 
As a place of sea^bathii^ reaort^ Botheaay is a &Touiite 
L,.,, Google 

S82 SCOTLAND [fiottwoy. 

one, especially so with the artisan class, as lieing a town* 
whei« lodgings can be had economically, shops ace many, 
and means of living moderate: but they are not the sole 
patrons of the place, as the Bute Arms, Queen's, and Vic- 
toria hotels are second to none on the Clyde for the 
comforts tbey offer to the tourist; and the bay being on 
the track of the Highland steamers, makes it an excellent 
place to stop at, the attractions of the island being ^p-eat 
— as, under the article 'Bute,' has been already noticed in 
this volume. On the north and south, from Aecog to 
Port-Bannatyne, every place of vantage has its villa, and 
the outlook thence across the bay of Eothesay to the 
shores of green Cowal, up the friih of Clyde, or north 
by the Kyles of Bute, make them pleasant, imd not the 
less so, that there are few places on the frith of Clyde 
at which so many steamers call. 

Eothesay, the islanders affect to call the 'Montpelier 
of Scotland,' and they exalt the beauties of their bay 
above that of Kaples ! In the annals of Scotland Rothe- 
say has a name, the Castle there having been a place of 
strength, when the Danes swept the seas of the north ; 
and within its ruined walls is ^own the room in which 
Kobert III. died; his eldest son having been destroyed 
in the dungeon of Talkland; while the 'Benjamin of his 
old age' was made a captive by bis unfriendly neigh- 
bour the King of England 1 But the detention in £^- 
land sent back James I. a prince superior to his ago— 
companion of Chaucer — a poet hke hiuL 

lie Castle of Eothesay— with the streets of the older 
portion of the town betvpeen it and the beach — was buDt 
on the brow of a tetrace-like elevation; the walls were 
high and strong, the moat deep and broad, and within 
it were enclosed about two acres of ground, which are 
open to the public, with turf neatly kept, walks well 
laid out, and a pleasant place it is for the visitor to 
ramble in. The main court is about HO feet in dia- 

L,.., Google 


• meter, with walla fiist of 17, then of 25 feet in height, 
and 8 in thicknesa; strei^;theiied by four oiiculax towera 
placed apart, at nearly equal distaacea. The building 
between two of these towers is said to have been erected 
by Robert II. ; and the chamber in which Eobert lU. 
died is 2i feet by 6. The chapel lay to eastward of the 
conrt, and was two storeys in height, in dimensions 44 
feet by 24. Local guides, descriptive of the caatle, 
abound, and are referred to for further detaila. 

Sktb — the Isle of Skye. — ^What tourist that has read 
the 'Lord of the Isles' but desires to look upon the 
Cuchullin isles, and explore the Coruiskin caves? Means 
of travel are frequent by steamer from the Clyde; the 
Teasels of Messrs. Hutcheson run each Monday and 
Thursday in summer, each Thursday throughout the 
year; and their route by the Mull of Cantyre, the 
western shore, the sound of Islay, and the Slate Isles 
for Oban, is an attractive and a safe one; the ships are 
80 well found, well manned, steam power so great, ca- 
bios so good, berths so snug, bar so open, table spread 
80 excellent, that the most .timid may take the risk, 
and the most genial will iind all comforts by the way. 
' We ' have made the voyage often, and never have felt 
put about when rounding the Mull of Cantyre. 

The steamer leaving Greenock in autumn, when the 
sun is sinking in the west, holds on her route by the 
'fair' way of the Clyde, past Garroch-head, the Holy 
Isle, Pladda, round the Mull of Cantyre, Western 
Knapdale, Crinan, Easdale, Kerrera, and reaches Oban 
in about ten hours; when taking ahoard such tourists 
as may have preferred the inland route by the Crinan 
Canal ; those coming from Ballachuhsh may have ' done 
Glencoe,' or those from Banavie and Inverness. 

The steamer shows her stem to the keep of Dimolly, 
passes the ' I^y Rock ' on the left, holds on through 

384 SCOTLAKD [Skys. 

' Mnll's darlt Sound,' where the ' castlea grey' crown bo* 
manj headlaodB, cornea to for awhile in t^e aheltored 
bay of Tobermory, then ateama onwanls by Ardnomur- 
ehaa point, the moat western extremity of the mainland 
of Scotland — bold, high, and with a lighthouse on the 
rocky steep, appuently scarce accessible from the knd, 
bnt here and there the mountain sheep browBB about, 
and the white walls of the lighthouse buildings, with 
the small warm-lite ebcloeures about them, show that 
comfort even there may be foundj but it must at times 
be a wild place to Jive in, the Atlantic, from the Sker- 
ryvore lighthouse rock on the west, breaking wilii full 
force on the shore of Ardnamurchan. 

Away to the south-west are the ' sandy CoU,' the ' low 
Tiree,' and eastward of these lies the track for Staffs, on- 
wards that for lona, but that route has been ' described ' 
elsewhere in this volume. To the N,W. is the island of 
Muck — in Gaelic — ' hog isle,' of no great size; and near 
it rises the ' Scnir of E^,' a lofty mountain, on a small 
island, but one notable in the bloody annals of these west- 
ern isles as where, in a feud between the Macdon^ds, 
natives of Eig, and the clan IfLeod, 200 men, women, 
and children were smoked to death in the cavems tJiey 
sought safety iu. The cave is 25G feet in length, 3 feet 
in height at entrance, 18 to 20 feet within, and the 
bones of the dead still strew the cave— this aavE^ 
deed was recently paralleled by the French at the caves 
of Algeria. The Scuir of Eig is 1,340 fset in height 
above the level of the sea, columut^ in formation, and 
the island is 8 miles from Arisaig on the mmnlwid. 
The island of Kum is larger than that of Eig, and oon- 
epicaous from the mountain he^ts of Hativel, Hais- 
keral, and Ben-More, the latter 2,300 feet high, usually 
shroiuled in mist, and is the highest of any land be- 
tween Mull and Skye. Bum is 5 miles S.E. of £i^ 
and these isles are iu the shire of Azgyle. 

l:_,, Google 

fiS^] DESCEIBED. 385 

Loche Moidart^ Ailort, and I^&-Kuagli indent the 
mainlaiid on the east. Off Moidart is ^rhuim Castle, 
in mins; and, when the Macdonalda were lorda of the 
isles and lands there, it was a place of strength; burned 
by Clanianald when he went Bouth to the rising of 
1715; and so destroyed that the Campbells might not 
possess it Moidart is now the possession of Baiid 
of Cambosdoon. At Loch-na-fi^uagh Prince Charles 
landed in 1746 — Glenflnnan, where he unfiuled his 
standard, being a few miles inland. From Arisaig a 
load leads inland for Fort -William. North of Arisaig 
is Novar; and further north is Loch-Nevis. 

Lewis excepted, the island of Skye is the largest of 
the Hebridean group. It is in the shire of InvemesB, 
bat the districts on the mainland are partly in Westei- 
Bos& From Sleat on the south to Yatemish on the 
north is 47 nules; in breadth the island may be 20 
ndles on the average — at some points 26, at others 
within 4 miles; and the area is computed at 350,000 
acres. The roads from Sleat os the east, for Broadford 
and Portree, and from Portree for Uunvegan, are good, 
and the tourist will find conveyances when demred; 
but &om the deck of the steamer the isle may be best 
surveyed, and in the space this volume permits an out- 
line of the places so seen will be given. 

Sleat is the name of the extrraue south of the island 
of Skye, and the point so named is north of £ig, at no 
great distance liom Bum — the sea between it and the 
mainland being known as the sound of Sleat, and so 
sheltered that the steamer passengers who leave Oban 
about 9 a.m., ordinarily dine when steerii^ through 
the sound of Sleat. The castle of Armidale, Lord 
Uacdonald, the chief owner of the island, is well seen 
fiom the steamer, and notable for the fine woods about 
it — few trees are found elsewhere on the island. At 
isle of Orousay, larth^ north, is a lair harboor, near 
a B ,Goo>'Ic 

386 SCOTLAIO) \3ktflL 

vhich a lighthouse was a few years ainca erected; and 
indantinff the mainland ia Jjoch-Hoom, the district 
eastward having beea that o( the Macdonalde of Glen- 
gany, as that fiirther south was held by the Clanianald 
dlanj vhile north of Loch-Houm the Madeoda came 
into poaaesBion. Glenelg, where the eound becomes 
narrow, is on the mainland, and the eceneiy thenoA 
onwaid to Eabnacarra, by Loch-Duich and Loch-AJsh, 
ia of singular beauty — the shore ricMy wooded, tho 
inland hUla high, the channel deep and narrow; and 
at Balmacana, off which the steamer calls, ia an hotel 
second, in 'appearance withont and comftnt within, to 
none in the Hebrides, while the beauties of the locali^ 
are such, and so great are the attraotionB for the anglw, 
ttiat the house is w^ patoouised, and not the less so 
that the mail lOad from Dingwall for Skye runs by 
that Tonte, and the place ia a pleasant ona. 

At Kyle-Rhea, 'the crossing of the king;' and at 
Kyle-AMn, 'the croBsing of Haoo," the channel is nar- 
rowed to the breadth of a f^ry. The bay of Balmacana 
Ilea between them; also at Kyle-Akin is a lighthouse 
erected where the breadth ia bo small that a ^fforse lady, 
who ruled there of old, had a chain stretched across, and 
exacted 'dues for leave to pass' — the penalty to recnft- 
ants being captivity in the dungeons of the oastle whose 
ruins, that of 'Moil,' 'scaith,' crown the rockon the Skye 
shore. In .the Bound of Sleat, by Glenelg, and Loch- 
Alsh, herrings are caught in numbras; and 'we' w^ 
remember, when passii^f the night at Balmacana hotel, 
being led by 'mine host' into a room where the bagjnpes 
were playing, the natives were dancing, and the occa- 
edon — a wedding. The bride, a Gael, knew nothing of 
English; the bridegroom, a Saxon, had not a word of 
Gaelic — proving, it may be, 'that love hoa eyes,' oa the 
union took place by the one becoming enamoDied of the 
other, admiring her activity at the hercing-curing, of 

S*jw-] DESCRIBED. 387 

which he was a judge, as he O'wned a smack trading 
there from the Mersey. The pair went Bouth in the 
Bteamer with us, and both looked happy. 

At Kyle-Akin is the germ of what the lord of the 
manor meant to be a city — street broad, hotel lai^ 
harhoor fiiir, &e., but shops are few, trade email, popu- 
lation scant; and green as is the level ground between 
HiB old castle and modem lighthouse, it does not appear 
to be a spot where commerce or manufactures could 
take root. There is a smAll waUed-in spot at the base 
of the Took crowned by Castle-Moil, where seamen who 
die far from home, are laid to rest~a stone marking 
the grave, but few with ought inscribed on them. 

Iieaving Kyle-Akin l^ht astern, a short run carries 
the steams into Broadford bay, the parochial village 
of the strath section of t^ isle of Skye, and the place 
where parties fem the steamer land who desire to ex- 
plore Loeh-Scavaig and the Cuchullin hills. The inn at 
Broadford is a fair one, comfort enough, as there is ^so 
«t Kyle-Akin, but not overmuch like a tourist's home. 
Hieshopsarefew, those keeping them, merchants, in the 
Scotehaceeptanoeoftheterm, that is, they deal in 'every- 
thing vendible.' The houses are few, and the stranger 
may be struck with the gait, address, &c., of those 
strolling ahout; Broadford being held a safe place, 
where 'gentfi' who have lived too iast on the mainland, 
can he cheaply boarded, safely kept, temptation small, 
whisky only to he had, and little of that, from the na- 
tives — if the purse be kept empty. Assuming that the 
reader of these sketches lands off Broadford, thence to 
the hamlet of Torrin is five mUea, westward for Loch- 
Slappin, where boatmen can be had, whose cost can 
he learned before leaving the steamer, or at the inn 
at Broadford; and in the Highlands of Scotland, island 
or nuunland, it is wise for the tourist to know what 
should be paid to avoid some risk of eztortionj 'we,' 
L,-., Cookie 

388 ' SCOOXAND [Skye. 

for example, paid &d. to get ashore fiom the steamer 
to inspect the vill^e of Tobermor;, but had to expend 
2s. 6d. to he lowed back again— -and the lower rate woe 
enongh. From the head of Loeh-Slappin to that of 
Loch-ScaTaig ia about ten miles; and the time for fonr 
oars to row it, about two hours. On the right rises 
Blahheim— Blaren, high as the Cuehullins, and little 
less wild in appeuance. Through a gorge at the head 
of Loch-Scavaig, that of Coniisk is reached, the dis- 
tance about one mile, where, what a scene is here; 
we troTersed many a mountain, roamed abroad, and 
in my native land — ciomb many a crag — ciosBed many 
a moor — a scene so rude, so wild aa this, yet so snblime 
in barrennese, ne'er did my wandering footsteps press.' 
Loch-Coniisk is a deep, dark, solemn piece of water, 
of a peculiar leaden hue. The margins are composed 
of vast sloping rocks, rising ridge above ridge till they 
blend with the summits of the mountains, seen through 
the racking clouds — at times as if in the aot of rolling 
downwan^. The whole scene excels in ite sterile 
grandeur, is — dark, dead, nnmeaaured !' It is as exquis- 
ite a savi^ scene as Loch-Katrine ia a scene of heaul^ 
— the eye rests on nothing bnt brown and naked crags. 
To abridge from the ' Loid of the Isles ' — 

' Rorelj hmnan eje baa known 
A HceQe BO item oh that dread lake, 

With its dark ledge of barren Btone. 
The wildest glen but thie can thaw 
Some touch of nature's genial glow; 
But here— above, around, bdow, 

On mountain or in glen— 
Nor tf ee, nor ahmb, nor plant, nor flower, 
Nor aught of TegetaliTe power. 

The wearying eye may ken. 
Huge terraoeft of granite blocks, 
Afford bnt rude and ^ctimbered tracks. 
Such are the acenea where savage grandeur make) 
An awful thrill that loftens into BighB. 
.... They yield the prize 
Of dcBert digni^ to that dread Bhor« 
{That eees gi±n Coolin rise and hears Corriaken rMr.^ j , 

flSSo.] DESCRIBED. 389 

Withont returaing to Bioadford, the tourist may be 
led by tbe guide from Camaamary to Glen-Sligwshaii, a 
track about 10 miles in length, by tbe rii^ of Dram- 
huira, and in full view of the Coolin hills, 3,220 feet 
in beigbt Glen-SIigacban ia sterile as is Glencoe, and 
in tbe eattmation of some it is grander, the mountains 
in Skye being higher. At Sligachan, there is a com- 
fortaUe hotel, and the tourist who has come by Goiuisk 
from Broadford may be weaty enough. Sligachaa is on 
the highway, a good road throughout^ irom Portree for 
Inverness — being 10 miles from Portree, 15 from Broad- 
ford, 100 from Invemess, as may be learned from tbe 
milo«tone near tbe inn, and farther, that the distance 
to Dunv^an on the west ia 25 miles. From Portree 
to Dingwall there are good coaches, and the drive from 
Sligachan to Kyle -A kin is a fair one — mountain and 
loch, etiath and sea, comii^ under view. 

Resuming the steamer route, from Broadford bay by 
Scalpa, LocbrAinorii, and Locb-Sligacban for tbe sound 
of Basay, those aboard baye tbe mountains of Skye in 
full view, until tbe bay or broad loch of Portree, ' the 
port of the king,' is reached — said to have been so 
named by Haco of N'orway, who found shelter for his 
fleet there, aftei tbe rout at Largs and on his voyage to 
Kirkwall; or from James Y. who anchored there when 
on bis expedition to reduce tbe Hebridean chiefs. The 
harbour is a safe one; tbe little town on the green ter- 
race above is the capital of the isle; and hotel ac- 
commodatian at the Boyal has been long known to be 
excellent. Banks, kirks, courts, and markets are found 
in Portree; and the steamer going onward for the Gair- 
loch, Stomoway, or further north or east, leaves at 
Tortree those who are booked for Skye only, whence 
by coach, car, or boat, the island northward and west- 
ward can be comfortably explored. 

The oave in which Charles Edward found shelter, tbe 
L,-., Google 

390 SCOTIAKD {SHTiiag. 

Stan Bock and Qniraing are the oljecte of attraddon 
in Uw Portree distxiot of the isle of Skye. Tha cava ia 
4 milee fiom Portiee, and can be leached by boat, 
and apart horn ita hiabnic intwest it is well worth the 
explciring. The Ston is 7 miles from Portiee, and 
accesBlble by land or water, for which pony or boat 
can be hod. For the pedestrian the walk is a rongh 
one, OB 'we' found it; but the Starr Kock, 2,348 feet 
in height, 1^ milee ftam the shore, is a sight that will 
tepay the labour of viaiting it, as, for grandenr, it sur- 
paaaeB any other tock landscape in Britain. 

Qniraing is 6 miles fivrn I7ig, 21 teom Portree, and 
risited by all tourists who can spare the time, as in the 
mountains there, 1,000 feet up, ia a jnece of tablo-land, 
of considerable extent, green, and acceeaible with diffi- 
culty, as it ia surrounded by rocks of vast height and 
moat fentastic shapes. Kingsbni^h, the home of Flora 
Macdonald, is on the route; and in the pariah kirk- 
yard of Eilmuir that heroine lies interred. 

Duntuilim Castle is a superb ruin ; and that of Dnn- 
regan, 28 milea from Portree, one of the oldest and 
moat famous in the Hebrides, is still inhabitable. A 
coach is on the road in the aeaaon, and it is well patro- 
nised by the tourists in Skye — an island of which it would 
take a volume &irly to describe the attractions for the 
geologist or the lovere of scenery — more grand than can 
be elsewhere sot^ht for in Scotland; bat gnide-book^ 
large and less, on Skye are many. 

Stirling, one of the oldest tovns in Korth Britain, 
ia at the head of the navigable waters of the Forth, 
where a bridge, in the days of Wallace, led across, and 
where the most signal of his victories took place — the' 
wooden bridge cut through, and the Ei^lish army de- 
stroyed. In all Scottish story Stirling figures largely, 
as near it lay the only route from the westward to the 
L,-., Google 

miling.] BESCBIBED. 391 

easttrafd districte of Scotland, from the Lotbi&ns and 
'CtiddiBdale' to the 'kingdom of Fife,' aa the compwa- 
tively safe land between the friths of Forth and of Tay 
vaa known in the earlier annals of Scotland. 

Stirling ia nearly midway hy rail, from. Glasgoir 
or Edinhui^h, to the city of Perth; is on the route by 
Callander for the Trossachs; another line leads weet 
for Loch-Lomond; in the neighbonrhood are the frpae 
of Bridge-of' Allan and of Sonblane; eastward ia the 
Btrath of the 'clear winding Deron,' Castle-Campbell, 
the Ochil hills, and Dollar; and onward are the tinlcs 
of Forth, so tortttoua between Stirling and Alloa that 
the way hy water is nearly three times longer than by 
road or rail; stiU the nm downwards by Bo'neM and 
Qneensfeny for Granton, Leith, and Edinbii^h, ia a 
&TOiirite one with the economical traveller. 

To a place of each historic interest, and so fisely 
plaoed, Uie tonrist stream has long made way, and 
comfort for all classes will be fonnd in the hotels and 
inns which abound, as, scenic attractions aport^ the 
earse of Stirlii^ is a rich one, the grain markets good, 
minerals abound, population increases, trade prospers, 
county courts are h^d, schools are excellent, society 
select, villas numerous — and, ' take it ail in all,' there 
are few places in central Scotland which are more 
pleasant to visit, or which are more agreeable to live in, 
than near to the Castle Bock of Stirliii^;. 

The Castle of Stirling is of tinknown antiquity; 
like that of Sdinbw^h, it looked so like a forties^ of 
'nature's own providing,' that, when the natives ceased 
to be nomad — when they submitted to be, however 
mdely, civilised — on the rock above iha Forth theii 
chief would raise his lance, pitch his camp, and claim 
the alliance of those below him. Beyond the Forth 
the place is known as Causewayhead; and when the 
l^ons of Borne encamped at Ardoch, the routs of 

392 SCOTLAND [Stirling. 

Agricola wenld pass that way. When the sway of the 
Sutone extended north of the Htunber, Stirljiig traa 
one of theii 'oatwatd guarde' — Clan-Alpine was un- 
heard of then; and, in 978, Kennetji in. of ScptJand 
made Stirling the lendezvous of the Scottish levies who 
mnatered to meet and defeat Ihe Danes at Lnncarfy, 
near Perth. In 1119, Stirling became a royal bu^h; 
the Castle then covering its rock became the seat of 
loyal^; and to obtain poasession of the Castle of Stkling 
was the prize foi^ht for at Bannockbum, when Bnic^ 
winning the atakea, 'set bie country &ee.' 

Alexander I, died at Stilling; there his aocceesOT 
eatabliahed trial by jury ; and the Castle of Stirling was, 
with thatof Berwick, Roxboi^h, and Edinburgh pledged 
to Heniy II. of England foi the ransom of Willmn 
the Lion, who died at Stirling in 1211. In the wars 
of Scottish independence, the Castle of Stirling was 
token and retaken ; and within its walls Kichtod XL of 
England found shelter, dying tti&ca in 1119. It was 
the abode at times of James I. ; bis son, James II., was 
bom there; and there the latter prince committed the 
imknightly act of strikii^ down Eail Douglas, who, on 
Februaiy 20, 1451, had entered the Caatle under aafe 
cMuduct of ttiat King. James III. lived much at Stir- 
ling, and lost his life at Sauchie, near it ; James IT., who 
fell at Elodden, held cotut at Stdrlii^; James V. was 
crowned there ; and James YI. was the pupil of George 
Buchanan at Stirling. Charlea Edward, in 1716, sought 
to capture Stirling, but was hindered by the advance 
of the Duke of Cumberland on CuUoden. 

The Caatle has much to interest the patriot and 
the antiquarian; and the town has yet many relics to 
show of the etabely maneions, town houses of the nobles 
of Scotland, who came to Stirling to attend the court 
of their sovereign, or the parliamente of their conntry; 
and ' Guides ' are many on the town and district — tha 

Te^hert.] DESCRIBED. 393 

most recent being that by A. MilLer, a, bookeeller tbere, 
■who knows the place — and deeCTibM it welL 

On the Abbey Ctaig, within view of Stirling, above 
the 'links of Forth,' and where the road and railway 
divide for Perth and the north and Alios and the east, ^ 
a lofty monoment to Sir William Wallace, raised there 
by national subeciiption. The site is magnificent, the 
etrocture grand, aM the locality near where the Gero 
<^ Scotland won hia brightest laurels. 

To write the history of Stirling woold be to recapd- 
tulato the romance of Scottish story, and to the ' T^ee 
<^ a Giand&tber,' and such works, the reader is referred ; 
also to the 'Lady of the Lake,' in which 'Stirling's 
turrets gtey ' are described and referred to. The Broad- 
street of Stirling and the approach to the Cafrtle, are, 
in many respects, such as tfaey -wen when ' Snowdonn's 
Snij^t' and the 'Cruidman o' BaUingeich' trode them. 
Stirling givee name to the group of Culross, Dunferm- 
line, InTerkdthing, and Queensferry-Bouth, of which it 
is th« returning bnrgh; — population, 13,707; mnnicipal 
constituency, 110; rerenue, £2,295. 

Takbebt, on Locb-Fyne, is an important station in 
the herring-hshiiig season, and a place of call by the 
steamers on the Ardrisha^ route- — those with cargo 
working their way into the rocky enclosed haibour; 
those with passengers sending such ashoT« in large and 
safe boats, provided for the purpose, or at times diver- 
ging &om their track to land ^em at a pier recently 
built on' a point outside the harbour, in hopes that such 
tzaf&c might be so allured, but there is little to attract 
tiiB touristy and none to induce him to sleep there. 
Public houses are numerous — 'Ting — but few tourists 
will find 'the comforts o' the Sautmarket' there. 

On the bill-aide, above the harbour, are the rains of 
a castle, built there by Bobert the Iknce. It has been 

9M" SCOTLiNI) [Tarbert 

ibnr Btoteya in height, lalBed on a Tock, above Hm loeh, 
b«lov the hill, and vithin an embattled endoaon of 
ahont tvo acree. The staiicoses aie built into the wall, 
the keep had no tuireta, the looms are small, and on the 
outer defences appear to have been laige round towers; 
bat the ruin is ntter — giaaB overtopa alL 

At Tarbert the peninsula is within two miles in 
breadth, and where, as written in the ' Lord of the 
lalea,' Eobert the Bruce was drawn acrosa in bis 
galley, thereby iiilfiUing a prophecy his followers bad 
foltii in, that the prince so doing would wear the crown 
of Scotland; and from the oiosaing of that iathmns to 
liOoh-Eajiza, Brodick, Tumberry Csatle, and onwards to 
the field of Bannockbum, the career of the Bmce was 
unchecked; before that, from Mothven wood to Bath* 
lin's isle it had been chequered enongh. 

Soath of Tarbert the long peninsula is that of Can- 
dle — ^northward the district is called Enapdale; and 
a scheme was on foot, and is revived, to cat tbroagh 
the rock, unitd Loch-Fyne withWest-Taibert, 1^ sonnd 
of lalay, and the route for Inverness. 

The sail down Loch-Tarbert on the west, about 10 
miles, is a pretty one; but all the features of beantr on 
the route are aeen to good advantage &om the coach 
which runs from Campbeltown to Tarbert in eoniiectioa 
with the Ardriahaig steamer. The distance is about 
36 miles; and the coach, which is well appointed, 
leaves the capital of Cantyre in the mnming, returning 
from Tarbert in the evening. The drive upwardf 
by Machrehanish bay, where the toll of the Atlantic 
is seen in its full force, the dachan of Barr, and that 
of Tayinloan, by the ^ore of Weat-Tarhert, is a fin* 
one; and as a 'new route' for the tourist it is com- 
m.ended to his notice;~for the commeidal traveller 
tha conveyance is a convenient one in winter, when 
the steamer trips are few Stom Campbeltown. 

L,-., Google 

Taymtat.] DESCB3ED. 395 

Ti.YKtJii.T Inn, near the post-office of BimEtwe, the 
fiimaces of Lome, the foot of the river Aw^ the (^oie 
of Loch-£tive, the hase of CraachaD-Ben, the route for 
Gleu-ahaut, and the coach road Iroin Oban foT Dalmally 
and Loch-Lomond, is a locality which merits notice, 
and not the less so, that additions, renovations, and re- 
fumishii^ has, foi season 1866, made the hot«l bo com- 
fwtable. It has long been one vbere the trareller was 
irell-cared for; and for the angler, when salmon are 
fished for, the place is one of the best 

Taynnilt is the first coach stage eastward &om Oban; 
and the drive is so attractive for tooriste irom the 
west, that, in the season, the road is crowds with 
conveyances, and were a steamer, as is contemplated, 
pat upon Loch-Etive, by the northern base of Cruachan, 
few routes would find mora patrons. The vast quantities 
of wood in the district led to the erection of a fiimace 
at Bunawe for the makiug of iron, which, if good, is 
moderate in quantity; but to hear the mountain echoes 
waked in the 'stilly night' by the 'hot blast' there, 
seems a little out of place. The drive by Glen-shant 
to Loch-Awe is of singular beauty. Por some distance 
the ' boB^ dell ' is as ' bristlii^ '-like as are the Xros- 
eachs, the dOiactei of the scene less wild, but the 
mountain stream on the right and the hill-sides above 
are clothed with wood of various hue. In the disttict 
are battle atones of the Danish era; and a short way 
from the inn there lises a pillar to Kelson. The sight 
thence from Ardchattan to DonetaSiM^e, Cruachan to 
Kether-Lom and Appin, is extensive and beautiful. 
The mansion of Inverawe — -the Inver, Le., whera the 
Awe flows into Loch-Etive — is one of the finest in the 
western Highlands; and iu the deep, broad, and rapid 
river which sweeps westward, there is salmon fishing 
second to none found elsewhere. ' Mine host ' of Tay- 
nuilt, in terms of bis lease, has right for certain rods to 
■ L,.,, Google 

396 SC0TLA2in> [Wick 

be used there; and ' his bar ' has been long noted foi 
the parity, strength, and supply of ' long John.' 

Travel in the Highlands has seldom discomfort 
attending it. But a few years ^o 'we' essayed to 
explore the district between Locb-Leven and Lochr 
Ktive; the route, by 'green Appin,' was good; but before 
Lorn was reached night had set in, the storm came 
down, no shelter by the way and little on the way, aa 
' we' were an unlicensed traveller holding on by the 
ontside of a seatless mail-g^; the road through avennee 
of trees which tm Alpine storm had lately swept through, 
and the riven branches brought ' oui hat to grief;' the 
night was cold; and when the late harvest moon rose 
we found ourselves smu^led to the loch-eide; the wind 
and tide would not permit passage, and six hours were 
worn out in an inn with so little of comfort to offer, that 
the drinking-room was without glass in the twelve 
square inches of window, and in the larger apartment 
the single bed was occupied by a couple of ' audible 
sleepers,' the sofa had no cnshion, and for cold vbisky 
and half-raw oatmeal cake the hill was balf-a-crownl 
In the district there is a place known on some maps as 
'Thieves' Island,' and our conviction was that we had 
been there. When the sun arose, and the sea went 
down, right happy were 'we' to get ferried across to 
Bunawe, and under the roof of Taynuilt Tnn, 

Wide, CAiTENEas, Sutherland, SnHROBiH to 
ToNOOB, in the extreme north and north-west of Scot- 
land, is a wide extent of country, little accessible to 
the tourist, but soon to be opened up to travel, as the 
railway system already penetrates to Bonai-Bridge, at 
the head of Dornoch Frith, and is being laid down 
through Sutherland and Caithness. 

Of old the route, for coach or travel, was to cross 
the Meikle ferry, 4 miles west from Tain; and although 
L,-., Google 

Wick.} DESCKIBED. 397 

less than one mile in bieodth, the passage was at tunes 
a periloua ona The drive up by the soathem shore 
of the Mth to Aidgay inn was a fine one; and a route 
thence acroBB the hills by Stittenham for Cromarty 
Frith has mnch to attract the tonrist. At Ardgay is a 
enug inn, well wooded around; and from the village of 
Bonai-Brit^ on the right, a fair road leads north by 
Laiig and Altnaharra for Tongae, a seat of the Cuke of 
Sutherland; and thence eastward, by Bettyhill for Beay 
uid Thurso, the line of travel is picturesque, the lochs 
many — the hills are more green tbtyn grand. 

Turning east at Bonar-Bridge, the coach road, which 
follows the northern shore of the frith by Spinningdale 
and Clashmore, for the ancient burgh of Domooh, is 
good. Spinningdale was so named, a proprietor in the 
district having bmlt mills there; hut in 1806 they were 
humed by the natives, who dreaded lest the influx 
of strangers should raise the price of their oatmeal! 
Dornoch, a burgh since 1626— population, 627; con- 
stituency, 24; and 1864^5, 'value' of 'real property' 
X629 only — ^is the capital of Sutherlandshire, has a 
good inn, is tidy in look, with a cathedral, founded 
circa 1250, stiUin use aa a church, and in the transept 
of which lie buried seventeen Earls of Sutherland. 

i'rom Dornoch to Golspie much saving of space 
may be gained by crossing Loch-Fleet at little-Feny, 
a turhour whence 8t«amers cross the Moray Frith to 
Bw^hhead, near Elgin. The coach road follows the 
Fleet, crossing the Mound — a Parliamentary road work 
at its top — and thence for the village of Golspie, which 
ia small, fishermen's one-storeyed houses, the street 
they form broad, and the shore close behind the 
houses. There are few shops in Golspie — no public- 
houses; but the ion, a short way north of the village, 
is one of the most comfortable in the north, as might 
be looked for, suice it lies just outside the ext^osive 
L,.,, Google 


domEtiiis asd richly timbered policies of the CaeUe of 
Dumobin, the abode of the Duke of Sutherland. The 
castle, foonded in 1092, is eo kept, and has been added 
to, as to form one of the most mt^nificent of ducal re- 
sidences north of the Tweed. 

From Golspie, by Biora for Helmadide, the road 
leads through a disteict fertile on the right — Uie hills 
inland being green and pastoral; and near Bron vote 
qnairiea of considerable extent, where coal also was 
found, but not to much profit. Helmsdale, where the 
rlTer of Uiat name flows into the sea, is one of the most 
prosperous of the stations for herrii^-fishiag; and, 6om 
the ruined oaatle above the harbour, to look out at sun- 
rise upon the fleet of boats coming in, is a sight to bo 
lemembered. Helmsdide is a etiiring village; and by 
tbe rirer, westward, a good road leads northward by 
KildoBMi, Glenhallowdale, and Melvich for Iteay and 
ThuMO — ^tiie hills are green, the houses few. 

The mail-coach road is over the Ord of Caithness, 
and the view thrice is extensive and beaUtifuL De- 
scending on the north the route is by Beniedale, 10 
miles &om Helmsdale, where a snug inn is found; 
thence upward by Latheron for Swiney, Dunbeath, and 
Wick, the capital of Caithness, 'which,' to quote Ao- 
dwson'e Guide, 'lies low, and in a dirty situation, and, 
but for the stream which passes through it, and the 
(diarp breezes of the uortl^ the smell of its fish and 
garbage would be intolerable.' And when the herring 
fleet is in fall operation, and hundreds of the maidens 
of the district are seen cleaning the fish by the harbour^ 
«de, — ^nothing can be less Arcadian-like. 

Wiek was made a burgh in 1589; p*q»ulfttion, 7,475; 
constituency, 366; revenue, 149; is the returning burgh 
of the Cromarty, Dingwall, Kirkwall, and Tain group; 
has good inns, a large trade, bauks, kirks, churches, 
chapel^ a couple of newspapers, and the place of call 
L,-., Google 

Wigtown.] DESCBIBED. 399 

for steoniM^ nmning Intween the Forth, the Dee, the 
Orkneys, Slietliuicl, and Stomoway. 

Jdtm o' Groat^a, the IJltuna Tkule of traTsI in esti- 
matdoa of the peasant of Scotland, is 20 miles fiom 
Wiek, and beyond it is the stormy Pentland Frith. 

Thurso ia, by the mail-coach road, 21 miles from 
Wiok; tlie track direct of little interest. As a town, 
Thnrso ehows well; herring few, salmon many; the 
streetA are good, trade £iir, and westward lies no oUier 
mait of commerce, uniesa it be Stomoway on the Lewis, 
Oban, or Campbeltown — and that stretch of shore, loch, 
eea, mountain, and island is a long one ! 

"Wigtown — Whethorh, — A road coastwatd nina 
from Stranraer by Glenluce and Port-William, thence 
inland for the estuary of the Cree, the banks of the 
Bladenoch bum, and the town of Wigtown — a bui^ 
siuoe 1469; population 2,101; constituency IQS; re- 
venue, £6i6 — and, with the group of New-Galloway, 
Stranraer, and Whithorn, is the returning one, although 
Stranram', a buigh of 1617, is larger, but as the county 
town that of Wigtown is the chief! 

Aa a town, the situation of Wigtown is pleasant, the 
main street being an elongated square of considerable 
size, the space between railed in, and having a bowling- 
green for the delectation of the worthy burghers. 

At one side of the parallelogram stands the andent 
market cross, and on the other rises the town hall, and 
the law of the district being administered there it is of 
local importance j moreover, the cotmtry ia fertile, the 
shops in the town good, society select, hotels respectable, 
with banks and churches. Ia the parish kirk-yard are 
interred martyra who sealed their testimony there, that 
of the two women who perished under the tide at the 
mouth of the Bladenoch wat«r. 

Whithorn, a burgh of the Brace era, haa a population 
. ,. ., Google 

400 SCOTLAiro DESCRIBED. [Wigtoam. 

of 1,623; constitacaicy 89; revenae £178; is II miles 
S. W. of Wigtown, nearer the Irish Ghtumel, vHii a fiur 
haibour, not mucli trade, on the eteamei route between 
Eirkcndbright and Liverpool; and is notable in the 
ecclesiastic^ histoTy of Scotland, aa St. Kinian raised a 
church there in the fifth century — known in montiah 
l^ends as ' Candida Casa,' being built of ' white stone' 
— thence Hevit-aem, Saxon — English, Whithorn. It 
was the first place of Christian vorahip in Scotland. 
The cathedral of the biahopno of Galloway stood at 
Whithorn — some remains of it exist. The shrine of 
St. Kinian was a pilgrimage in favoor, and not with 
the people only, as James IV. used to visit it once, 
sometimes twice, each year, and with a kingly tetinne. 
James Y. viaited the shrine of St. Ifinian in 1532-3. 
A Saxon arch of fine architecture, some Gothic arches, 
and several large vault* are the remains of the priory of 
Whithorn to which t^e Princes and nobles need to re- 
sort, and not those of Scotland only, James I. in H25, 
and the Begent Albany in 1506, having (granted protec- 
tion to all pilgrims visiting the shrine. The bor^ 
commissicmerB reported to Parliament that ' WhiUiom 
had no trade or manniacture, and no prospect of 
increase/ and the street architecture is ancient^like — 
the place &x oat of the line of travel of the tonnst. 





TLraiHACPFEHSON, In gritetullT«cknowl*dging the TetyUbeml rapport 

hl> Friends lod tbs Fablic genenllr CbU the Argyll Hotel hu Jngt been 

and p&[Dt«d. In the moet tsaleful TnsnnFT, and Dumerous modem Impiore' 
menls effecMd fn th •- -' "■- *■ ' •■-- - - 

Putlee realdlDg it the Hotel have Uie piivilefe of niklng oi 
through the Cattle Grounds. 

direct Tisltore to tl 
be tnuta itUl be fi 



wordlpg to Printed Ll»t of th< 
D[ ereiy deioriptian kept If 




Coach can brukthejonrneyit tn; itB(e,>i](l proceed an)' tnciteedlDg daj. 

Coach leaiea Inveiaray about 3.30 p m. for Oban. arriTiDg about S p.m. 

A Coach leaves Oban lor Inieisrayat 7a.m,,arriTlngat iDTararaya]: 
IS noon, where time ia allowed lor paaaengen to dine. Coach leaTea 
Teruaj' for Tarbet.about 1 3n p.m., artirlng at Tarbet abont i SO p.m 

Co«h IwTen Inierany lor Tiibet at 8.S0 a. m. , arriving at Tarbet at^ leaving Tarbet for Inveraray the wmo day about S.SOp.m., ar- 

Suftl lecnred, and all nocesairy Intonnation given, at the North Britlih 
Bidlway Booking Ofiices — Edinburgh, Olaagow, and HelenJiborgh; Ofllcea 
ol Jamea Walker, Cambridge street; Andrew Ueniiee, Argyle Street. Olu- 
ffow; Aiejiaoder Campbell (Coach Propriet[>r;,_BallachuliEb; Jamei Uiller, 

Hotel. Inienray; Jaoiei Uurray, 


InTemeBB and the North, via Aherderat. 

TOUBISTBMiloUwrFuiwiigBn an DOT Booked batwaeDLondoa. Bdtn- 
buxb. Qlugoir, and other Thiongh Booking SUUoiu in EngUnd Mid 
ScotUnd, ud InTanitu ud the North, via Abirdten, at tbe umi Ibnni^ 
Fam u via Donkeld, with tbe piirllege of bnakhtg the lotunerit A.beid«iL 

tM'Tt Thnugh Trahu, ie.—Me IToi. 8S, K itfU^arayi Timt TiMei. 



Openii^ of Jouction with Highlamd Line, at Boat-of- 
Garten, Strathspey. 

THIS Jnnctlgn will be opened rot FaBaenger and 'Ooodi TrafSo on Wn- 
iBiiiT, lit AUQUST, use, when TonrliU and other PtsKagea m»J 
ba Booked between London. Edlnhnrgh. GlaigDV, etc., and Elgin. Kalth, 
and other SUttona Dn tba Great North of Scotland Railway, at iinu Faraa 
via Dunkeld and Boat-ot-Oatten aa via Aberdeen, affording to 'naTallam a 
choice of Bontn, and an opportnnlt; of leeing the fine ScenalT (loaf tiM 
Highland and Stnthgper Llnei. Donkeld, KilllecrMikle, ^lidr-Athole, Bo- 
tblemnrchu, Aberneth;, Grantown, etc. 

IhioiigA Faswnger Ic&liia, via B(at-af-0«Tten. 

AbardeeB. ^laaTei T-Oa.ra. Olugow, Ukrea »-lGa.m. 

^fj- ■ ■ - S"*^ ' "■ Edinbro'. viaWt, „ S^S a.n. 

Vm»°^'-'~ - ■'•' ~ " '.', 1*10 » "^ Bdlnbro', 1*1 StlrUng, ,. »-lS a.m. 
Baat-o(-Gartgn,....arrlTel3-7p.Di. Perth 1!-Mp,in. 

Bdinhro\i>iaFtffc.. ,, T-M p.m. ^Kl". arrixe 7- > p-m. 

Otasgow, „ 0-lS p.m. Aberdeen, , 10- Q p jn. 

tr Alt for TidUtl, rlt. Eait-of-aitrim Junction, ami Kt Latnagi 
tabetltdbylhalReuti. ,-• t 


AM> FBOU THE ^^^o^^^ 


Loch-Ave, Ardrishaig, Rothesay, Simoan, &c. 

«V Tbe mo>t direct and coDveniBnt Bonte from Bdlnburgb, aisBeoir, 
uid tbs Eut Cout to the Weit Uleblvidi. Puaeogen booksd ttmugh 

m lOl Stall on 
EionnlaniBta to ArdrlBhalg ue tlloned two bones tliere before teturbliig 



bjr tbe Hortb British Bt»ia Packet Compiny'ii S&looa Faddla Steuueri, 

Lt Collntnlve, TlcBubniBicb, and T 
from Aidriahaix. 

For (nil pstticulMa of Cheap Touriit Ticket arroDgemtnla to IbB West 
Hbblandg. see the (forth Brltiih Bailwi; Conip>n;'9 FrDEramme ot 
Tonri. which mt,3 b» bad it the Ballwaj Stallona, or (rom the Oenerai 
Bopetintendent'B OKoe, North Briliih Bailway, Edinhnrsli or Glugo*. 

Thnnifh Railwaj Cattiages for the accommodstioa ol FamiUes, Flwunn 

CorrfagH to run through (o and tron: 
MeboH, Berwick, etc., eaa be obtain 
wiltlnK to James M'Lareu. General S 
W&7, Ediobuisb. 103 



lASBiWAie, m 


Oban, Glasgow, and Edinbnrgh, via 
Ardrishaig, and Helensburgh. 

OlAD, Inveraray, Glaegoir, Hdlnhni^h 

Through F>re. ir. ObM.^il, ..S ISf 



Oban, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, via Inveraray, and 

BDINBOltSH •ii!!mi) ;; loEAK, " Hi! 9«l !! I Edtabori^!!!! '.'..'. 

Oban, Glasgow, and Edinbnrgh, via Inveraray, and 

Inveraray, Glasgow, and Edinbargh, via Lochawa, 
and Ardrisbaig. 

Inveraray and Oban, via Loch-Awe ft Pass of Uelfort 

rA'l-wtlmi-tt,! CrMllKH 


CSACHES will Ie»Tenb«n2Kr»Loie/ul»aji 6.45 a.m. for Loch-Awa, t*! 
Put of Awe, to Brander. wbero tha SUimar " Queen o( ths lake" nwiiit! 

Scent Tlewa Id the West HighUuida to Ford, »heie IhaCaach twalti tbeii 
«rtv«l; proceeding Bio Cani.Mario »nd CtaigDiah Caatles, Fws of Melfott, 
and LoiJi-FBOch&n, to Obin. 
This route can be revened. proceeding by CoMh to Ford at B.M a.m. 

FAKES-tor the Journey from Oban lo ObM, n/ Mid 19/. 


Embracing tbe new and tntecestlng Routea oonnecUci EdiobutEb. Glaa- 

goT, and the West Coast wUh Qbui and the Nortb and West HIgblinds. 

Fa™/nm Ohan (eiolualve of Coacb Fees and Pier Tma): to I- 

burgh. Coach and Cabin of ateamera, 285.; to Rliigow, Coach Md Cabin 
of ateimer9andl9lcliig9orRaUwa]i,S7i.;toEdfnltnnh, do. do. 379. 

Toorlit) mar reverie the Sonte, piDceedlig fint ttom Ardibbalg to 
Oban, via Loch-Awe, and raturalng via Melfort 

Loch-Awe, Inyorar»7, atrschur, Loch-Eck, Dunoon, HoJensbn^hjretiirn- 

>or8« from Oban, [eioluslve of Coach Feel and Pier Dues', : -To Giaagsw, 
IttcLBillway, Cabin Blesmor, and Coaob, 389 fid,; to Kdlnbnrgh, do. do. 

ToDt No. S.— Fiom Obui to Olugo'w and Edinbutgh, via Pagi of Aw*. 
Loob-Aira, Itijenaj, Glsneroe. Dirbet, Locb-Lomond, Balioch, Cowlaln; 
ntmniiv via Helonibiugb, Atdrlab^. and Helfort. 

AnVf JVOM Ofto* (siolaliTe of Coadi F«« and Pier Dntj) :— To Fdln- 
bm^t, lit cL B*llw>7, Oabin Bteamet*. and Coaoh, Me.; to Olaiiow, do. 
do. SSL Zb th« optloD id the Tonrlit, tbe Route maj be revened. 

-ria Udfott, U( eL IBs. «d.; Tia LocIi-A««, lit d. SCH- 6d., UlugoT to Oban, 
or via nm Tia Ueltoit, lit cL ISi. M. ; via Looh-Awe, lit cl. Il9. fld. 

1^ Toniiit TickeU. (mbracing Ul* Boutei ahowD above, ace also iesued 
at theN.B. Raflwa)' SUtloni, Heleniborgh: bftbe Clerks on board the 
Nortb Brltiib Btom Packet Company'i Steamen"Meg Mlrrllies " and 
"DudloDlBinoDtr and ti; BneluiBBn A Dick, Oban, 

ror VlKripaK Nota and Oneral Informatiim, tee Ttmt Billi. 

Detalltd 4id OMiitipblra putlcDlan of all the routes alven In the Time 
BUlKtf lbs Wert mRUaDdCoaohea (with enqr^cBd m^p, ^b;i7) pria 
Id. To be had (whcdnals liom Ur. Jamea Rold, in Aigjle Street, dta>- 
-^ -..t 1. i^,... « .. .-. .. ^^ ^^^ Hotels In the principal 
, „. s Booking Offices. 

Brltiah Haiiwav 'Booking OfflocB— Edinbnrgk, Ginsgow, and Helensburgh: 
Offices of James Walker, Cambridge Street; Andrew UenMes, A^le 
Street, Glasgow; A. MThereon, farbet Hotel; Walter Malcolm, In- 

Taruoflt Hotel; Donalld Campbell, Gnat'weitera liotel; and BU- 


or Traiutiiiiibmo/GanwBoxuear^lli/alttndrdio, 

BUCHAJ4A1T A DICK beg reBpecttull7 to Intimate, tbat in a'idltion Co 
Ihalr CoacUu unuigeioents, the; are now prepared tosnpplrCAK- 
KUOE8. VAOaOin^BS, DOO-OARIS. eto , on tbe iborlHt ootlce. 

Olden to be left at tbe Onat Western Hotel, the Klng'i Aims Hotel, 
Um Cnicaid Hotel, (he Qaeea'i Botel, oc 

Oban, Jnlf, IBW. (US) George SUeet. 






THKSE «eU-ippolDt«d Cou 
EdlDbiirgh£ GlMgowEi—. 

LamODd md Caledonian Canal, and for BUtfa u , , ^ 

torthe Saaion, na Dnmbartim Caille and Tovn; tha Vsle ot Leren: , 
TUUelKWUi CutU;BaUoch niBHnsioD Biidga and Csatle; Locb-Lomond, 
the Qnaen ot ScotUlb Ltita; Bsn-Lomond; InTenniid (the Port where 
PagHogeiB fiam SUrllng, Callandec, tbe Troaeachs, and Loch-Eatrlne, 
join thii Hne of ConTeyancel; Kob Boy'a Cate; Glcnfalloch; Bsnmore: 
CriaDlaracL— (branch oft here to Lulb, Killin, Locb Tay, Tayioonlb, aod 
Aberfeldy-Strathflllan: the Holy Pool; the Klng-s tieM; tha Earl o( 
Braadalbane's Lead MIebs; Kilchum Caatle; I^'ndruni; Glenorchy, Loeh- 
Awe: Ben-Craachan: Paasof Awe: raynoilt. toch-Etlve: Falls 0( Flora; 
DnnstaBiii^e; and Dunollj Castle to Oban-atrlve at Tp.m. 

At S a.m. (or Loch-Lomond, KiUin, and Aberfeldj, via Falli ot Connel, 
Paaa of Awe, Glenorohj, Tyndram, and GlentaUocL, to Loch-Lomond— 
urito at 4 p.m.. In tlnia far Stumer on Loch-LomoDd. 

From GlsagO" to Ballachnllah, Fort- William, Banaris, InTemeas. ot 
Aberldd]', from Qneen-itreet station ereir lavfal day at T.36 0*<:l0II>t, 
a m, , by Railway to LoCh-Lomond, tbeace by Coach via TyndmnL 

Ptom iDveraeas to Glaggow, by Steamer ma Falls of Foyen, Fart-An- 
EMtBS, Banavlo, Ballachuliali, and GleQcoB, Oban, TyBdnun, Looh-Lo- 

From Oban, vJa Loch Awe. DaliDaTly, Tyndnun, and InisratDUi (Loch- 

LotDOndl to GlMBOw e'Cij iBwf al day, at 3 a.m. 
From Abarfeldy to Glasgow, every lawful day, atT.SO a.m. , 
Passenger! goinv North from Stirling. Callander, and Loch-Katrine 

loin at Interenald Itoch-Lomond) lor Oban, Fort- William, Banavle, and 

Paaiengen ^[nji from Aberfeldy. Rlltln. and from CiitB, join at Crlan- 
Uraoli for Oban, Fort- William, and InTemMa. 

Fauengera frojng SrmtK from Bannavie, Fort- William, or from Ohsn, 

arriye at Greenock, Glnseow, Fdlnbnrgb; man a!io branch ott at Crisn- 

laraoh, and prooeed by the Coaches for KilliD and Aberfel^: or mar land 

at Inyergnald (on Loch-LoiDDDd] for the Troisacha, Callander, and SUrllng. 

I-AKES-Qlauow to Oban. £0/ (Driver's Pee Ih Gnatd'a Fee, 1/1 ; 

Front Inilde Seats, 3/ eitra. 

These Coachee embrace all recent Improvementa. being bnllt eipnoly 
fir theee lines -the Horaes strong, and tlie whole worting arrKDggmenla 
perlested, so as lo secure the oomfott and safety oJ Tourlals. 

. _ OijMooj AKD Gl JHOROgT CoiOBia-Cmllinud. 

Suta Kcnnd, ud >U nscenrr iDformtlloD glTso, nl tb« Oflliwi of 
J. 'WALKES, Cunbridie St.: ■ndBoANCHOrrici, Edbi. JiOlu.Ball. 
SMttOB, atutow; A. UESZIES, Hi Arg;le St , and Wbt-Gsd Baeaad, 
6S North SL, Glaigoii; Oeorge CnnsCgn, Crown Hotel, 54 Qeorge Sq., 
QlsigawiA^BLAlK. Tnveranald, ud A. H'GSEOOB, InTemnun HoUli, 
Loeh-Lomond; A. WHaOlT. Post Offico nod Telegreph Stsllon. 

AIbo at the Coach And Steam Companlei' Offlceft in FoaT-WTLLTm 
mdEAUutoHuijeB. AL EX. CAMFBKt.i. 

THE I?>0"X"-A-Ij K.OTJTE, 



-^ Wuum, «t6 a.m., Md KiHOCSSis, about . ^ 

ueetlDu with the Horth and South KallBajri to and liom InTeraeBi. 

Puaengen tn Boohed rrom the Ballwar Offices at Perth, Stilling, 
IdlnburSi, and aiujow.— Fins— lJ/8; IB/. Crivor's Foe, 1/. 

S«t> Mcnred and all neceHarr Intoimatlan i^veti. at the Omces of 

J. -WALKEB, CambrldH St.i and Bbamcii Office, Edin. b Glu. B^L 
SUHoa, Olaigov; A. MTtftzrWa 124 Argyle St., and Wkst-End Bazub. 
n North Slniel. GUagoi-; A. BLAIR, Intennald, and A. M'GBEQOR, 
Inrenunan HoWi, Loch-Lomondi A. WUBOtl, Poet Office and Tslesnpb 

AlBo at the CoMb and Steam CampBiile>' Offices In Fobt-Willuk, 


BEAUTIFULLY, Bitnated on the banki ot Loch-Awa; ODanipaiMd for 
Etohlng and tor tha KraodBiir of its sceneij. PartlM itwlng at the 
Inn supplied with Boatj and experienced BHtmen. A Dall; Poet to and 
from Glai^w. 
MBS . MmBBGOB, JVcprirfor. 


0LA8G0W TO OBAN, via LOCH-AWE, ftc. 

TkABaENOBBS by Steamer from Olawow, 
I iilUflr' ' ■- - 

LWful day, about noon, a well-appointed Coach wi 

_ , day, a , ,., 

bigthemat ArdtlBlitUe;, for EORB, on Locb-Awe, ma Kihnartlnithel. . 
b7 the Kew Steamer, "Qatm 0? ihe Lakk," through LOCH-AWB, by 
Caitla, hr Craaohan-Ben for (hs Para of Awe, wbero a Coach awatta them 
for OonTejanee to OBAK. via Pam of Brander, Taynollt, Loch-HtlTe, 
ConndFerry.andDnnitalTiageCMtl*— thfwenervilfli' HiK^wi''* !>«"«■ 
fioiu. Baturnlng br nms lOula on following morning, from OBAM, or 
uiUm iMTlDt Oban per Coach to Brander, can sail to Ford and tetun) 
(hj Pan of Branded to Oban lame evening. 

Fartleeper Coach from loTctarayto Oadlch csan eaildown the Loch 
to Ford, ud return to InTeraray lame erenlng.— JVlt/j ModeraU^ 

For information, etc sppl]' to Bochihah a Dice, Ohan. 

AiDuw Uiinn, Aijyfe St., Olaagow. JaBnFnrUT, Hotel, Ardrbhalg: 
•r Jobs If uiiu, Argyle Hotel, Lochgilphead. 407 



Via Dtmoon, Looh-Eck, and Straclmr, Inveraray 

and liOoli-Awe, to OBAlf. 

rvl »rri™l ot theSteimar •' Ion»,"laaving Glasgow St T i M., Train 7 « 

wllta Tni<D from Edtobaigh at 
Stotlonl atT.86 ..h., .O'ACH li 
Bteamet "F^f [ ' 

InnlBtrynlch (Looh-Awal, I 

hn^, and Train to Edinburgh and Glss^w. 

tt Cambridge Street, and An 
Ariyle Slrtet, Olaljawi E. Bra 
Bobertaoo, tine's Arms Hotc 
Cap Uilo on board the -Filrj," 



OS aad after 2d Jnlf, Ihs Steamer " PAIBY " nill ]Ba>fl tnieraray at 
11.16 a.m. to 9t. Calh»rio»'s, whtre a Coach It tn waiting to convej 
Pauengen to Loohgoll, In time for Steamer lo Olaagow. Retnralng from 
Loctagollbsad to 3t. Catherine') on arrlml of Stiamer leaving Olaigov al 
i.Mp.m.; TtainlfiOp.m.. thence per Sleamer "FalrT"lo Inveraraj. 
■ S«ta agcnred on application to the Oaptain ot the "Fairy;" and 

W. MALCOIM, Maoaeer, Inreiarar- 
Any aUtmiimi that trov Dcn"", dm notice wiU bt givm in aiasgom Beratd, 


Hotel dJ^. during the Season, while the PotUng T>epsrtment. wltb can 
tul liri'erB, »iU ha found complet e In ail Us brancbeJ. 


■WILLIAM FfiRBB3, Psopbiktor. 
rrO Tontlata, eto, this Hotel will be tonnd both comfortable and «™ 

numuaiidi one of tba beit viawi o( the bar and snrronndlDg CDnntrf. 




A. M'PHERSON, Phofhietob. 

11HIS li the onlT laDdlng-pliKe on the I^s where leata an tecnced lot 
, EhBthrBaWeBtHlghliDdCDachBoate:. through Oletcoe, InTenny 
Loch'Aire, iDTenmnD. T^ndrum, Bleunrchj, SBlm&Uy. Pui of Aws, 
Fall! of Lon, DaaataaDaEa Cutis, to Obtn: Uarqnii ot BreiiUllnns't 
Deer FoTut. eleneoe, BallAQhDliBh, FanWlUltm, BbdktIb. Caledanlui 

Tha "T«tbet, Inrenray, ind Oban" CoKcbea Iture dai\f, in Jnly. 
Anguit. ud September, the Tatbet Hatel at 8.30 a.m.; Inreranian and 
TrsdruiD, aiencoe. and aUaoiehj, at lO.SO A.M.: and the Caledonian 




1 TARBET {Eoch-Lomondl, "loiancroe.'Rait-aml'be^h'aak^l. In- 
TeraiBT, Duke of Amjle's PoUclM.CIadfoh, Looh-Aire, Pu> of Awe, Ben- 
Cinachan.TaTimUt, Connel, Beii^nlnin. Daiiitairiu«B, DoBoUy.&ctDOhan. 
Paaiengen leaie Edinbuigh at e.lS a h.. 01aigi)w7.3« a.h.. for Coach 

tram Oban atS.SO a.h, f or iDveratay and Tarbet (Loch-Lomoiid) InMmii 
torSteam«r toBallocb, thence to Edrnbarigh or OIucow per Ballmtr. — 
Beat* aeiinred, and all neceiiarj Information (Iven at the olBces of Jainei 
WaUn, CambrldgB Street, and Andrew Menilei, 124 Argyle fltnet. Glu- 
lowj MThanon-i Hotel, Tarb6t[Loch-Lomood):MPhenion'«AigyUAi — 

and BirCIUNAN b 

aotel. Qfma; 


(H» UiJBTT'B Bduti oh Heb Piui Voit m Scotlud.; 

THIS HOTEL-altn&ted st tbs foot oF ths " wild OI»D Ogle," and In Uu 
tu-tuned p&rlih of Balquhldder— htving been coDBiderablT euluged, 
DCUlT n-bnUt.iuidre-tarDished.oSen Snt-clua McommodiUou to Piinta 
FunlllH. Tonriite, uid Trsielkn. 

TlH Ticwi from the oriel vtndon of tbs gitUig-Baaiiu ud iuge new 
Coffeo-Boomi oonaraand tbe mubifiDcnt uftnory of Loeh-Esn uid Uu 
■uiToiuidlzif coudUt* tndo^e the apperpirt of Btntheftrn. 

ThB Pioprtetor t^ei thiB oppoitanitr to thuik Ihois of hia f liandB wbe 
hmTe UUieito patranlBed Ub Rotal, and bei!s to usnn them, uid tba 
Fnbllii genentlr. thit tio paiiii will be apued to lacnue theii eoiofoit 
BBdicecmmodaUondnTlng their >tir at hie honBe. 

Ibt Hotel, from Its beiatlFd] Bltiutlon. and qnlet chUKt«t of the 
plue, with Its IIUD7 objecti of lateiest In the louliw uid alou: the 
Tuloiii routes above mentioned, la pajtlcnlulT adsplwl (or Famlllea DC 
Partlei vho vlih to lUT my length of time. The Hotel Is BDtlnlr lap- 
plled b^ the produce of the Farm connected with it. 

Boat! are kept for the age oi partleiroTftihingon the Loch ; nd Car- 
riuca of all klndt are read; al s few mlnutea' notice lor Posting or 

nere ii a daily Mail, and a Fovr-hitrK <!oarh rant daHy durintr 1^ 
SiHBSMr Jfont&i to and from CaUvsdir ajid AherfMy Raiiinay Slatiota. 
BOBERT p. DAYTON, Froprielor. 

KIKQ'S HOUSE HOTEL, Braes of Balqnhidder. 

rPHE Honie has been re-fnmiBhed lo Sral clagi 9t]-le bf the Snbacitber. 
J_ ud TonrislB vlsltluc the rontaotlc district nhsre Kob Ror liicd 
andllesburled.wm flnilaU comfort and proptialtandanoe,^ TaAngleri. 

with oaretul boatmen, proili&d 

HENBT HILL, Proprietor. 


Jnwrncsg & |crlh ^ailitag. 


A the Highland RallwaT. Flnt Oub accommodaUon at tbla Hotel 
Tba* ate beautiful drives In the uelghbonrliODd, with riier ud monotiila 

Famliiei and Tonrlats travelling b; the above Katlwar will find thla ■ 

or eontb. All sorts of CarriagBe and good Horua far hiring. 

^Tourist! are posted on to Braemar and Ballaler. Sa TMiriaft 
route bT/ CaltdtmAan CaiuH to Inverness, Rail to Granifnon, PotA Horta fo 
Braanar and MaUaUr, Balmoral, &.C. 

Tbt HoUl 'iiH allindi On Trains. 

tin A. FBASBB, iVoprfctor, 





Eemnore, Laoh-Iay, Baii-Lawsis, Eillin, and Loobeambead. 

I'HB "QI7BBN OF BEAUTY" tut Fonr-borM Ciuoh hu CDIDITIBDCBd 
rannlDg Car the Suion In connection with Ibe BiUhsts at AbeifBldr 
kDd CiUimiiei, 1ht1i« CiHander (t 10 K.m.,udAbeifeldf &[ew minutea 
kltei the urlnl of th« Tnlc from the Bauth. 

FABis-lfi/B, 13/8, 13/, ud IV- 
rr.R.—Tht rn.i-h nuru nt thp hnnm ndserUied In tha Newitapm ind 
" ■ ' n EdinbatBh, 

ioiil^ht.~"lBM~K«ll>iii rime Tablet 




THE "EABL 'IF BHEAJ>ALB*NE " Tbree-hocH Couch, iiiaEanmore, 
L&nen. Klllln, Lalb, ind Criinlirich, cummeiicei ruaalng far Ihs 
Sbuod MoDdHr, »th Jul7 cnrcoal, le&iing Absrfeldr U e.30 ■.m., arrtrilit 

to Balloch, snd Ifaviog Invenmui (Loch-LomondJ at S.'lS p.m.' 

Fuiengerg b; tbe GlcncD9 and Glenorch^ Coichea, to isd tiom lDT«- 
nui, BaniTte, Fort- William, md Oban, change at CiianUricli. 

Seats lecured at the OlSoe ot Mi. ^ndiew Menilea, lU Algjls Btrert, 
QUtgov, and at the Hotsls on the route. 

nvtta I Aharfeldy toInTeranan, .,..»/, U/, IS/, (Dd IS/ 
rAlt»o.....-j pg_ toCrlaDlarlcli, ..IS/fl, 11/8, u/, mdlV 
Kith Juna, 1888 


TpILLIAMMfNItO, Innkeeper, Abprteldy, begs reipeoMuUr to annoBDCe 

liver L^'od; Hid Boata, vl 

'Abetfeldj' SUUod ot the Highland ItallwiT— li in the Imniedlale vlclnltr 

dtetance of the tai 'ranted Pub "rKilll'ecrin^e, Blajr-Ath'ole, Bannoch, 

ToinmelBrldga. Crielf, HDdthenlM and romanllcOlcn.LvDn; andtLedla- 

titct tetmiirjth ohjecUor Inteiest and everr i&rlet; of lIlBhlanit Scent tr. 

FMtlM me allowed to dalt the beantifnl giousdi of Tgfmouth it Htatel 

lander, Loch-LoiDOnd. Fort- Wllliaio, Oban, and Olaagow; and an Omalbna 
nini to and from Aberfeldy In connection wllh the principal Twtni. 
The Posting Department le condncted with eierj regard to comfort, 

Ltltcn far Apartmaiti, ftmieyoncM, Oc, pujirfBoIiv utitndid Jo. 
Kenmoie Hotel, 2BlhM»7,lSSe. ,- i 

411 ,L'00>;lc 


OlOa, DOQ CAB,T8, 

D. M'DONALD, PkopribkiB. 
■pAMTUBS, TOQriaM, ComniBreUl Gantleioen, etc., wUl find Jo thi. 
i.„ . "i '7?"^ comfort ftnd sttoatlon. BUiijowrie 1« pleuintlr 
iL'^^^^" "'*. **"'" of ""> EtrwHt, .Dd 1. . centre »bH .iapted la 
nuking Tonri! to Ctslg Hall, Loch ot MarlM, Loch of Ctanlo, Vlth lU 
•nclentCMtle, etc. It 1> on lh« shortest Hid mo.l dlract route to Bal- 
morai CjiUc, and scensry of the Dee. CoMhss will nin m iisii»l to Ihin- 
WW and BraBinar, And lutt iscnred al the Holol. 

An Omnitm nwairt On arrlvaland departun ofthi Tmi nt. 


"°^^'- J^^ HOTEL. 

pAHTIBS InqnmUng BtAtneoWBTi will Ond this Holsl replete with 
i'=.»r.7„'^""''- The TOURIST COACHES to DONKELD and 
T^^* . ^"' "*^' " tonnerly. from the Hotel. >o that p»rti« 
fl^d «S' t'jL "^ Balmoral, "jfer Majeat^'a Highland Mome." will 



HFiaHKR begs to think tha Sobllitj, Genity, and Tourlata tor tholt 
• past liberal patronage. The additions to the Hotel ate bow cam- 
pleted, comprislns a large Ladiee' Coffee Koom, Eight Private Parlonrs. 
""5 SP""'' of J'ifty Bed Rooms, olegandj Inrnliheil, so that PamlUei 
and Tonrlats visiting DeesldewIU find every comfort and aoeommodatioD. 
Onidea and Ponlea to tha different tills, and to Glsn-Tilt. 
PottinyinallitgbTaiKha, A fixed Charge for Servartit. 

The ROYAL MAIL, dsllv, at 8 a.m., arrtvlnn In Aberdeen In time for 



JHUNTEE raspBctluHy thanks tha NobUity, OenMy. Tourists, and the 
. PubUcgenerallr,forlhoverylibaraliharsotpsstp.tronaoe/ Having 
now lullj coraplBted and furalshed large additions to the Hotel, FamiliBa 
and atherg Hsiiirg Deeside will QBdevary comfort snd accomraodallon at 
this Eitablljhment, whilst the Charges are slrlctlr Moderate. 

Carrl^ea, Dog-Catts, and Brakes, eto., of every description always In 

readiness with a flral-class stnd of Horses, to that parties posting to Gran- 

STa"' " ?'°^' Blairgowrie, Dunkeld, or Blalr-Alhole, wit] eiporiance no 

Coaches to Alwrne and Blairgowrie Bkllway BUtlona dally, 

Guidea and Ponle. (or the hills, and Olen TUt, Arlsmote, Gimntown, sl<. 






" ■ - ■■ - o MUNDAY, 

dnesdBT, uid Fild>r, i 

tlu'lralDS North and Sunth; Hid [rom Lmnkeld to Blilrgowri? and Biwi- 
inur, luviog I'lihu'i Rojti Hotel evsir InesdnJ, TliaridBT, uid SaCurdar, 

PusengBn tnd Pucala Booked only mt 

in*T: Gnnt'i. Spltt&l of Glenahwi the . , --- _ - - , 

ganris: and at Fi>hu>i B07BI Botcl, Dankeld. 

Dankeld, Both July, 1866. __^_^_^ 



THIS Hotel— one of the lugeat In Che HigbUnds of Scotland— hu been 
establtahed for nenrlr hall-a-«Dtar>, dnrlnfi: whlqh time it has been 
pitronieed by variom of tlie Roval Families of tlie Continent, and hv the 
gnater number of the N'oblllly and Gentry ot the United Kingdom. It la 
well linonn at a First-CliM Honae. in which every attention i. paid to the 
comfort. ooaieoleDce, and amnaement of the Tunrlst. Tlie apartmenU, both 
pobllo and prlyate, are large, elegantly fnmiahed, icrapnlously clean, and 
nUalnd. Thia Hotel ia not only conveniently liluated for viaitlog the 
"Duke of Atbole's t'leaanre Gronnda, the uicieot Cathedra], the HernulAge, 

■ neighbour' -■ -----. - - .-- 

[11. u^g jm, Locn ana rails 01 , „. „. 

, , , .-:h-Tay, Tiymoutli Cutle. 

The CoiKb to Brumar and Balmoral la now rnnning. 

Job and roM Soraa • " '" ' " " 


iooM of rrsry dacrivtior, 
lit June, l8e«. 

■nr GRANT, la leturalng ttaacka to Tourlsla for their Ube 
tut' he baa now got hi a Uouae mi^b Improved, whi^ aff^i^a * 

Depanment (whlcb is eitenilv 
Co4^ luna for the aeaeon fiio 
Blaiigowrle, dining at Spitlal- 

) lecoud to none. The Pri 

nee of Wales 
Spittal and 


. THE 

— L«in 






IThc SorOitn TenMiHU of the Railtoav Svilm ) 

BojTd Mail and General Coach OfBce and Poating Honse. 

Time Table's forwarded, and CTeir Infotmatlon promptly give: 
Eoutes, Bistanoei, and Stage Accommoilation, on appllcatiDn to 

BudnsiTfl Angling on Loch Migdale. 




■ ■ildT(nirUtIiuTlTiiiga(Cunpbeltainibrtli«"Cglt,""Dniid.'' 
oi"U«a>ia" Btaunen, which ull d^lrfiom Glugoir, Onanock, An., 
OB, stter Hdng ths Mall ol UaDtTie, KeU Cai», St. Keunn'B Con, 
Mubnbuilib Bar, Ac. it CampbetKiwn, hiTe > most p!ctiin«Las ind 
InCemtliigdrlTebj the Coach along ths weitcnut of Klntynand ibDrH 
ot Wut Looh Tubert. Brnviiig at Tarbert la time either M go vrtOt tbe 
" loB*," Mill other ateame™ going (o Aidtitlialg, Inveiaraj, Sic,, oi rrtnim 
wltb (buB leeamm to Rotheiav, llDnoon. OrBenook nod aiuiov. 

TtaaSoenarjof KlnlrnwlU bi 
ai It daw, tha bold, rnggid. and liolatsd nuds 
th> hMTj gain of tba Atlantlo at MKhnhanlih. the wlkl rocky ghon* 
aboTC CunpbMtown, and tiu loTct J woodod uflii«7 onWcat Loob TaAor^ 
which nquin odIt to be Km Id order to ba highly appiadited. 

Fatal betwMn C«inpbeHn<m and Tarbert— Inilda. im. ; Outrtda. Ba- 

_ , , .. » (rieni 

ginerallr tor tbslr kind sapport daring the lut all rean, btga to 
loiicK ■ coBtlDosQCe Of their pitrana«c. which be hai all thr more coo- 
fldcnca in doing now that ha caa otfar eaperlor accommodatlBn— tha 
honea having; baen, doling the but joir, almoit entirely la-boilt and 
greatly eoUrgsd. 
StiiCa ofApartmenitJOr Fawilia. Airy <tnd Cammpdiovt BeA-Rmm^ 

Hot, Cold, and Shatxr Bathj. 

Tha Poitiag Departreent will ^celve, as hitlieilo. Mr M'S.'a ipcctat 

(ttcntlou; while OiB Slibltng >ccoiomod«tian will be tonnd lacond to 

none in ArgTle —Mar. 1^(18, ^_^_ 


THI!> eommodloaa Hotel !■ ceotrally litnatad within two mlnat«- 
walk of tbe pier, where Tonrlstl. Fimiliea, and CommercUl Oaotla- 
nen will find eicallent accommodation and attention combined wUh 
Modaiate Chargea, 
J, H. DOUQTAa. pBOPnmoB. 


THIS Hotel Ii beantitnUF aituated at the Head ot Lochtndaal, It 
^ mllce from Port-EUan, and 8 miles from Pon-Askatg. TheStwner 
" IiUr' calli at Fort-Ellen three tltnea a-week. uiit once at Fort-Aakalg. 
■ ■■ . . ~ .. n Port-EUen 

ler, to and fnm Port-EUen aren t 
Port-Aakalg ererr Tnesdaj. Ton! 

leaving OlaagDW by the " Islay" i 

taking the Omnlboi to Brldtcend, can atop at ma notei tnat nignt, ana 

"LiL" "•''»)'" '""" Port-Ankilg tor Tarhert, and there join the " lona." 
aniving in Qlaagowon Tneadir altemoon. Br thii rente a good »iaw 
will beiFototthemoitol the 111 and ot May, and the fir-ltmed Papi of 
Jora. ^nveyanoes kept for Hire, ta accommodate Partlei going to Iha 

^fiAing can ht r,ot in aomr nf tie Slriamt md LoOu. 

D A I L Y S A I L I N C S 




(Kto AnniuBui.Hl. 
Ths nntHOui Kew Stsunen 

••BABLO_ . .. _ . _ 

B^ eTCTT Ennisg !ttiiiid*Ti «cspted> from AE1DR0S3AN it 9.1S]f.m,, on 

urinl of T.Cap.m.Tnln nom Qluaow: urlTEngiii Bellut >boatfi.S(la.iii. 

Rom BB[.J^T mxj EFudnft (Snodnri eioepMd) tX 7.1G p.m. 

On utItiI al aUuntr *t Ardmmii, PuHngBn piocnd to OIuEOw tij 

Bpadal Tnln Mt.SO a.m. (BnniUya «i«ept«a], (nlvlDela OUigow at e.E£. 

FoTtt (Inoliidliig Btaward'l F«)— Kitum Tiotcti mailabltfiir Out MaMh. 

fnm CaaMOw, Paliler, or Johtutonfi. to Belfut— lit Clua and Cab. 

Bll^h, 19/: Satnni, lei; 3d Clua and steerage, Single, S/. GIukow to 

SnUla— lit Omi and LV), Single, W; Beiain, 3S';8dClau and Steerage, 

tlngla.UI/. Aidronan to Belfait—lslClasi and Cabin. Single, 8/: Bstuin, 

U/l 8d clua and Steeran, Single. 215. 

Panengen booked throuah to all the principal Towni InlreUod. 
Good! lei^nd at Good) Staljon, 130 F.gllDloa Street, tiU 1 p.m. Pleaie 
be parHcnlit In forwarding eoo4> to cara of Agents for this ronte. 

Por[Diltier piinlcuUn, apply lo E Hendenon «l Son, Belfait, G. A S. W. 
KaUwar Co. 'a Ooodi Manager; or to Iheir Sblppiag Agent, Allan FIndlav, 
Ardiaaaan. jsmjt YOUHOGR, 

July, 13Se. 130 Egllnton Street, Glaagor, 



VISirORS will And Bnt-clasi accommodation at the ahoTe. witb aCrictlr 
moderate chaiget. The PuIouih and Bed-Booms are ol a anperlor 
deecrlptlon, and at all times weU aited. Flnt-elasa Llvsry Stslilea and 
Coach Hcnsei: Posting eatabllsliinent complete. Everj deacrlptlcn of Salt 

day tS<mday excepted] on arrival of the Expresi In the marnlng, and i.lA 
Eipreai Evening Train from Olugow. 

~aLAsabw to abeak, 




»reet Sta^on, at 8.25 a m. and 1.15* p in , 
a m. and iW Ppj- ^^^ ^^ g^^ jp^ ^ ABDRoaa 

On Wednesnar Eveninti the Steamer wlU connect with thefi.SOp.m. 
jreai fromGlugow and 7.5 p.m. Traini from Atdcoaian. 

Trainj 00 a'on^tidf Sttam^r. 
lilmarnBck, Troon, and Ayr Paixagtrt trawA in Ordinary IVaiiu. 
[Ml— Nn Second-ClaBS Tlckeli far Okigow Iisned on Wedneadar 
minga- Paaaengera nalng Second Reluma will be convejed in Thlrd- 
ai Canlagei from AidroiiaD.— Angoat, ISM. US 




iruRDfl HTVER, Acbnuhtea lea, begi to miqiuint (be FnUlc is k*d- 
JH. end lh»t hs runt ■ Speolil ConToy«Bca In coiaBCtlon with tho Plonwi 
Built httuati to GnntowTi. luTlig CiLlrloch stwj Balnidir morniiw on 
(ha UTlvil of the Steamer rnm ObiD sDd FoAree. Fuwi ilangliiieLacli- 
■urea, Klolochui, Achnuhnn, and anlTct at DlaewAJt In tune for the 
Tntni going North and South u.m<t evsalng. The Couch alio laaiH the 
IJaUonal Hotel, DlngwaU, ever; Satnrdaj-mDrciliigkt S Lii., to aiuttka 
tha SCumar ume aranlni for Podrae^Fites lEs. ftL— thsi glTlng the 
and most direct Eouta ever atferEd to tha 

,_. loIDnrwali and lUTeraeae iDonedar. Fnr- 

m rae^Ted on board the Steamer. 
AehnHheen Inn, Itth July, IS66. 



JOBS OtnOfIKO Qale Head WMa Id Uie EdlDbush ud Be([aiit 
BotMli, Edlnbni^} bee* reepecttuUj to Iptorm tha ITohlUR lad 

. «dl<nu Boom, plaMntIr 

RUnatadattbtantnowtoPattraafnimthaiKat, and commuidlng ■ Bus 
TiST of the CnehuUln Hllli. The ac«ommodaUon li ampla, uid on tba 
Miraat and moet Improred prlodplei. Tha Booma an ipMloiii ud loftr, 
and fomlnbed in the nawait itjLe. Hot and Cold Bather Ftrit«laH 
Wine* 4e. 

Tba ROTAI. HOTBL {occupied for the Ual twahtj jean br Mr. John 
Bo«| U wtU known, and Toutlita aod ^mldee Tlelting Bfcre will meet at 
thli estebUehment with erelT aoconunodatLon and attentiao, oomblnod 
irllh moileraM cbaigai. 

Svptriar PoU Sarta and Carriages kept, aruf mr^fiU Driten. 

Theia Hoteli form a good ttiRIng point for TlilUog the romaoUc and 
grand icsnerr of Loch Comlg. Qniralng, Storr Kocli, and the other pUoea 
of inlereet In Skye.— Portres, $ach June, ISSa. 




he Iile of Skje will find thii a moet eioatletit 
me Dail; between Duuienn and Kflaaliin, in 
^0 and from Dirgwall. The Ekye Mail depute 

,t KTlaakIn at S.20 p.m., retumbig to Portree 
ival of the Hall from Dingwall, and caUlng, 

1>U ate provided with an aicellent means of 
'arled, and much admired, as the BonteioAdi 
: aceDcrr in the laland. 



rB iboTe large and cominodtoiii Hotel ii besntlfullv iltaalAd DM! to 
tbe BbUwsj SUtloo, ud vlthla ftve iLilei of the fkr-runad Stnth- 
peffet Walti. Vlalton vUl Bud sTec; comforl, combined wllti ■ modanla 
iCAla of Chugefl, 

Partiu laariUd by Wttk or Mmth—ltrmi [inctudint Atlaidanti), Tma 
Quineat per Wttk, 

Job nad Font HpneB kept foe Hire, vlth unrnl Drlnre. 
Letlert panctwilly attended to- 


(Lult 0/ Sev Tnmacht Sotel). 



ON mrMtleiTli ..-,, -— -, . 
commeDce nmnliit; D^y (or Skre, LDchmirea, Inltbei, ud Oslr- 
losh. Idling the National Hotel, Dingwall, eTei? HondeT, Wedneidaj, 
and Pridaj, at 6 a.m., tnd eyetj Tueidaj' Thnrsday, and Batnrda^ ai 

WBdoMdaV. and Prida? at B a.m., >Bd ever. Toe.ilay, Thnrtdar. and B^ 
tnidatat 7.S0 a.m. PsBsengera tor Ullapool leave Dingwall b; the Mou- 
dar, Wadneadar. and Fiids)' CoachM, at 6 a.sL 

The acanen on thli roate la well known to be the finest la Sootland. 
Bnta aecared. and all Intannaiioii BiVfiO, at tha National Hotel. Dingwall; 
Ulnr-e Hotel. Anchnasheen; Hi. M'Donald, Merchant, Jeantown; andtt 
the Bahoaeana Hotel. Breir attention paid to Game Boiea, Faicela, Ac 
Ltttfra jfunctaallii nil ended to. 


A/lSri'OES are reipectTnllf iDrormed that ever 
V found at the aboie old-eiUbllihed Uonie, 

Post Bor»ei, and Tehlolea 

THIS sk:"y-e nwrjLiXj. 




THE Skra OOACH or OUNIGUS. carrrlng the Malls and Paaiennn 
tor 21 parta ot Sim, and (or atotnowaj, leavea the CALEDONfAN 
HOTBI.. DINGWALL. DaUr (Snndar eicepted) at 11 a.m. via Gam, 
fam, bo. Job and Poet Bonet, and Cat- 

TlMM ol tnij daurlptlon. 

LriUrt far Jpartmmtt. Caa 
atUiuUil Is.— Cabdoului Hotel, 

Dingwa^ Uaj 1, iSOt.' 








rCRISTSuidVIslton to the "Fill CltT" will llnl ereTT comfort and 
attention al thii old-eiUtbliihca Hotel. The Ubeni enciangf ment 
received huiaducedtba Fiupcletor further to improve the Hotel, indto 

JV An Omnlbiu BWftlt3 the arrival of all the tralris. 



MR. KENNRDV, Idiiee of tMs old end llretclaig Hotel, beg* to offer 
his sincere thanlu to the Nobllltt', TourlaU, uid Commenlal Oentle- 
raeri, for the ver^ liberal support he hai received ilnce entering the BojaI 

The Fublio-Boame and Bed-BooniB sn Urge and alrr, overloak tbe 
Xlver Tar, sod eomoiand the beaatlfol pro9p«t ol Klnnoall HUL 

Umnibusu wait the arrival and deputuie of all the Ti^nl. Poitlug in 
all its d^artmentB. 

P S— All aerviots' Fees charged in the BUI. Fartlea having anv cane* 
for complaint wltl much obUge Mr. K. b? their Informing htnuelf. 





rpHIS Hotel, rrani it> tltaatloB don to the beautiful Bridge of D- 
i CDOImasde an nnrivalled view ot tbe raagnlScent icenerT ai 

gantlrtatnlahed and well-aired. ■P"-™ ......i..^ j. «.i.i ... .k.'. 

of Tourleti. Jel> and Pint Hor, 



DKOBBBTSON, Poitiiiiuter to Her Ma)8sty snfl «ia Eojai FamilT. 
, The onl< Hotel li AberdeBn ^er hoDOUred «ltll t llllC from Aaj 
dI Cbs BoyBl FsTnily II. R. would call stteotlon to the fact that, while 
.^,^. . — .....a ,.. .^_ m_.._ ,_ _, .^_ _ j,„t rtenorlpUim, lita 

Oeatlemeii, and tfa«e Is lui abnnd&Bt euppl; at 
(ion. All Berraati' Fees charged in the BQl. 

will be IsituClr Utended to "- " "- 

Mr.R.'»«iiei!OM- ' ' 
qmuton hai indatt 

Sugto avoid th« BXpBhflo of a private Boom. Tahled'S6U ill 

ts empli^De Caba elfuld Inquire lor thnse belonRinE to 
iDif nt. No Pottlog tttaclied to any other Hotel In Abeideei 

StstiODi, BDd CDS iDliitite'i nlli ol thePost^S^e. * 

JOHN BONNFR, ProprittoT. 


b ona at the moat confotttble on Deeeide The Cbargee an uoironn and 
modanta. Fast Honei, »c.. tc. 




OntmintWfivxLlkflvm tht BaUaay Slalim, buH^ifslIy ^tualti in 1^ 
mtnly itfFtrOi, clmi Id Hit tplendid Fallt and trUbrattd Spa 1/ JTonui — 
tlu flnrvundiniF cninlTy Utming with otjecti c/atlnutum. 

W. F. MACKENZIE, Lata t/omcrlv iift/it Avitniarc Holit). 

Iwen connected bj & nnre of balldinge. embnclog Iftrgo and &ir7 
Bad'EaOTils, irlilcb are hiDdtomslr deoDrited >nd [umlBhed, Till be 
found to cooUln flnt-cUu eccamniodatlon for tbe Nobility, Otntr'. »Qd 
Tooiliti geoenltj. The nulled Hotel! an now tocluded in the dBlgiiK- 
Uoa of tM 


Pram Kt ecntrsl poeltlon, AbBrfsldy wOl be toond a dmlnble point it 

.-_■. — ._ detLTj Kid mbllmltj of Sceneiy, nre muajpuiedUi Um 

The Privet from AberfeJdy to TuTmooth Cattle, Loch-Tar, Locli- 
Bmnnach, Oknqnilch (celebrated bv Sir Wilter Bcott lu thi resldsnee of 
"Vlcb Ian Vohr"), tha Paai of Kllllecrsnkle, BUlr-AthoIe, Donksld, 
Btniani, tbe SmL Glen, CrislT. the FaUs of Acbani, Loch-ToiDmel. KlUlB, 
MlglfBiner Caille, and Qkn-ljun. are tamsrkahlj flue, Tbe iceneiy of 
Olen-Ljon ig edmltled to l^ tbe moat magnificent In Seotlaiid. and onlf 
wqniree to bo known to become a great attrecllon to all Tourteli. 

Amonest the obfecte of Interest in tbe more Iminedlate vicinltT t.Tt tha 
Faltoof Moaei. (aU Tonri.ti yisltingPerthihiie ibonldmakBapolnt of 
iselne these romnntlc Falls, the Birks, Grandtally Castle (the or^al ot 

(one of the hanting naorU of the andenl Scottish Eiagi], and Caitl* 
llenilH. The view from tbe Hill of FarmcUl is nnequallea in Scotland. 
Parties leaving Edlnbargh or Glasgow In the moralng, and anlrtng at 
Aberteldr b; flnt tnin, can enjof a yive Houn' Drive Ihroagh the moat 
■OTseone Bcenerj In the Ulghlaoda (Including the magniflcant view of 
Tajmonth Castle and Oroands from ''The Fort." theFau of tilentront, 

Ur. X-KeniJewillbaha 
Partiea for Breafcfaiti, Dlnnen, and uonreyani 
manr placet of Intemt In the dlitrlcL 

Coacbet to and (mm EIIII0, Callandar. and Le 
put the prevloni night In thie Hotel. 

The Posting DepartniBnt will be fonnd complel 
andConferancee pnocloallr attended to. 

Than li a BowUng Oreea for the use of Vliltoi 

flood SalmoTi and Trout FiihiHa—Baatt and a 
Abepfeldj, ISOe. 



FA M 1 1, 1 E a, ToorialB, «nd othen tUiUag the Qoem of Ecottiih 
WateriDg-FluHH, wlU and at tbl> [avourite Hotel eveir sccainmoita- 
tion, combined vltb sconotnr. P&niea Boarded by (b* Week it 
Modante Ttcnu. Boud pec Week, beds Included, Ei:S' 

snrrrvtr Carrianes, Good HoTia, ond cuTtfitl IMnert. 
Cliairga Mod^aU. W. B. GKU^fDY, Pkoph 




EESPECTFULLY informs TourisU and Famlllei Tliltln«Catlauder that 
be baa taken a lease of the above loDg-eitabUsbed and weU-knowo 
Hotel, wblcb bu been ill n furnished Id tlie newest slfle; and In conie- 

wlll be taken In^^lie mon'tL of May and June at Uodera'ta Temi. 
Coacbee to and from Looh-KMlrlne daflj. 
FirH-claas Conveyancea sf cvern daeriylim IceptfoT Bln,v!ilhcartfvi 

Driven. Tenm Moderate. 
An Omnibus, tree of Cbaraa, Co and from tbe Hotel, to anlt the antval 
■nd departore ol all tbe Tnlne. 

J'.B.-Partlei will pleaae obiem that Macjtegor'e Hotel hae now nti 
conneotfou, ai It foimeilT kad, with any otbei Hotel lo the village. 

A. PUUBE9, Callander. 

Large and well-lamlshed Coramerclal Boom. Private Sitting Beomi, 
CDiniorlable and vell-^red Bed-Koonu, Chanu itrictty Moderalt. 





]M ntninlng thuki for ths tbtj Urge >lun ol patn>»ga which bs hat 
mcelivd nines he becanie Piopristoi o( "Tbi Suht AHDKIir Hotel." 

at bli Hotel, re-decorated, n-tnniiihed, and fitted' !t np with eTetirsiniro- 

InCeTMt. nukei tt the moat ceotnl uid coamdent reeldencs lor Tislton, 
whsther for tnulntw arpleuun. 

For CommorolRl dflatlBman there li > Splendid Jtoom, gpedaUy 
■Bt aput, with ewry «mngcni6nt which eiperienee could lujmit. 

ASpadooa OoSbe-Booni, the anegt la Edlabarfh, tor I^iei and 
GBfitlemen who ma; not he diipoaed to take a prliate psrlDur. 

TbeBad-Roomaue of the mmt inpticlor ductlpUoii, bring larga, 
loCtT, veil TeDlUated, and [horought; appointed. 

The P&rloni AoocmmodatloiiKllI ba foood ample and elc^nC 

Ijaxga A Well-I/iKhted Shoiv-Booma foi GenUemen eanrlng 

Brtofc/arti, JH 



Plain Braa] 



.1/8. S«TanU,..../B. 

Mk. M1.ABBN 




(he rollowlai regOmaiiiall, 

ulected rrom ha 

F hi! Ho^ 


■teJ. Edinh, 

irgb, la 01 

ne of the b«t which I have 


>r. M'Ka 

tel h'u In^ 


■lie. Gomtort, and elecancs. 


■■1 have great ] 


lonr to the eHaUeBW of the 


T mtfren 

1 LaaiOfL BoTl., Bravtm. 



piirew Hotel are ot the high. 

laiotiei.'-HiaKBar^y. Stq., LL.B., Slui^ff Siibatil-iat. Pertlulu.... 

" t oan KieaJt fnnn aiperlence of thehomech&ractflf of the Saint Andrew 
Hotel "—Aer. Dr. A. Wallace. Oliugim. 

"t htn BO baltalon In detcrlUng the Safot Aadrew Hotel as one of the 
noat oomfortabl* eatabllshmenti Id the kingdom."— J. B. Baiper, Eig.. 
Parliamenlarv Aftiii. U. K. AlHance. 

•■ The SalBt Aodnw I eao recommeDd with cooadence. For comtort sad 

Kneral good raanagemmt it ii eqnai to any i-otel I rtiit."— fCiUiom 
ilvm- Xeq.t Utm^facturer. Jalburffh. 

■'Tha e^t Andiew Dotal alfordB flnt-olaai accommodallon wlChonl 
payioR first-clees choivca "— J£ev. William Btair. M.A., iMaihlant. 

•■ The Hotel over which Mr. Mlaren preside", lor cooibined oheapneis 
alid comton. la cenalnlr not eurpused bj anv In Scotland."— Edtlor of 
tlu -Eelto Chronicle.- 

"When we return to onrnatlve land, we will recommend the Saint 
Andrew otel ai a home to American friend- ylslllnji Fdlnbni^h '—Ber. 
IlT Kwr, filteOUTi'i, U.S.. aiul (lit Bee. «. D. Jfurjisr, Jtmiu, C*iB. iT- 



THOMAS SLANBT, Pbopwbtor. 

THIS Hotel, [iBtiODlied bf tfas flnt fimlUas In Enrop*. iDil no* 
anlHgod to twlD» Iti oridDBl ilis. Ths Gr«t Bulosn li the flneit 
room Id >dj Hot«l In tb* Vlagdom, KnS 1b upible of dlulng apwiirdi of 
thng bundled penona. P&mlUeiand Tourleta will find Sn('cliUa4ccom- 
modatiBB, nod Cbsrges itrictlr moderate. 

Tahit d-BdIe. DiBMTj d la CarU. . 



(In the ImmedUta Vldnitf of the titw Denenl Foat^fflce.l 

ri-HIS commodlani, old-ceUbllalied. nd centnllMltnoted Hotel li id- 

J. mlmblf adapted tot Ttmmei. TouiitU. &Dd olhenilBitliiBEdliilincgli. 

Clurgca Uoderite. Attaad&nu cbuged In the BUI. 



(WltblB n-n Hlnntei' walk at the lUUwtr Termini.) 
Pnbllo Mid Pt1vb1« Boami. Comfortable and well-TentllaledBed-rooint. 
Breaklut from g tlU U 1.111. Ordlnair from 1 tlU S p.m. Attendiuic* 
ebarged In BllL 

BHablMtdfor f(ftv Yart. GoO^'Ic 

am %m^ mim. bists^ 

wrar BUiBniB btrxet, bt. akdrew bqitabe, EEUKBirKQH. 

THMMtgnljniiiit Hmut, built tar tbe cnvpoH of ao BOTBL ud SIHlKa 
fUMEJSHHBITT. n»T ba uia to be the onlr ona of Its IdDd In Omt 

Dtallni aod Hotal-KeaplRi:. ThoH bDnooilni Mr. QBIBTB w^ their 
Mtrooifa wfll Bod tti£ Hotel BUiB ftbout Ong^jilt th< >um uutUr ch 
m BUT inKiMr lunaM. 

BCXtlLuanoubnaxiiuUedliiacr" ' 

•nrtASuoaaa uo bbd-kc 

atted In tb* bMt modem Slile. 

DhmnoffthaJtdnt. I1.M. Bed. IeAI. 

Atlendaiui eliargtd In lk< £<IL Sol, Cild, and 5ltinMr BoOt. 




nrBE iViTe Hotsli hsTlDE beea noonBtraiiCed ud om'srtal Into one turf* 
-*- ud ooimaodlDiu HotaLwftb ell the umlbmoH aneittltl to the ntnlie- 

IqUj juronned thit th« oui, withlD lo a^le bcnmde, enjr^ ftU the eeolnrion 
oik Mnte Hotel. aTlE prebned, ttie treanHutthalu^ec^ udirdmltted 

.-__,„ _ —^bla of HoamiDodetiu UO 1 

t;H^"**j to ■Uah. *od nmilntf puallal with, hu been buJlt » Dueplfleent 
FuiItativrbig-BooiB.9eoLeIlT owlctiad Aud Arrujted for the oomfort asd 
OnrnnlMiM a ladlea aad Oanttemeii, or TunlUea. aho mity ba dedroiu of 
woUlDf Iba npane at attlni-ilooiDe. 

Hw nnr fnn Ika tnmaiiH (Mai Wlndon ot tbaee n 
VmA fruB all u* Dnwlu-fiooiDi and ParloDra, U ~ 

it larie and aieaut Sto. 91 



■THIS Hotel hiTliig bMD Ss-icDd ailed, , 

■^ leiardhicDiiiror^liiiowinniluctedHaPrlntaHateL 
Snltei of Aputmenli and Boaid at Kodenta Fixed Ratea, 
Mr. and Hra. M'ALLAN willdofclllD thtirpoverto pm 



XDIHBDUOH (OppotUi llu Otneral Fat^ffiet). WATEBLOO FLA.OE. 
CTRAITOEBS ud othen tMUdc EdiDbnnli triU Aid that, Im B[tutloii, 
" Oomfort, ud AeoDmiaadttloii, comblnsd irlth Kodente Chuin, tbii 

HoId^ItimaijKnKot npnidsot iea>,0llO)liiuiHiiutUBdla tbsOtr. Tbe 
mnn nod OulgliH nn at the Snt qiuUCr. 

g g—w d toiH and XtannU (7i#« Jtwm. £<iiv< and wU-fsMfliiloI BmBtiAs 

Boom. Suiti <tf ApartmrMt, tto. 

A HodentA Fixed Ch&ree for Serru^ta. 

A iptotdU Saloon nwsialiv tipl /or f orHri ii<lk Coitiu, lUks leM Id uniid 



ILfB. t HB3. HAOASAM return tbeir ilncen thuki to the KotDitr 
•"^ ud OsDtlT (or the Und aupport glTen tbam ila« tbe)F epeaDd thb 
Bnt-olmg PiudIIt Hotel, which for the lul tvslie jem bu been sacceKfn!. 



Timflj and OommentkL Obar(se Modsnts. 

S. BOBERTSON. Ptoprlator. 

rpouItlSTa, OommsrdBl Qentlemm, uid othen rliletec EdlDbaqA, will 
J' find eomfort&bla iccoamiDdatLoD Id tMi flotel, at the loweab poulble 

Oomfortuble Alir Bed-Eoonu, V to m 

PUnBiwUHti>iT«. 1/ 

Bo. do.. withChop>or8le^lK.,jHi 1/B 

iriW, (Co., itc. ofSuptrior Qiulilv. 

J. OREY, Pref>ri<lDr. 





IS the moit ocntrically aitnated for Tanrists, Commercial 
Geatlemen, and others visitiog the City. 

Sahnon: Bod-Fishings on the Siver Awe, Argrleshire. 


JjEQS to tnCiaats ttait jwtlcs iIojIiie u hli Hotel, vlitali hu litelibeu 









to aiiDogDee the 

"no o( tos^Holeli u the Klnidom 







(ImiHidiattly a^cining the TVnniniM of the EdinAuryh and (JlaigaB and 

North SHUiK KailKay Staiisnt.) 

TUa coromodiona and well-ippoltiUil Hotel Is Iwantltnllr ittnateiL 

OTarlooUng Friacn' Street GiidenB, ind commuidlDg lome ol tt» Quell 

« brM 

fwt. for FurtlM .ilh 

Udte., freoofchiiK 


>, B.lh Roome, CoBw 

nod Smoking RoDma 


itTicily Modemt 


i ^IM<m;, Proprlilior. 


Lelcenteri mikei 


In ScoUiDd, where e 

etj intorinatlon 



Pntnrnliu thinki to TonrliU uid ottacn tor tbelr kind aapport lor 
tblru-ili yens, ben lave to intimnls. tbit be h» built > Urn 
addition to tbo tboye HotBl, whlcb «m sSanl giuter comfort to Ui 
wuneioui GuBtomen. RoT^rdsniitiii 1> the best end eborteit toid ta 

cui ride with eue uid SBret; to the t^i the diituce being aclj i mllea 



A. BLAIB, Pbofbibtob. 

rpHB wan-tsown Stagei Concha, "Bobttor" and " Ledy of the Lake.' 



ANDRKW BLAIK ben to infonn Tonrirti t«Telllng brnyot Locl- 
LomondBDdLocli-Eetrfnoth.t ho hm lately got IheaboYe-mentioneil 
Eonae completely re built on e larae icale, Bparing no eipeoBe Id Qtttng 

II li one of the flneit ?iihlng SMtions on the whole Locb, and then ii 
• bnmbei of Boata, with eiperlenoed Boatmen, kepi for that pnipon, >0 
that parUel Inclined oould pag> a very plBUint day. Fartiei goliu to 
Locb-KatTlne should always make It a point to get to Inieienild the nS[ht 
before, ■! the steamer on I-och-KatriQe leavas this end lor the Tro»Hiebl 
eaily In thB fonnooD, go that partlea itayliit: OTenlifat at Innnnald 
woDld be Buie of eatcblng the tret Steamer, and lo hare aU the day befon 
thom la eiamlnln; the baantlfnl seenory of the Troaiachs. The dletiulOB 
from XoTonnald acroes So Btronaolaoher, when paiaengan go Oh board 
the steamer, 1> are mUBS, and to the Tiouache flfteen. 

The Loch-Lomond Bteamen oall at IsTemiaid on their war to Glaagow 
■nd the North. 


AI^XANDER FERGUSON' begi leare to Inform Tourlitt, and the 
Public In general that he hai elegantly Btted np the aboTO EaUb- 
lllhment. In order to give facllltlo) for eipforing the placet of Interest 
•rannd Loch-Katrine. It Is oonyenlently .Itn&tBd for eicunaooa to Ben- 
Lomond. Loch-Lomond, CUchan of Aberfoyle. Trosaacha, Uelen'a Isle, Ab., 

A One new road haa beep made between Loch- Katrine and Loch-Lomj^d 
VtMctaforBiribtivietnSlronackitliarandlnveriiuiid. ^I , 



~ M'OOWAN, PnopRiffpofc 

Ing this Ur^ and old- 
ie Mfr M'Oregor, md ^ ^ . . 
nuDf sQd sitenilTe ImproremeDti, will Sod eTU7 eomfort ud UtenUoD, 
Md ClurEeB Blrictly modenls. 

Tfafl Caljiiider md TrosHEic^i Rtigo Cnschei, In CDnnectlon wUh thli 
Hotel, and Mr. Bl&lt's Hotel Kt tbe 'Iroaucbl, are now lunolag for tba 
PeHon, leivlngCsll»iider»tB.30.,S.M»nde.S0p.m.; retomlBg 
(ram the TrosaachH nt S.O, lO.O, 1.30 (adl.30 p.m. Aiio. on and utter 
Id Jolr, the -'QaeeD ot Beautr" Stsge Coach wtll itatt from the Hotel 
ddllr >t 10 am. for Loch-E&nibead, Klllln, Eedmoie, and Aberfeldr. 

uid OlalKow aod Scottish Central £alli»r. direct. Bee Ballinr Time 
Ttti!Bi.—Tablt d'BiU Bail]/ at 3 ep.m, 

Fottina in att {^ Sramha. Letteri far Caniaga, Cotwli Seatt, tr Soiet 
accommnd at ion etn/ulty atuUdtd to. 


IfOTT reapBctfuHr Intimates that he baa become leaiea o( the abovs 
llL Hotel, the vbDlB of xblch hai been comloTtablr and elenntlr Fnr- 
Diahed, NobilltT, Oentif. ToDiiitii, tnd otben patroniilDi; htm may dt- 
wad m arerj atlentlon condaclTe to Comfort, combined wltk moderata 

ir Tniit and 

in the Coaob Itoute betweea Callaii- 


n Qentlemi 

- lllageolKl 

•Hoatcd on the banks of the rlvei Lachav, and within an 
the Falls o( Loch Tay and Fin'—'- ^— ' 
Inn can hare a Boat (or Bihlni 
Da Hln, If lequlied. Chatau 

JOHH CAMEHON begs mppotfnUr to ___ 
the aboye Inn U balf-a mile nonh of theTlllapof Klllln, beaoUtollT 

„ Caalie. 

BahlDi on Loch-Tay, alio, a : 
a[B« Modirate. 


THRnHtiMtUrUiw point on tbo Lake |b)' 10 milet) For Otnui, Glenco*. 
Port-WIUluB, gJTlfa. Kenmon, ind Aberfeldr. Coiches during the 
•eaxm for ib-m lU^ ' "- • "- "'-' -"- * 

Th* aot<1 1> ohiIt u 

Stuinen duriag Ihs wuoa. Fiihlji)| In ths FBUoah. Bokti lor the IaIu. 


COHTKTANCES.— At tbc WKAsr, the Loch-LomoDd Strsmen. 

mCSTA VASACE md Hit ST01f£ CKAE command On mutt eOmnvt. 
magmiJictHt, and rklvnivu pmpaU of Ihu the mwlifiinud 


JOi<EPa 8TBWAHT bagi to iDroim the Public that hs hu UtelTnitsnd 
om a leue erf thii Inn, which hu beu ImproTed, Gamfoitablj llttail 
^, *nd FtunUlwd imaw. Th« Klvn i'iU*D ud lACh-Oochut, In the Im- 
mtdiataTlDiiilEr, abouDdlng Id Aba troat^-offn exueUent apoit for partlas 
ndiIIiicstthalnD,tDiwhoH*«8iiiaiodBtlanaBoa(likt}i(. ItUuTen 
miles trom tb« h«td ol Loah-Lmnond, an the ngid to OUa, FoTt-WlUlam. 

Klllln. TijiBinth, ud Dankeld; uid Couhei dillr, dnrlog theie '~ 

■Bd from the Ibon plw»>, In connection with the Loch-Lo ' "" 



T JARBATreiiHctfallf alii ttie atlantlon of the Tonritl to theatlnc- 
Orohjflowi into Looh-Ave, wlthlnaahDrtoalk ol (hsromtntlc Knlna of 
Kflgbain CtMt, and la th* direet road trom Innnn; to Oban, vkilch. 

HlgUanda ot ScDCIand. The pUce whence the CrmXiD-BeD can baaa- 
oended. ConTiTancealn thaMUonareCreqnenl^ andto the AnKlerst&Ilng 
■t the Houis. llbertj' ii glren of FlahlncforSalmnn Id the Orchy and LocU- 

i« ii„. < .....J.-.. i.> iiided for hlin. 

■U L^ioTlminU. 430 


FalToniard h\i the Emprta of the FrnuA. 

TFE ibove 9nt-cU» Uotet Is beautlluU; iltuiited Bl Vb» foot of ttie 
"Qneeii of Scottlih Liliei, " lad tX no «if dliUnce from the RtUnj 
Station. Vliltocawin havearsr; comloit, combloed vltlimod«nteChir- 
ges. Paniei purpoBlntt to proceed by Sisl ^teamir up Loch Lomond vould 

Boati. uilA tUodv Bi 



&KENNIE begi to infonn hli Ftlendi snd the Fnbllc that he bu now 
> Opnad tliit Latge iind Coamodioiu Inn at Fon-ot-Meuuith, Peith- 

ttoo to tfa« oonifartB of thoea who may patroalie hloj, he hopes lo merit 
a Ihaia of pnbllo laTour. 

Be mar al» Mate that then 1b s Ui«e and lieautilnl Lnch cloeeithaDd, 
whan his cualomen maj «d]dt ihemaelves bj OahlDg and boatlog; with 

niiM. famoai In olden timet u an anslent Driorr, ud the fiunllj realdenee 

id to that place, there li 

,j before to Mc. Rennie, wUl have a conref - 


JOHN MENZIES, Peopkictob. 
TJOSnNG) In aU lU Dapartmeiite. with carelul Driven, bsU acquainted 
X witii the Rosdi. An Omnlbui from and to Lochgllptwad ottenda the 
anlTal and departure of the Sleamen at AtdiUhalg. Ul 


II nllDquIihed hli teuncT 
._.... . - - . - . a bl> bii)lD<H li now can- 

Onadto ths- 


vhleh bu bean nc«nt1j finlKT^d. From the long aod extflnalTe pAtrori- 

OD his put lo tender the HoM worthy of pabllc tnpport. 

CwctiM artlTs sod deput dsllj bam tba Hotel during the iDininer 
monthi (SandAj eiupted). Frinte conTifanma on b« b»d on tha 
IhortMt notln. 


irisa SHTTH, IaU ot tlia Anodur Hotel, rsapectrnllr •DDoDocet to 
BL the NobilllT, Oentrr. ud general PobUi;, that ihs bu now become 
Leuce of the Abore BOTEI<, which ii one of the L&rgeU In the Weit of 
Scotland, and tnuti to merit ■ contlnnance ol the liberal patronage 
bestowed npon her so many Tears at Arroch^r. 

The Ciledonlin Hotel, bf Painting. Papering, and HoBtting and Sewly 
and Faehlonably PDmlablng. wiU be leeaDd to none. It will be the 
noceailag endearonr at Wis .R. to provid* a comfortable home In tha 
Bl^ilandi to all liMUng tha Caledonian. 

Her Eatabliabmant at Arroohar mt raTODrably knoim to Xngliih and 
FUBlaii ToatMf, and tha tmTalllDg pDblle, and Hlai S. rellea with mncli 
WHtflaenca that. In point of eleanUnese, and the ti&j arrangementa to FaTin 
a somfortable Hotel In the b«9t eenu^ combined with Jaitlf modenta. 
Ghalgei, will dlltlncnlall her Eatabllahment. 

Bonei OMd Carriagu ktpt at the Hotel. 



THE Hotel l9 three minatei' walk Irom the QuaT; Is commodlosi, tar- 
nished Id the finest stfle, and Charges strict]}- moderate. The great 
experience and matured arrangements of the Proprietor, and the nnahaken 
aonfldenceof the Fobltc and Tieiton, 4iaTe placed this Hotel Dninrpalted. 
Ttw Hotel IB littla mora than a mile from tha foot of (ho far-Camad Ban- 
tla^. Qnidea and Ponlei kept for uoaDdlng the monntaln. Fliit.alaai 
aecDmmodatlon (ot FamllH. Foatlna In OH IM bnuMdwa. £1t«t Btablai 
BDd Lo«k-np Coaeh Honiea. Tha Wamoa and Bla|ik Uonnt, and Bejal 
Hail CoaiAM to Klngtuile. iMln and depart itltj from tha HotaL An 
Omnlbu fmn tha Bolal to and tioni tlia lorenwH Statmen on Calo- 


DUKCAN 70BBES bea to InUmata to tha pnbUo that tUa Inn h« ra- 
eeut^ baen thoronttalr mwlrad. and will be [onnd to poaaau vnij 
aoEBfort and coBTanlence, oomuned yrith -nrj moderate Chugca. 
Tcmlita and Gantlaroan daabona of ~ 

Tct7plBiitltnl]DataK>«iltetheHo<ua. Ttit 
MaalltluaatlaMaftwaA. OaoTarBoaa kapl 



RS. CHBISTTR b^ tu Intlmata to 'laurmia and tlie Publle. that 
"— -"d elennt Hotel is m>" complete — '• " — ' — "■-'" ' — '-*■ 

. within a few rainntes' aalk f 
iloheaon A Co. 'a Swift Sailing Steamt 

The Hotel le within a few rainntes' nalk to the Landing 
P. Huloheaon ACo.'aSwlft Sailing eteamen ([om Olaigo .. . 
Tit Oban, Banivlc, and Fort-^V mism. As also the Stgrtlng- 

Ooaches lo Glenooe, Loch-Lomond, Edlnb — ■- — " "' 

Klilln, Kenmore, Taymonlh Caetle, Aberii 

nbuivli, and OlaBEOW, Troaaaclii, 

Wtlllam, Banarle, oi letnni to Oban in ths alternooo of each day. 

Table d'Hote dallT, on nlnni ofttae Puiengen from Olenooe. Cliargu 
Modta t e. Bo ali an d fcttaig in nli itn br aiuha. 


riiHIS Hotel ii dellgbifuilr allnawd on the binko Of Loeh-Leion, a,nil 

daf lo Port- William and 
and Qleneoe Coaeh, cc 
Banavieatao'olock, a.m 

Cleneoe, ind^BIackUoui 


ernae.'tor For^iUiam, ^bwbnllab. 

E5J^<B'S e<0)^USIS e<0>fEILa 


Nnnded by Icenerj wild, gnnd, and deeolate. KIng'a Honas tau been 
gowandFoTt'WllUarapaaidailT. Eicellent Ttont Fliblng. tit 



A ADDIWir. Tmstletratt tluaboTa wclMinoini Hd oomtoRnble HoCel, 
-"* In ntiirtiliiii thuilu lo hll nulBInnu trhni'll (or put tlTOun, ud. it 

Uwm that habH Joit openad > nnr widltlaii to thJi Holair^lch h« hua 

'""" "" ' ^■nperlBT Bylo. The ■cconimollBUon oonststaof lnim intt 

1. ktoOMiadT fsmtibal. ilail" Bsd-Bsnau nod attllDi- 
'<■'-<- —a ligbt ud Hrv. Lvga fatnUKRie Diofng-Rodin. 
— 1 •_ •'■-ibllifamFiit r> HiraiiKed H) u to mmihiii* 
iffhonl the whole- 



rpHIB HoMI la beauUtuUr iltuktad. MEUDindJiic u axtanrirfl ilsv of tb* 
DomfoTt of ODiwBAEVdal OflntlvmBH mid Touiiita. belu fa the iTqmedJKt* 
Tlalnl^ at tlH BnQmr Etctian, md on the dlnol road Co Cba Oulte isd 
Mkar pteiH of latamt 

1^ PukHui and Bed^Bocma an lana and alrj, i^id oran attfiatJaa ft 


■•" Bowling, to retunilni ttaankl to the numeroui Cuslmueia of har tait 
hubaod for tba liberal Fatjvmue » loaf bHtDW«d an him, begi matt ra- 
apaetfutlvlo lutimata that the la to ODUtlDoa the bualaeA on ber own aocount, 
and aha bonaa, br Btrfdbattaiitteik, and madflnkld Ghaiv». tt> maHt 4 contlnu- 
■m st paHIa Hpport,— ax Juoa, 1W«. 


iniia B«» aod Baiaiil Hotel oominiisa arsiT oomtiHt bs TaoilalaGoEa- 
-* mnnlal Omtlsiniin, and Printa PkmUlta. Bslanaid OamnHrohl Boam. 
with Ba-ikinc Room aCtaohel, Oomtortabla Partoun, and tlie Bad-Boami 
larta, aliT, and dnalj Atted np. Hot, Oold, aad Shower Batha. 

TAf Wiiua^ SpMU,AUa, 4^, areo/thtmwtehat^ikKripti/rrk. ^ 


Q If ACKENZIX. Ib tandttrtng bit gMtafnl thanka (e the PnbUo for 
t^. tfaali liberal anpmit and patronage alnce bs became Lmh* of (he 
aboTB cttabllehmaDt. begi to itate (hBt iha Bou«« haa latalj baan oom- 
pla'alr raOtted and Inproied loi tba aocommodatlon o( all partial *hD 
mar honour blm with a rltlt, Tbs Ian la ritnatad et the loot of (ha tar- 
famad OnchnlUn HUla, naai to Lo«h-Oomliic and the ^r Care. Fartlea 

d wltS B 

DiBa to either o( tbeabore plaeeiwben required. Tbe8«narr la unaoipa 
ed lor nxndenT in inr part of tba Hlgblanda. Staataan flj twice ■ we 
fmra Olaigow to Bkre. Partlea wiiblng tn riatt BIlEMban. ean ba ai 

_.i.j _..!. > n.— 1 n — 11 — 1 — ^ ihare la a U 


piled witCoonnrancn from Portne aiiil BmadfonCand there la a mSi 
'"g, canylDC Faaaeniart, paaai.^g and repaaif 


HOTCL (which she >ilU nalaUiDs 


PABTIRS cBD b« accominodstetl with BOlls of spiitnienld br the weel 
or month, by appljlng as shove. 


WUMn Two Miiuaa/ maU: JTam Ebe Pier. 
CHAKLES EOBKRTSliN, Proprietor. 
n'OURlSTrl ssd Famili'a viiltlng this famed w&tfrjng plKce will Aid 11 
gei. This Hd1«I commandB m udoiirable lisv ol the bur iiDii the Bar 
fa interMt. 
gnatlj vnUrged (haHotel, r4-decoTubed, painted, papered, andfuruiihod 

■Dd luld to the comfort ol the many Vullota >isittne hie home, he hope 

bf this announ.ieiuent to ifcsre md facrease the patronage of the publlt 

Hulii of *parluient>. Table d'Hotc datlT at 6 p.m., on the hiIvbI n 


(Nut tti« Oenenl Foit-OfflM.) 


BEING iILTUted In the BrlDclpal ttreel In Edlnbnc^h. Id the ImmedUU 
TlclnltTof theCalton Hill, nesrly oppoilte tho General Post-lfflce, 
.nd unl; • law miDst«>' wslli Irom the GeDenl RdlwayTenuiDl, combined 
rlth Internal arramenieDta render tbla one of the bcit HotBli In Soollasd. 
,\Largi SaUxm for Farlia icitK LaHa—Frtf of Charge. 



SFTUATBD In the moit Central part al the City, and within "Do Mlu. 
nt«'l WalJt or the General Ballway Tennlnl and Hew Fost Office. 
Wina, SpiriU, Soups^ Steal*, rfc. 

rOUKISTS, Comraerclil Gentlemen, uid the PabUo genenllr, ■» n- 
■pecttul^ Informed that the WICK NEW HOTEL li ddk dPENKD, 
ind will ha found, In accommodation and other reqiliremcDtl, aqnal to 
inT nmrlncHil BnttI In llMitlinil 

the Hotel, whiah hi 

alio the Poat-omce in the uine ran|^ of Bnildliug. 
■ ■ ■ — - •- 70(3. 

SOBBRT L. OITNH, Pmprietol. 




AN OMNIBUS mns Tnloe Dally, luTtni CRAIaoABRO 
__ MONIAlVEal 8,10 a.m. and* p.m.; KBtamlnKfrom 
STATION at 10.33 (.la. and G.GS p.m. 

tm- OBSEKVE— On W«DirisMrB leirlng MONI/ ~ " 
4 p.m.; BstomlDg from THOKNEnU, STATION 



:BK¥ and BANNHCH mm Dally 
:h to Pitlochry and from Flllochry 
Parcels. Le&Irt Dannoch at 6-20 

veg at BuDO^ at 3.20 p.m. 
D. CAUEXUK, FiDprietar. 


JOHN M-NAB, Uta ol lBri&>eKDi. 

THE BoMl IB «itnaled»l thghsld 0( Loch-Long, Inona of i 
bwDtUnliitiutlODI of tlui far-f»mHl ■' Amwhar.- Doing Iron 

nnrfar the high »nd one of r — 

mmed the " Cobbler." An 
bnti It Tubet Pier, I.ocb-Loi 

PuUea tnTsUing br tbe iDTirinr u)d 01 
AmMhu, u tbef pua tli> BoM Auij, whu 
tiie (op of th« piar. 


AirOUB OAMEKOM, Pkofbibiob. 
rpHIB HoM. beuiUfullT ilCiutsd a,t the head af the Ou«Io(ih, vlthln t< 
mflea of Looh-Long for Airoohu, And «lgbC rallm fram HelenBtanrg 
havlna bwD nevlr furnlBhed utdODdBrfftnio Atborou^b reneratlou, olTera 
Tonrlfto. and the Fublle In generml, bmple uid eicollflnt acDommodaClon, i 
' Ibe moat modemtfl tonni ^omlfiu f eardaJ. PaBCinijinaUiadepartitvn 
Boftlt to and from Belenibar^b BBrenl tlmei daUy, In donnectlon with tJ 
Railwar 'or GUagov, Edinbn^h, and tbe North. 


JOHN BOOrH, lata of tbe Guriok Sotel. Dnnlop Street, Olugow, begi 
Intlmete to TonrlMi ud tlis Pabtlo. that iJl the eomf rirta of home, ooi 
blned with moderate Charge*, wlllbe found by tboeepalronlelng hie Hotel. 
Ilcket* tor Flihlng la (ha well-knonn ilier KchiJs ue iHued to paitl 
realdlng In the HoMI. 

FoMna fit oU >u *««*«, Barut lapl at Litmi. , 



T koamnniDiUttaii tot TonriiU. Oommsnii] OontlemBii. ui 
.»-> 01DHI.— iHnnan, itoiipei Ohopt, Btu^ Ad., aa the HborteBt Nollco. 
Vbnu, epMtl. ks.. of Our Bunt qioU^. CkoriKi Maderalt. 


(Low ff«M AtiDord 4/'(K< Sactsittt Slrtrl Chib, DhtUK, and tf«r> Chii. 

BEOS ekM nn«trallT to muioiumb tliM ba bu bMoms Imim oI U» 
■bore Ilnt-OIua HotaL 

BBKiiKriaTs, LnHcmtDRi), DiHHUia. fta 

Vmn, Arn. uid BpiBmi or x Bupsbiss QnujTT. 

Horn tt Umj uid rot Hiu. Gic^ TinTdlan' Doe-OuU, □■rriHe*. 

SodHklH, Hairaei, bo., tt aisd moleiaCe Chjiiai. 




(LaliSatitiaitaardoflhtSaelivaltSlrtttCliai. BfMin, md tTnc CtUb, 

PriilUi airra. XdliiAwvh,) 

n''HB Oansnl ud OontoHnliil PnMhiwIll Bnd tUi Hotel onmtorUbls, ud 

BODPB, Entub. Hot Joiirm; aotn Hutu. 

HonH It IjI>«7 (uid for Bin, Gin, Tnnnen* DogJJuti, Cairlaia, 
SodAblsi, HunH. fttL, u u«d nudAnta Cunv. , 



(Tor tmntj-thiw re^n of tha SotflL Lnu. Laoh« Lomond. 
" " " ~ ~ . ^ - - - ..Ajio,,,., ^uia B 




Psmllles, Commerclil Gentlemen 


I'HEHOTALHOTf-LconiDUDili the mmt eit«nlve ud plrtnrMqns 
Tlew oi Bir Honte *n tlia PilCh ot ardt. btlng oppoiltc to Wsonu- 
Vikj. irad Dcsrlr fqal'dliUnt iHtween Ddbvdh and Toinrd Point. Tha 
Hntal li nl imnt enctlon. nplMe with ererr conTiDleDog, «>d. whUe 
the ToDTlit will ba W'll niteDded to. tba wmlort or FuuUlM patioiilaiiiE 
tha BmtB will meet ipaciil iltanllDn. 

Thi Mriva are tiiatii{/\U, and Ommyanea ma* ba hod. 

K/OIT-A-Xj hotel, 




JOHN PARKBR [Lou iifaiiugout. 
-pBSPBOTFULLS'lnllmUMtoblaMeBdi.Tsiiilita.ud Uia Public la 
^^ rallj. tiiAt ba bu be ' ^ "''- '"*" ^-«— ' u-.-i — h«. »*< 

Tlgh-II&Brui^iih, 3>th M 

CV CoKh tor EUmnitlii iMnta the Botal on uHnI of tba atsuBM. 







^jmiS HOTEL hu 'Me^cbenpl hands, and the new PmprlfllrM" tr 
"'*'"' MRB. BPeHAMA-N. Promhrtre 



iFa-Fiftem Ytari roremsn to Mr. A. Mimia, Glaigovi]. 

TBI8 Hnnw " " . .. - . 

weU-iiind _ 
(nnilahed to hi 

ill-Hired Bed-Eoonu. Is □«vlr nplenlahi 
. ns iltnaUon !■ vsrr 

. Jl QlMdOW byR: 

Week *1 moiterBte Tenni. 
SvptriarOpencaid Cloit Carrlaga for Bin, SprtM Fntu /or tuaaoji. 
Stabling. *c Ohame' Moderite. 


TwUh TlilUnt Diinifiiag irlU tcH in the Kiel's Arms Hotel eTBrj comrnrt 
Oommenilitl BoiHD. roffee-room PiiiBts Pirlnan. Well-tlred Bed-Boomi. 



I A 3 HAyOHSaTEB BTREET ISiamd dour of Ball Strcil). 

aBEEKocE-FBOirnira sieakboai auAT. 


Hot DCnnei* ban On* tfll nnt f. h. Tu. OoIIh, Bltuki. CluiM Boupi. 
ko., to., linjt nadj. 0«id ud Oomfortilile Beda. 

^r ".6.— Tbe ft)>oT« HwiM li suitnllf iltnite batwesH BtsmbiMit Qiur 

URB. U. MUIB, Pnprlstnn. 


rpHOHAS BMN b«n to Inrom ToulsU, Oommerofiil Gaollemea. and tb< 

flbtod It out in « nuHt DomfDTtalj^e TnacDor, ^niAslLaatlanlHtliabaBt InTovn. 
beiuf DiaciTTLYOtt^BiTETBfl Railwa^t STATION, vjd wlUkln nvo mlimt«a' 


Oh iU FHAiifOliidt, andnitnix RailmiaSiaHon, 

^HK Honw nSordg bHwtltnl ring ot tli« Iiluidi of Bnts md Amu, t 

IMtbolObde, ke., ud !■ kdmiiabli idtuitod for BB»-B*Ui<ns Qunei 

BxMlluit uommiialUlou tor FBmlUtl and oUier TIflton. 

Qaoi Btabllac and LoDk-np Oo*eb-BDUH>. Attesduiu utiariad In the Bl 


/laOBOK OBAKBTOir Ixn to tnfmUa to Ui Dnmenw ntnoiten tlut. 
~" "''" ■ FuifS' ud Oommerdal K 

Jf.B.— Om Wt^o/AirBawuiU opn. 11 (feed Kkjua reefWIviidAd. 

Tottae Plfiidi)^ Part at Ihfi 0<li m 


K.B.—A Private Jiofmt. vtiA wny Hnwmlf Hi. /rr XorUrfl. 






JOHN OOHLTHABD bi«> to IctnTm TourliM. Oohudki:!*! Gmtlnnai. 

tha Pwlmn mnd Bsd-RcKmiB ■!« tornlahsd In the b«t rtrl^ud the (Aai(e* 
lh igikeiL A N<iht FoTtn In ^ttendiacs. Bid. 


PaoHDCHibj vftUJDf up the8t«p^fbd]tuE the Oentnkl BtAtloa 

will ittdk tlis HotAl Id One UlDUtfl. 



Ora rot. th» Aaanit or the Bootch Tbuh. (MS 



Prints StUlni fiooDU. Sot iDil Btaomr Bittu. 



rPHE FBOPRIETOR be(i to (huk hhmeadi uul tboPubHotorllitTen 
-^ kiDd Mtmuifi h« hu isMlmt tar w mKV rev^ and now wIiliH to Inti- 
— " " ImproreiMiit* In U* HoWl sod hi™*, li» ' 

liitoHt to KCUTea oontlinuan of thOFitttr 

'. Stc. CaU. <iwi filhHMr 

KOFFAT SPA (Dumirieuhire, N.B.) 



* FJ»iUT»SMk«rs genanllT, vl 

and oomf ore RnnblDlni u it rtoei 

with Ibe Prlnc! at s Fiunllr K«ldSD( 
Okbisubh Irom BatCock duiloiij 

(CkledDului BiDnjI le kU tb 



LTIEa bsTliiE lniiliie» lo BmDncI st the Docka wlU And tbta Hot 







Vrlla ■ deu. Bright. BIusCDlmir, uddisTHiHAHDianuiDU 



but both lbs orliliul ud tbe nptei cbiin(s to t. nrong bluk In u Bhu 

Uftck OOI^iDE loks. ud the O0pl« IU« ST&ONOKK nod KDM FEKIUK 

HjmafAatQFed And Bald hr 

(LUe ft BUtmtord BtiHt). 

Under tlu tnuMdiaU PatrOTtagt tif (^ Smrtaopaikie ^hkUv- 


■O- TUBM. TaitUBiTIoira, Olobulu, Md PiLDLm, Hptmad, oi 


vtth Qlobi^ niulu,' or TtniSun^ i»me|iaBdlii( to 

Ib tbfl prepirAtlnr 








TMPORTANT la WiitBra, aatjmat. Budncu Men. Vtitert tor the Pisn, 
Tuiclien, Ho. The nunuruttiiani or the WAVBRLEV FEH beg to 

UurpoHi of qulok WTlttDg The u» of tha Wiisrley Pan does not ratline tlio 
imnA. UKJdifa iu«d For Duur houn at a tlnnt. It liCtuonJ^Btvelpea tlalcaa 
be OBed vlth freedom od rou«h papar. TLls pen bai bad tha largeit aala of 
IDT veo 4*ermad«. TlioiijzhinwleoiilyHfairmoDtha.muiyiDmioiiflotth«iD 
bare batiD aold. uid huudrvds of uttifaotorr DoBloa bave apuaared Id tbo 
pnbUc pma. TbJa pan la patent, aad partloi ara oautloned agaliut bufiur 
aDjr wltboat trade msrkp the Bword and Iho Pan. Tradan are oaDtkiQed 

To be had, .holewla tai tor eiport. fiom MAONIVEN ft CAMBBON, K 
VaogaU street, LoDdOD. and £3 Blair Blicat, EdlabnrEh. Bltabliabed 1770. 
Waverley Fen, It. pei boi; I17 poat. Ii. 2d. 



k OmCUHB TO Bek M^nTT. 

BPECrACI.B9, *o. 
(J«l*im'i Improved Mawuring-Llna, nmarkiWe hi Aoombcj, noD-lisbilitj 


{Foiuth Door from Om Rrtilvai/ Station ) 


U:oteh Pcbbls JsvalluT io er«t 

FitM laul Optra Oiiumi. Ttltiwpa, *c 

THS BS»S HOTS!,, ffl¥SBSg«S. 

TTlSirOBS to tho C»piUl of the Htahliiide mil flnil the »^K>n Hot«l 
V everytbini! they ouuld wish. It li quiet, comfortible, »od noJC «m- 
t«Ur fluted, belog ool, one minute', from the ItaU«7 «»Uob, 
uid opposite the Poit-OOce. It coDtiioa Prlrale Parluura, ipKloai t-OO" 
Bootn. end coratottmbis Comowrelil Eooni. Chitges modarile WM 

P.S.—TI\€ BonU Kaitt the arrwal o/tach Train owl SUamer. 



THIS newlT-ballt Hnd Bnt c)si< FiidIIt Kostdlng Houge, which to c 
to the SiA end the Nelin Betha, nlll be re-opened Id laoi. 
The >ltiuiiiDn. and rhe eitenjlva sea ud lend »lf w>, ere uneqiiil 
tlie town end nelghboBihood, Iroin the underlying [rfestone ud poi 
■nbinll, ai>uibined wiLh the open eiiioaiire. ere rainirtahly hulChy. 
the lartliige driiBj In the dlelrtcl «b verlad Miii Inleiesttng, An Oinn 
■wiilU the urival ol Ir<iln>. ulurgea moderate 

Far earticutan, apply to lire. Snnter. 


Raidait Plisiieimt-Al.VX. MUNKO, M.D. 
QLUNY BILL HonsB, >)ilch standi aa the aouthem ilope ot ons o( Che 

tioiifOrininnliDf uTtntsiUton. I 

InnUda tar, ■HbosA b^lt "i » " 

■haltandftora tin north Bud iBt wtndi. It [a alu mrrooDdsd fa/ eilenBJVE 
and ilidih*Bodad iiliimiiii ^ooiidi, Wd out In nnmannu vulki wUoh an 
IwuilMlMrad ludntirad h wtU M oiien aud slented, commandlnt liewi 

1 unportuit plj 

mrj anecUBl to health; mire water.a son dn an 
oa of Ibe Montiiellsr of Soonuia 

The BaOiH ue onmeroiii and latled. Inslodinii tvo TUREISH B*TB>,iu>d 
• Green-Bouie. nitJi ealrance trgm (he Dm^Di-Room. aBflidiat-Rooin. 
eoterint from the Dmiai-Booio, a BonUuf-GrHD, LsHua loi Oroquee, ajid 

from Laai 

!^<Uml^J, Fonts. 


OkBiiov to ttal< UKItjUK E^IASUdHMUMT, vMre wUlbe t«is3 


Tb8 lirceat mud Bset ftock ol Saionr Wool Plaid) and SUwl^ta th« 

I iDii97W[n«n, LaJi^'WaMrprD^ Ty.e-& TnTeLlW Cli»t> Bud JukMi, 
nentlemeu'i Hlfliluid Clotlu, Plaids, and BaUww Wnvpen. Shellaad 


3T BtrOHANAH SrREBT—wortv immiU Olt Arnit Anadt, OLASOOW. 


O Ladlsi' Hsud B^K3. Punes, Deaki, Work Jtoioa, tnd Dreaslng-CUe^ 
Op"rs. Ksce, and Flfld Glasjc; Phol^rai.hle Vtowa of ScntUnd. tor the 
Alhnm 01 StensoBiHjye. KeliDa A Back'! VIewi ol Scotland. 1/ pet 


Bo mil nlted for PrneDts from ScoUaad at 


7ci on Parler Franrait. 

rp»nKF1Ta nHl flnd Uw Bart and Ohokpeit unrtnifliit of Onlda-BHlu lad